What Works in Schools: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – What Works in Schools: PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: a2713-ODZiN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

What Works in Schools:

Description:

... district in a format custom-designed for the state of Georgia. ... Design ' ... 8. Classroom Curriculum Design. Teachers in my school, when planning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:65
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 101
Provided by: doeK8
Category:
Tags: schools | works

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: What Works in Schools:


1

What Works in Schools Translating
Research into Action Robert J. Marzano
Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development (ASCD)
2
You Will Be Able to
  • Implement the What Works in Schools (WWIS) survey
    in your school and district in a format
    custom-designed for the state of Georgia.
  • Generate detailed statistical profiles of staff
    recommendations concerning research-based
    strategies that can be used to improve student
    achievement.
  • Use the results to integrate consensus-driven
    research-based factors and strategies into your
    school improvement planning process.
  • Enhance implementation of WWIS interventions via
    a rich variety of ASCD resource materials.

3
ASCDs What Works in Schools
  • Any school can operate at advanced levels of
    effectiveness if it is willing to implement WHAT
    IS KNOWN about effective schooling.
  • Robert J. Marzano,
  • What Works in Schools Translating Research
    into Action

4
What Does Marzanos Work Tell Us About Improving
Schools?
  • If we follow the clear guidance that is provided
    by research over the past 35 years, we can enter
    an era of unprecedented effectiveness in the
    public practice of educationan era in which the
    vast majority of schools can be highly effective
    in terms of promoting student achievement and
    learning.
  • Marzanos meta-analysis of educational research
    answers the following essential question What
    changes do we need to make in our schools and
    schooling, and how can we best implement those
    changes?

5
The Worst of Times
  • From the start of the 20th century, massive
    efforts to improve K-12 schooling, e.g., the
    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
    Teaching.
  • Particularly in the second half of the 20th
    century, criticisms and reform movements have
    affected all of us in education
  • a. 1957Sputnik
  • b. 1959Admiral Hyman Rickovers Education and
    Freedom
  • c. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 640,000
    students in grades 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 tested,
    4,000 schools completed questionnairesresulting
    in the report, Equality in Educational
    Opportunity (1969)The Coleman Report

6
The Worst of Times (II)
  • Coleman and later Jencks (1972 Inequality A
    Reassessment of the Effects of Family and
    Schooling in America) both suggested that
  • Schools do little to lessen the gap between rich
    and poor students
  • Schools do little to lessen the gap between more
    and less able students
  • Student achievement is primarily a function of
    one factorthe students background and
  • Little evidence exists that education reform can
    improve a schools influence on student
    achievement.

7
The Worst of Times (III)
  • 1983 A Nation at Risk The Imperative for
    Educational Reform (issued by the National
    Commission on Excellence in Education)
  • The educational foundations of our society are
    presently being eroded by a rising tide of
    mediocrity that threatens our very future as a
    nation and a people.

8
The Best of Times
  • In WWIS, Marzano rejects the pessimism and flawed
    methodology of historical critiques of
    educations impact.
  • What Works provides an explanatory model for how
    to accurately interpret data and apply
    research-based conclusions to school improvement
    efforts.
  • To create this model, Marzano and McRel Labs
    conducted a meta-analysis of 35 years of
    educational research.

9
Marzanos Methodology
  • According to Marzano, Since the Coleman Report,
    statisticians have found that using percentage of
    variance as an indication of a factors
    importance is not the most useful way of
    interpreting research findings on academic
    achievement.
  • Marzano commends Robert Rosenthal and Donald
    Rubin (1982) for their Binomial Effect Size
    Display approach (BESD).

10
Methodology (II)
  • Using Rosenthal and Rubins BESD, Marzano et al.
    translated the results of every major educational
    study from the past 35 years into an effect
    size unit of measurement, which expresses the
    increase or decrease in achievement of an
    experimental group in standard deviation units.

11
Methodology (III)
  • In conducting the meta-analysis that is the basis
    for the WWIS Survey, Marzano summarizes findings
    from educational research studies in quantitative
    terms, using the following effect size formula
  • Mean of experimental group minus mean of control
    group
  • The population standard deviation

12
The Benefits of Effect Size
  • One of the useful aspects of an effect size is
    that it can be easily translated into a
    percentile gain, explains Marzano. Being able
    to translate effect sizes into percentile gains
    provides for a dramatic interpretation of the
    possible benefits of a given factor in the school
    environment, such as quality of the curriculum or
    effectiveness of instructional strategies.

13
Effect Size (II)
  • Using BESD, we get a far different picture of the
    Coleman findings In effective schools almost
    twice the percentage of students would pass the
    test than in ineffective schools. The logical
    conclusion to draw from the Coleman report, then,
    is that effective schools do make a difference in
    student achievement.

14
Overcoming Misconceptions
  • The (Coleman) finding that schools account for
    only 10 percent of the differences in student
    achievement translates into a percentile gain of
    23 points. We can look at the possible influence
    of schools and teachers with great hopeThe
    average student who attends a good school will
    have a score of 23 percentile points higher than
    the average student who attends a poor school.
    From this perspective, schools can definitely
    make a difference in student achievement.

15
Key Assertions (I)
  • Assertion One Even those studies that have been
    interpreted as evidence that schools do not
    significantly affect student achievement do, in
    fact, support the potential impact of schools
    when interpreted properly.

16
Key Assertions (II)
  • Assertion Two The research on the effectiveness
    of schools considered as a whole paints a very
    positive image of their impact on student
    achievement.

17
Key Assertions (III)
  • Assertion Three The schools that are highly
    effective produce results that almost entirely
    overcome the effects of student background.

18
Factors Influencing Achievement
1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
2. Challenging Goals and Effective
Feedback 3. Parent and Community
Involvement 4. Safe and
Orderly Environment
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom
Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/
Background Knowledge 11 Motivation
19
Factors Influencing Achievement
1. Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
2. Challenging Goals and Effective
Feedback 3. Parent and Community
Involvement 4. Safe and
Orderly Environment
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
School
6. Instructional Strategies 7. Classroom
Management 8. Classroom Curriculum Design
Teacher
9. Home Environment 10. Learning Intelligence/
Background Knowledge 11 Motivation
Student
20
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

21
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

22
Guaranteed Curriculum Operationally, this means
that clear guidance is given to teachers
regarding the content to be addressed in specific
courses and at specific grade levels.
Additionally, it means that individual teachers
do not have the option to disregard or replace
content that has been assigned to a specific
course or grade level.
23
Viable Curriculum the content articulated in
the curriculum for a given course or grade level
can be adequately addressed in the time
available.
24
Question from the Snapshot Survey for this
Factor
To what extent do we engage in this behavior or
address this issue?
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
25
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • The content considered essential for all students
    versus the content considered supplemental has
    been identified and communicated to teachers.
  • The amount of essential content that has been
    identified can be addressed in the instructional
    time available to teachers.

26
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • The essential content is organized and sequenced
    in a way that students have ample opportunity to
    learn it.
  • Someone checks to ensure that teachers address
    the essential content.
  • The instructional time available to teachers is
    protected by minimizing interruptions and
    scheduled non-instructional activities.

27
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

28
Challenging Goals- ..This involves setting,
specific goals for all students that do not
underestimate their abilitiesgoals must be
challenging for all students.
29
2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
Effective Feedback First, it must be
timely.Operationally, this means that students
should receive feedback as to their progress
multiple times throughout the year.
The second characteristic of effective feedback
is that it must be specific to the content being
learned.
30
Effective Feedback Unless a school employs
assessments that are sensitive to and specific to
the curriculum actually taught in the
school the implemented curriculum they cannot
accurately determine how well their students are
learning or how well their school is doing
relative to the goal of enhancing student
learning.
31
2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • An assessment system is used that provides for
    timely feedback (e.g., at least every nine weeks)
    on specific knowledge and skills for individual
    students.
  • Specific achievement goals are set for the school
    as a whole.

32
2. Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Specific achievement goals are set for individual
    students.
  • Performance on school-wide and individual student
    goals is used to plan for future actions.

33
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

34
This factor deals with the extent to which
parents (in particular) and the community at
large (in general) are both supportive and
involved in a school.
  • It requires
  • planning good communication,
  • involving parents in the day-to-day running of
    the school, and
  • allowing parent and community some voice in key
    decisions.

35
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Effective vehicles are in place for parents and
    community to communicate to the school.
  • Opportunities are provided for parents and
    community to be involved in the day-to-day
    operations of the school.
  • Vehicles are in place for parents and community
    to be involved in the governance of the school.

36
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

37
4. Safe and Orderly Environment
A school that does not attend to this factor
runs the risk of undermining all other efforts at
school improvement.
38
4. Safe and Orderly Environment
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • The physical environment and school routines
    have been structured in such a way as to avoid
    chaos and promote good behavior.
  • Clear rules and procedures pertaining to
    school-wide behavior have been established.

39
4. Safe and Orderly Environment
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Appropriate consequences for violations of
    school-wide rules and procedures have been
    established and implemented.
  • A program that teachers and reinforces
    self-discipline and responsibility has been
    implemented.
  • A system for early detection of students who are
    prone to violence and extreme behavior has been
    implemented.

40
Factors Influencing Achievement
  • Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum
  • Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback
  • Parent and Community Involvement
  • Safe and Orderly Environment
  • Collegiality and Professionalism

41
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
Collegiality Some researchers warn that
collegiality cannot be contrived by requiring
teachers to plan together, engage in peer
coaching or the like. Rather, collegiality is
characterized by authentic interactions that are
professional in nature.
Collegiality does not necessarily involve social
interactions and explicit friendships among
teachers in a school.
42
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
Professionalism Refers to a sense of efficacy
grounded in the perception by teachers that they
can effect change in their schools. To do this,
they must be a valued and critical part of the
policy setting mechanisms of the school.
43
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
Professionalism also refers to the professional
experiences of teachers. This can include level
of education, level of licensing and
certification, subject matter knowledge, and
pedagogical knowledge.
In one studythe amount of courses taken that
dealt with instructional techniques accounted for
four times the variance in teacher performance
than did the knowledge of the content area.
44
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
  • Professionalism
  • Effective staff development
  • Teachers
  • apply generic strategies to their specific
    subject area
  • return to their classrooms and actually employ
    the strategy in an action research environment.
  • perceive the staff development program throughout
    the year as a coherent whole with staff
    development days building on one another

45
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Norms for conduct among professional staff and
    administrators that foster collegiality and
    professionalism have been established.
  • Governance structures that allow for teacher
    involvement in school-wide decisions and policies
    have been established.

46
5. Collegiality and Professionalism
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers are engaged in staff development
    activities that address specific content area
    issues and allow for hands-on trial and
    evaluation of specific techniques.

47
Factors Influencing Achievement
6. Instructional Strategies
7. Classroom Management 8. Classroom
Curriculum Design
48
Factors Influencing Achievement
6. Instructional Strategies 7.
Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum
Design
49
6. Instructional Strategies
perhaps the most obvious characteristic of
effective teaching
we might reason that the expert teacher has
acquired a wide array of instructional strategies
along with the knowledge as to when these
strategies might be the most useful.
50
works
Classroom Instruction That
Identifying similarities and differences Summarizi
ng and note taking Reinforcing effort and
providing recognition Homework and
practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative
Learning Setting Objectives and Providing
Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues,
Questions, and Advance Organizers
51
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Begin their instructional units by presenting
    students with clear instructional goals.
  • Begin their instructional units by asking
    students to identify personal learning goals that
    fit within the learning goals presented by the
    teacher.

52
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Systematically provide students with specific
    feedback on the extent to which they are
    accomplishing the learning goals.
  • Systematically ask students to keep track of
    their own performance on the learning goals.

53
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Systematically recognize students who are making
    observable progress toward the learning goals.
  • Systematically emphasize the importance of effort
    with students.

54
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Organize students into groups based on their
    understanding of the content, when appropriate.
  • Organize students into cooperative groups, when
    appropriate
  • Systematically provide specific feedback on the
    homework assigned to students.

55
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • End their units by providing students with clear
    feedback on the learning goals.
  • End their units by asking students to assess
    themselves relative to the learning goals.
  • End their units by recognizing and celebrating
    progress on the learning goals.

56
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Prior to presenting new content, ask questions of
    students that help them recall wheat they might
    already know about the content.
  • Prior to presenting new content, provide students
    with direct links with what they have studied
    before.

57
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Prior to presenting new content, provide ways for
    students to organize or think about the content
    (i.e., use advance organizers).
  • Ask students to construct verbal or written
    summaries of new content.

58
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Ask students to take notes on new content.
  • Ask students to represent new content in
    nonlinguistic ways (e.g., mental image,
    pictograph, graphic organizer, physical model,
    enactment

59
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Assign in-class and homework tasks that require
    students to practice important skills and
    procedures.
  • Ask students to revise and correct errors in
    their notes as a way of reviewing and revising
    content.
  • Ask students to revise and correct errors in
    their nonlinguistic representations as a way of
    reviewing and revising content.

60
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Prescribe in-class and homework assignments that
    require students to compare and classify content.
  • Prescribe in-class and homework assignments that
    require students to construct metaphors and
    analogies.

61
6. Instructional Strategies
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school
  • Prescribe in-class activities and homework
    assignments that require students to generate and
    test hypotheses regarding content.

62
Factors Influencing Achievement
6. Instructional Strategies 7.
Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum
Design
63
7. Classroom Management
In some form, classroom management is mentioned
in virtually every major study of the factors
that affect student achievement.
64
7. Classroom Management
Classroom management is defined as teachers
actions related to
  • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures

ii. Carrying out disciplinary actions
iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student
relationships, and
iv. Maintaining an appropriate mental set
65
7. Classroom Management
  • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures

..stated expectations regarding behavior.
66
7. Classroom Management
  • Carrying out disciplinary actions

Effect Sizes for Disciplinary Interventions Reinf
orcement .86 Punishment .78 No
immediate consequence .64 Punishment and
reinforcement .97
67
7. Classroom Management
iii. Maintaining effective teacher-student
relationships
ltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtHigh
Dominance High
Submission Clarity of purpose, Lack of clarity,
strong guidance purpose, or direction
ltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltltgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtgtHigh
Cooperation High
Opposition Concern for needs Active antagonism,
of others, team member thwart others goals
68
7. Classroom Management
iv. Maintaining an appropriate mental set
  • Mental set
  • withitness- the disposition of the teacher to
    quickly and accurately identify problem behavior
    and act on it.
  • emotional objectivityimplementing and
    enforcing rules and procedureswithout
    interpreting violationsas a personal attack.

69
7. Classroom Management
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school,
  • Have comprehensive and well articulated rules and
    procedures for general classroom behavior,
    beginning and ending the period or day,
    transitions and interruptions, use of materials
    and equipment, group work, and seat work.

70
7. Classroom Management
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school,
  • Utilize specific disciplinary strategies that
    reinforced appropriate behavior and provide
    consequences for inappropriate behavior.
  • Utilize specific strategies that instill a sense
    of confidence in students that they are receiving
    proper guidance and direction.

71
7. Classroom Management
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school,
  • Utilize specific strategies that instill a sense
    of confidence in students that their concerns and
    wishes are being considered.
  • Use different strategies with different types of
    students to provide them with a sense of
    acceptance by the teacher.

72
7. Classroom Management
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school,
  • Use specific techniques to keep aware of problems
    or potential problems in their schools.
  • Respond to in appropriate behaviors quickly and
    assertively.
  • Use specific techniques to maintain a healthy
    emotional objectivity when dealing with student
    behavior.

73
Factors Influencing Achievement
6. Instructional Strategies 7.
Classroom Management 8. Classroom Curriculum
Design
74
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
the sequencing and pacing of the content
presented to students along with the experiences
students have with that content those decisions
regarding sequencing, pacing, and experiences
that are the purview of the classroom teacher.
75
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
I believe that in some cases, K-12 educators
have misapplied suggestions of proponents of a
constructivist or brain-based approach or, more
seriously, discarded proven practices in the name
of constructivism or brain-based education.
76
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
Principle 1. Learning is enhanced when a teacher
identifies specific types of knowledge that are
the focus of a unit or lesson.
Principle 2. Learning requires engagement in
tasks that are sufficiently similar to allow for
effective transfer of knowledge.
Principle 3. Learning requires exposure to and
complex interactions with knowledge.
77
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school, when planning units of
    instruction
  • identify specific types of knowledge that are
    important for student to learn
  • (e.g., important categories of knowledge,
    examples, sequences, comparisons, cause/effect
    relationships, correlational relationships,
    facts, incidents, episodes, terms, skills,
    processes.)

78
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school, when planning units of
    instruction
  • ensure that students will have multiple
    exposures to new content presented in a variety
    of forms (e.g., stories, descriptions) using a
    variety of media (e.g., read about the content,
    watch a demonstration, listen to a presentation.)

79
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school, when planning units of
    instruction
  • make a clear distinction between skills and
    processes that are to be mastered versus skills
    and processes that are to be experienced but not
    mastered.

80
8. Classroom Curriculum Design
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Teachers in my school, when planning units of
    instruction
  • organize examples into categories or groups that
    demonstrate the essential features of the
    content.
  • ensure that students will be involved in complex
    projects that require them to address content in
    unique ways.

81
Factors Influencing Achievement
9. Home Environment 10. Learned Intelligence/
Background
Knowledge 11. Motivation
82
Factors Influencing Achievement
9. Home Environment 10. Learned Intelligence/
Background
Knowledge 11. Motivation
83
9. Home Environment
84
9. Home Environment
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Training and support is provided to parents to
    enhance
  • their communication with their children,
  • their supervision of their children, and
  • their parenting role.

85
Factors Influencing Achievement
9. Home Environment 10. Learned Intelligence/
Background
Knowledge 11. Motivation
86
Cant change
Can change
Experience-- Rich/Varied Limited
INCREASE
Innate Intelligence High Low
87
10. Learned Intelligence/
Background Knowledge
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Students are involved in school-wide programs
    that directly increase the number and quality of
    life experiences they have.
  • Students are involved in a school-wide program of
    wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary
    development.

88
10. Learned Intelligence/
Background Knowledge
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Students are involved in a school-wide progrm of
    direct instruction in vocabulary terms and
    phrases that are important to specific subject
    matter content.

89
Factors Influencing Achievement
9. Home Environment 10. Learned Intelligence/
Background
Knowledge 11. Motivation
90
9. Motivation
  • Five bodies of research and theory to consider
  • Drive Theory
  • Attribution Theory
  • Self-worth theory
  • Role of emotions
  • Self-System

91
9. Motivation
Drive theory For some students, challenging
tasks present no obstacle because of their strong
drive for success for others, even simple tasks
are quite threatening because of their strong
drive to avoid failure.
One of the most disheartening aspect ofdrive
theory is that motivation becomes a rather fixed
entity once drives are habituated.
92
9. Motivation
Attribution theory In general there are four
causes individual attribute to their success
ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty. Of
these, the effort attribution is the most
useful...
from an attribution perspective, motivation is
not a fixed driveone can change his motivation
by understanding his attributions.
93
9. Motivation
Self-worth theory based on the premise that
the search for self-acceptance is one of the
highest human priorities.
Self-acceptance usually manifests as acceptance
in ones immediate or peer culture. This dynamic
makes the classroom a very threatening place to
some students.
94
9. Motivation
Role of emotions emotions are primary
motivatorspeople always find causes for their
emotions. However, when rational and plausible
reasons are not available, people make reasons
and believe them.
95
9. Motivation
Self-System. ...contains a network of
interrelated goals that help us to decide whether
to engage in a new task.
These goals can be seen as arranged in a
hierarchy. In Maslows work, the top of the
hierarachy is self-actualizaton.
96
9. Motivation
Four factors critical to self-actualizing
experiences (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)
  • Freedom to set clear goals that are highly
    meaningful to the individual
  • Having the resources to carry out the goals and
    becoming immersed in the act of trying to
    accomplish them

97
9. Motivation
Four factors critical to self-actualizing
experiences
  • Paying attention to what is happening and making
    changes when necessary and,
  • Enjoying immediate short-term successes while
    keeping an eye on the ultimate goal.

98
9. Motivation
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Students are provided with feedback on their
    knowledge gain.
  • Students are involved in simulation games and
    activities that are inherently engaging.

99
9. Motivation
1 gtgtgtgtgtgt2gtgtgtgtgtgtgt3gtgtgtgtgtgt4 Not at all
To a great extent
  • Students are provided with opportunities to
    construct and work on long-term projects of their
    own design.
  • Students are provided with training regarding the
    dynamics of motivation and how those dynamics
    affect them.

100
Applying the research
About PowerShow.com