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Facilities Systems

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... the facility may require custom lighting designs. 7. Lamar University ... Design Procedure ... Design considerations concerning glare: Do not use overly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Facilities Systems


1
Facilities Systems
Adapted from Facilities Planning, Tompkins,
White, Bozer, Frazelle, Tanchoco, Trevino, Wiley,
New York, 1996
2
Introduction
  • Planning facilities systems is typically not the
    responsibility of the facilities planner
  • Facilities planner must specify
  • What systems are required
  • Where the systems are required
  • Integration of the facilities systems into the
    overall facility

3
Introduction
  • Facility planners must be aware of the following
  • The cost of constructing a facility is
    significantly impacted by the facility systems
  • A critical factor affecting flexibility is
    facilities systems
  • A facility plan is not complete until all
    facility systems are specified
  • Facility systems have an important impact on
    employee performance, morale and safety
  • Facility systems have an important impact of the
    fire protection, maintenance, and security of a
    facility.

4
Structural System Performance
  • The structure should optimize the function of the
    facility thus do not let the contractors
    dictate the placement of columns, doors, etc
  • Common error using building cost criteria to
    define column spacing (which determines grid
    configuration in warehouses)
  • Why? Cost saved in construction will be minimal
    compared to increased cost of operations over the
    life of the facility.

5
Electrical and Lighting Systems
  • Electrical load requirements for a facility are
    needed by the power company long before
    construction begins thus a good estimate is
    needed, which can be developed from tables such
    as Table 9.4 on page 505

6
Electrical and Lighting Systems
  • Most common error?
  • Load growth spare capacity to meet anticipated
    growth in the load of the system
  • Specifying what level of service is required and
    where it is required are the responsibility of
    the facility planners
  • Can be partially accomplished by providing a
    facility layout and a department service and area
    requirements sheet such as Table 9.4
  • Do not allow the electrical services people to
    dictate the facilities lighting. Why?
  • Many areas of the facility may require custom
    lighting designs

7
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 1
Determine the level of illumination
  • Refer to standardized references such as Table
    9.5 Minimum Illumination Levels for Specific
    Visual tasks
  • When using supplementary lighting, general
    lighting should contribute at least 1/10 of the
    total illumination and should be at least 20
    footcandles
  • Supplementary lighting can result in significant
    cost savings

8
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 2
Determine the Room Cavity Ratio (RCR)
  • RCR index of the shape of a room to be lighted
  • Higher and narrower the room, the larger the RCR
    and the more illumination is needed to achieve
    the required level of lighting

9
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 3
Determine the Ceiling Cavity Ratio (CCR)
  • If the luminaries are ceiling mounted or recessed
    into the ceiling, the reflective property of the
    ceiling will not be impacted by the luminaries
    mounting height, so the CCR need not be
    considered
  • The greater the distance from the luminaries to
    the ceiling, the greater will be the CCR and the
    reduction in the ceiling reflectance

10
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 4
Determine the Wall reflectance (WR) and the
Effective Ceiling Reflectance (ECR)
  • WR from table 9.6
  • BCR Base ceiling reflectance from table 9.6
  • If the luminaries are to be ceiling mounted or
    recessed into the ceiling, ECR BCR
  • If the luminaries are to be suspended, the ECR is
    determined from the CCR, WR and BCR using Table
    9.7

11
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 5
Determine the Coefficient of Utilization (CI)
  • CU ratio of lumens reaching the work plane to
    those emitted by the lamp
  • Function the luminaries utilized RCR, WR, ECR
  • See Table 9.8

12
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 6
Determine the Light Loss Factor (LLF)
  • Most significant light lost factors lamp lumen
    depreciation and luminaries dirt depreciation
  • Lamp lumen depreciation gradual reduction in
    lumen output over the life of the lamp expressed
    as the ratio of the lumen output of the lamp at
    70 of the rated life to the initial value
  • Luminaries dirt depreciation light loss
    associated with the conditions under which the
    luminary operates
  • Varies with conditions and length of time between
    cleanings
  • See Tables 9.9 and 9.10

13
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 7
Calculate the Number of Lamps and Lumenaries
14
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 8
Determine the Location of the Lumenaries
  • Must consider quantity and quality of light
  • Quality function of glare and diffusion
  • Glare any brightness that causes discomfort,
    interference with vision, or eye fatigue
  • The brighter the luminaries, the greater the
    potential for glare
  • The more a luminary is moved from the line of
    vision, the less the potential for glare
  • The greater the brightness contrast between a
    luminary and its surroundings, the greater the
    potential for glare

15
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Step 8
Determine the Location of the Lumenaries
  • Design considerations concerning glare
  • Do not use overly bright luminaries
  • Light sources should be mounted above the normal
    line of vision
  • Ceilings and walls should be painted with light
    colors to reduce contrast and provide sufficient
    background lighting if supplementary lighting is
    used
  • Diffusion of light indicates that illumination
    results from light coming from many directions
  • The greater the number of luminaries, the more
    diffuse the light
  • Fluorescent luminaries provide more diffuse light
    than incandescent
  • Light will not diffuse properly if luminaries are
    spaced too far apart

16
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.4
  • A machine shop 100 ft x 40 ft with 13 ft ceiling
    is to be illuminated for automatic machining and
    tough grinding. Uniform lighting is required
    through the machine shop. If the luminaries are
    to be ceiling mounted, all ceilings and walls are
    to be painted white, and all luminaries are to be
    cleaned every 24 months, what lighting should be
    specified? (note author omits that the lamps are
    fluorescent uncovered fixtures)
  • Step 1 According to Table 9.5, a minimum
    illumination level of 100 foot candles is
    required.
  • Step 2 Assume all working surfaces are to be 3
    ft from the floor. Utilizing Equation 9.8 to
    calculate the RCR results in the following

Step 3 The CCR need not to be considered as the
luminaries are ceiling mounted Step 4 According
to Table 9.6, the WR and BCR are 80. Because the
luminaries are to be ceiling mounted, the ECR is
also 80
17
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.4
  • Step 5 If fluorescent lamps in uncovered
    fixtures are to be utilized, the CR may be
    interpolated in Table 9.8 as being between .88
    and .78. A CU of .80 will be utilized.

18
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.4
  • Step 6 For fluorescent lamps in uncovered
    fixtures in a medium dirty environment that are
    cleaned every 24 months, a lamp luminary dirt
    depreciation factor of .85 may be obtained from
    Table 9.10. Therefore, the LLF is .85
  • Step 7 The number of lamps required if 60W
    fluorescent lamps are utilized is

If 2 lamps are placed in each luminary, 90
luminaries are required.
19
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.4
  • Step 8
  • Table 9.8 indicates that for a mounting height 10
    ft above the work surface, the luminaries should
    be spaced no more than (1.3)(10ft) 13 ft.
  • Each fluorescent fixture is 4 ft long.
  • By placing nine rows of 10 luminaries across the
    room with the first and last rows 6 ft from the
    wall and all other rows 11 ft apart, the
    illumination level within the room will be evenly
    distributed and adequate to perform the tasks
    within the machine shop.

20
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.5
  • Same as Example 9.4 but with luminaries to be
    hung at 13 ft suspended from a 41 ft ceiling
  • Step 1 and 2 Unchanged
  • Step 3

Step 4 WR and BCR are still 80. According to
Table 9.7, the ECR is 58 Step 5 Given the
fluorescent lamps in uncovered fixtures are still
to be utilized, the CU may be interpolated from
Table 9.8 as 7.5 Step 6 Unchanged
21
Lighting Systems Design Procedure Example 9.5
Step 7
If 2 lamps are placed in each luminary, 96
luminaries are required. Step 8 Table 9.8
indicates that for a mounting height of 10 ft
above the work surface, the luminaries should be
spaced no more than 13 ft. Each fluorescent
fixture is 4 ft long. By placing 4 rows of 24
luminaries along the long axis of the machine
shop so that each row begins and ends 2 ft from
the wall and the first and last row are 5 ft from
the wall and all other rows are spaced 10 ft
apart, the illumination level within the room
will be evenly distributed and adequate to
perform the required tasks.
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