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Monitoring Student Progress: The Role of CurriculumBased Measurement in RTI

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Title: Monitoring Student Progress: The Role of CurriculumBased Measurement in RTI


1
Monitoring Student Progress The Role of
Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI
  • Patricia Tenowich, M.A.
  • Assessment Coordinator
  • Kennedy Krieger High School
  • Baltimore, Maryland
  • MAG 2007 Conference November 15, 2007

2
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI
  • Purpose of this session
  • To demonstrate the role of curriculum-based
    measurement in response to intervention.
    Participants will engage in activities to learn
    how to use easily accessible software (Excel) to
    effectively monitor student progress and assist
    decision-making. Activities include identifying
    aimlines, applying decision rules, graphing data,
    and discussing instructional implications.

3
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI
  • Note
  • The focus of this session is not to describe how
    the RTI process can implemented in schools.
    Rather, the purpose to provide an overview of RTI
    and describe how CBM can be used in the classroom
    to track and record student progress in specific
    learning areas.

4
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI
  • Four Parts to the Session
  • Review CBM in relation to RTI.
  • Define key terms.
  • Review elements of RTI and CBM.
  • Distinguish between CBM and CBA.
  • Compare and contrast current assessment
    practices.
  • Demonstrate data management techniques using
    Excel.
  • Provide practice to make decision rules, enter
    data, and evaluate response to intervention.

5
Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in RTI
  • It is assumed the audience has
  • Some familiarity with RTI.
  • Some experience with Excel.
  • Willingness to participate in discussion
  • and hands-on activities.

6
Part I CBM in Relation to RTI
  • Key Terms
  • Response to intervention (RTI)
  • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
  • Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)
  • Assessment
  • Informal vs. Formal
  • Evaluation

7
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • The history of learning disabilities (LD) has
    included much controversy about the procedures
    and criteria for determining students with LD.
    Most recently responsive to intervention (RTI)
    has gained momentum as a means of determining
    learning disabilities in school-age students. RTI
    replaces the Test-Score Discrepancy Model to
    identify learning disabilities .
  • IDEA (2004) states, In determining whether a
    child has a specific learning disability, a local
    educational agency may use a process that
    determines if the child responds to scientific,
    research-based intervention

8
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Review elements of RTI
  • Intervention
  • a change of instruction in the area of learning
    difficulty in an attempt to improve performance
    and achieve adequate progress.
  • Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • (Also referred to as responsiveness-to-interventio
    n)
  • A research-based model to ensure students receive
  • appropriate instruction. RTI is a multi-step
    approach to
  • providing services to students who struggle
    within general
  • education. Results are used to determine whether
    a student has a
  • learning disability or to identify students at
    risk for academic
  • failure.

9
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • There is no single, widely accepted model of
    the RTI process. In
  • general, a school organizes its model into levels
    or tiers. Each stage
  • represents a continuum of increasing intensity of
    support.

10
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Basically, all RTI models include the following
  • Frequent, repeated, continuous monitoring of
    student classroom progress.
  • Examination of trends in performance to gauge the
    effectiveness of intervention.
  • Modification of instructional plans to address
    needs.
  • Various curriculum-based assessment models are
    useful in this role.

11
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Distinguish between CBM and CBA.
  • Basically, CBM and CBA are both curriculum-based
    approaches to assessment designed to improve the
    instruction of individual students.
  • Terms are often confused and used
    interchangeably.

12
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)
  • refers to a wide range of informal assessment
    procedures within the classroom to monitor
    student progress. The focus is on the
    instructional level of students.
  • Requirements of CBA
  • Measurement materials are aligned with school
    curriculum.
  • Measurement is frequent.
  • Assessment information is used in instructional
  • decision-making.

13
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Curriculum-based measurement (CBM)
  • refers to a specific method of monitoring
    student progress through direct, continuous
    assessment of academic skills toward long-term
    goals. Typically schools use standardized
    assessments to monitor student progress.
  • Technically, CBM is a form of CBA because it
    meets all the requirements of CBA.
  • CBM is used to address the question
  • Is the student making progress towards a
  • grade-level expectation or long-term goal?

14
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • The main purpose of progress monitoring is to
    determine whether the intervention is successful
    in helping the student learn at an appropriate
    rate.
  • As part of an IEP, progress monitoring also
    provides information about student progress
    toward short-term objectives and annual goals.

15
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Role of curriculum-based assessment
  • Planning Instruction
    Assessment
  • Informal Formal

16
CBM in Relation to RTIKey Terms
  • Assessment
  • the process of gathering information (formally
    and informally) about a student for instructional
    decision-making. Measures knowledge and
    understanding.
  • Evaluation
  • the process of making judgments about the
    quality of levels of academic performance.
    Measures level of achievement. Emphasizes
    quantitative value of student achievement (i.e.,
    numeric scores or letter grades).

17
CBM in Relation to RTI
  • Question
  • Can assessments be valid and reliable if teachers
    grade tests
  • differently?
  • Answer
  • Assessments for the purpose of progress
    monitoring can be valid and
  • reliable at the teacher level if teachers use a
    consistent manner in
  • grading. However, comparisons between teachers
    may not be valid
  • and reliable if different grading procedures are
    used.

18
CBM in Relation to RTIAnswer
  • Informal
  • used to determine how well student performs
    compared to criteria for mastery, self, and
    classmates. Seeks to identify the strengths and
    needs of individual students without regard to
    grade or age norms.
  • Formal
  • used to compare performance to others of the
    same age or grade. Have standardized procedures
    for administering, timing, and scoring.
  • Assessments
  • Informal Formal
  • Classroom assignments, State testing,
    WJ-III,
  • journals, essays, reports, WRAT, CTBS,
    WIAT,
  • discussion groups, reading logs
    benchmarks

19
CBM in Relation to RTI
  • Benefits of RTI as part of schools procedures
    for
  • identifying whether a student has a learning
    disability
  • Reduce number of referrals for special education
    and increase number of students who succeed
    within general education.
  • Provide valuable information about instructional
    needs.
  • Reduce waiting time to receive instructional
    support.
  • Limitations of RTI
  • Schools use of RTI tends to focus on early
    elementary grades and limited to the area of
    reading, with some focus on math.
  • RTI identifies the low performing students within
    a group (i.e., grade). Students with high
    intelligence who may have a learning disability
    are likely not to be identified.
  • RTI alone is not sufficient to identify a student
    with a
  • learning disability.

20
CBM in Relation to RTI
  • What are the steps for schools to implement RTI?
  • Adopt research-based intervention strategies.
  • Align interventions with current assessment
    efforts to identify students at-risk for
    failure.
  • Train staff in CBM to collect frequent data about
    academic performance.
  • Establish intervention teams who can assist
    teachers and design appropriate intervention
    programs.
  • Design a RTI model.

21
Part II Compare and ContrastCurrent Assessment
Practices
  • Activity
  • Get to into small groups to identify elements of
    progress monitoring you are currently practicing.

22
Compare and Contrast Assessment Practices
  • Discussion
  • How do you know students are learning?
  • What kind of data do you use to support your
    answer?
  • When do you make instructional decisions about
    their progress?
  • What types of decisions are made?

23
Compare and Contrast Current Assessment Practices
  • Using CBM for instructional decision-making
  • Pre Instruction (before instruction)
  • Do learners possess pre-requisite
    knowledge/skills to achieve goal?
  • Formative (during instruction)
  • Are learners progressing?
  • If yes, are they being adequately challenged?
  • If no, why not? Is it the pacing? The content?
    The instructional strategies?
  • Summative (upon completion of instruction)
  • Did learners achieve desired instructional goal?
  • Diagnostic (during or upon completion)
  • Why arent/didnt students achieving the goal?

24
Compare and Contrast Current Assessment Practices
  • Advantages of CBM
  • Aligns with curriculum and instruction.
  • Relatively easy to administer.
  • Can be given often.
  • Can use a wide range of activities.
  • Sensitive to changes in student progress.

25
Part III Demonstrate Data Management Techniques
using Excel
  • Now that you know the basics
  • about CBM and how it relates to RTI,
  • how do you manage your student data?

26
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques
  • Steps to applying what youve learned
  • Analyze Curriculum
  • Prepare Probes
  • Probe Frequently
  • Graph the Data
  • Yield to the Results

27
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesUnderstandi
ng the Steps
  • 1. Analyze Curriculum
  • Identify realistic, measurable instructional
    objectives.
  • Ask, What do I want the students to learn?
  • 2. Prepare Probes to match curriculum
  • A probe is a structured assessment tool used to
    monitor a
  • skill related to the objective. Probes must match
    learning
  • objectives. A variety of probes should be used.
  • Ask, How will I measure student learning?
  • 3. Probe Frequently
  • The more information you have, the more
  • accurate your instructional decisions will be.

28
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesUnderstandi
ng the Steps
  • 4. Graph the Data
  • Most dreaded, yet powerful, component of CBA.
  • a. Record and establish baseline for each
    student.
  • b. Construct the aimline to judge student
    progress.
  • c. Enter results of each probe as it is
    administered and scored.
  • 5. Yield to the Results
  • Look for trends in student performance. Ask,
    What are the
  • data telling me? and How should instruction
    change
  • based on the data?
  • Lets get started with a demonstration.

29
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Sample of
CBM module
  • Title of Graph
  • Students goal
  • 90
  • 80
  • 70
  • 60
  • 50
  • 40
    Aimline
  • 30
  • 20
  • 10

Correct
30
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Sample of
CBA module
  • Title of Graph
  • Students goal
  • 90
  • 80
  • 70 Student 1
  • 60 Student 2
  • 50
  • 40
    Aimline
  • 30
  • 20
  • 10

Correct
31
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques
  • Steps for using Excel to Manage
  • CBM to determine RTI

32
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 1
Open Excel and enter data.
33
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2
Create a chart to analyze data.
  • Select data and click the Chart Wizard button.

34
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 2
Create a chart to analyze data. Select a chart
that will best capture your data.
35
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 2
Create a chart to analyze data. Use options to
provide titles.
36
Demonstrate Data Management TechniquesStep 2
Create a chart to analyze data.You will want to
save chart as new sheet.
37
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines.Add
aimlines and trendlines to aid interpretation.
  • Aimlines judge the effects of instruction
    measure progress.

38
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trend lines
  • Trendlines show
  • the general
  • direction in
  • which scores
  • are going as
  • indicated by
  • a set of data.

39
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
40
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • A trendline for that student will be added to the
    graph.

41
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • Now what? How do I know what it means? How do I
    know when to revise instruction?
  • You can make decisions based on
  • Recent consecutive scores or
  • The trendlines

42
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • Decision rules based on recent scores
  • Question Are the 4 most recent scores above the
    aimline?
  • Yes No
  • Increase students goal Revise instructional
    program

43
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • For exampleLook at Charles last 4 scores

44
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • Decision rules based on the trendlines
  • Question What is the relation between the
    students trendline
  • and the aimline?
  • Steeper Flatter The same
  • Increase the goal Revise program
    Make no changes

45
Demonstrate Data Management Techniques Step 3
Analyze data aimlines and trendlines
  • For exampleLook at Talias trend line in bright
    green

46
Part IV Provide Practice
  • Now its your turn!!!
  • Complete the CBM Activity in your handout. Be
    prepared to discuss your results and decisions.

47
Part IV In Summary
  • Reviewed CBM in relation to RTI.
  • Defined key terms.
  • Reviewed elements of RTI and CBM.
  • Distinguished between CBM and CBA.
  • Compared and contrast current assessment
    practices.
  • Demonstrated data management techniques using
    Excel.
  • Provided practice to make decision
  • rules and evaluate response to
  • intervention.

48
The End
  • Questions?
  • Comments?
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