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Special Considerations When Cataloging Ethnic Music

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Title: Special Considerations When Cataloging Ethnic Music


1
Special Considerations When Cataloging Ethnic
Music
  • Caitlin Hunter
  • Processing Unit Head, Recorded Sound Section,
    Library of Congress
  • MOUG Conference
  • February 18, 2009

2
What will be covered
  • Introduction to topic
  • General elements to consider
  • How people search for ethnic music
  • Selected cataloging issues and examples
  • Commercial items
  • Collections and unpublished items
  • Ethnic music in FRBR-like models

3
Why ethnic music?
  • My Background
  • Anthropology
  • Performance experience with ethnic music and
    related course work
  • Work experience

4
Why special considerations
  • Complicated topic and limited time, so can only
    cover certain broad issues and specific examples.
  • Search practices differ from those for Western
    Art music
  • Institution size may impact cataloging practices
  • Varied treatment of typical search elements

5
Why special considerations, cont.
  • Well-established cataloging practices for
    specific formats and Western Art music. Popular
    and Ethnic music are not covered as thoroughly.
  • Catalogers may have an incomplete understanding
    of
  • Terminology
  • Cultural practices
  • Language

6
Terminology
  • Ethnic
  • Shared cultural identity
  • Recognized elements marking difference from other
    groups
  • Independent of national borders

7
Terminology
  • World music
  • Likely originated in the field of ethnomusicology
  • Music industry has used for marketing and
    classification
  • LCSH
  • Once was used for " ... popular musical works
    combining traditional rhythms from around the
    world with elements of jazz and rock
  • Now encompasses ethnic music and ethnic/popular
    fusions.

8
Terminology, cont.
  • Traditional and Folk music
  • Passed down through generations
  • Interchangeable terms
  • LCSH Folk music is an established heading and
    the rules state to use this in place of
    Traditional music

9
Terminology, cont.
  • National music
  • Governmental, regional, or geographic boundaries
  • LCSH entry exists (although no scope note)

10
Issues to consider prior to cataloging ethnic
music
  • Language and culture specialists
  • Reference works
  • Examples
  • The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music
  • Spottswood, Richard K. Ethnic Music on Records- A
    Discography of Ethnic Recordings Produced in the
    United States, 1893 to 1942. Urbana University
    of Illinois Press, 1990.

11
Issues to consider prior to cataloging ethnic
music, cont.
  • Cataloging-related tools
  • Thesauri
  • Geography, Cultural groups, Languages,
    Instruments
  • Subject headings
  • Subject Cataloging Manual H 1917 Music of
    Ethnic, National, and Religious Groups
  • Provides guidelines for assigning subject
    headings to works that consist of or discuss the
    music of ethnic groups, music with national
    emphasis, religious music of certain groups, and
    non-Western art music, including works about the
    musical instruments of these groups

12
Issues to consider prior to cataloging ethnic
music, cont.
  • Establishing cataloging practices that will allow
    patrons to search and retrieve results in a
    consistent manner
  • Providing print or online search guides

13
  • How Do People Search for
  • Ethnic Music?

14
How do people search for ethnic music?
  • Sources to consider
  • Writings related to searching for ethnic/cultural
    materials
  • Organization of information in reference sources
    devoted to ethnic music

15
How do people search for ethnic music?
  • Sources to consider, cont.
  • Search options found in databases offering access
    to ethnic music
  • Examples
  • Smithsonian Global Sound
  • http//www.smithsonianglobalsound.org/
  • Amazon.com
  • http//www.amazon.com/World-Music/b?ieUTF8node
    33
  • Other commercial sites
  • Ex CD Baby http//cdbaby.com/style/world

16
How do people search for ethnic music?
  • Sources to consider, cont.
  • Search guides provided by institutions
  • Observed patterns
  • Subject headings
  • Preformatted searches with click of a button
  • Classification schemes and call numbers

17
How do people search for ethnic music?
  • Search Elements for Ethnic Music
  • Most frequent search/organizational elements
  • Geographic location
  • Cultural/Ethnic group
  • Form/Genre
  • Instrumentation
  • Second-tier elements
  • Language
  • Dates
  • Contributors
  • Content/Works

18
  • Cataloging Commercial
  • Sound Recordings

19
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • MARC fields
  • Machine readable
  • vs.
  • Readable by patrons
  • Surveyed practices of various institutions

20
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Geographic Location
  • Machine readable
  • 033 (Date/Time and Place of an Event)
  • b (Geographic classification area code)
  • c (Geographic classification sub-area code)
  • Source of codes Library of Congress
    Classification Class G
  • 043 (Geographic Area Code)
  • a (Geographic area code)
  • Ex Illinois a n-us-il
  • Source of codes MARC Code List for Geographic
    Areas

21
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Geographic Location, cont.
  • Readable by patrons
  • 518 (Date/Time and Place of an Event Note)
  • 6XX
  • SCM H 1917
  • ethnic or national group z place v Music.
  • heading(s) for music of individual religious
    group(s) z place
  • Topical heading or subject heading string z
    Larger jurisdiction z Specific place.

22
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Cultural/Ethnic group
  • Machine readable
  • -None-
  • Readable by patrons
  • 500/511
  • 6XX
  • SCM H 1917
  • ethnic or national group z place v Music.
  • heading(s) for music of individual religious
    group(s) z place

23
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Form/Genre
  • Machine readable
  • 008/18-19 (Form of Composition) (broad)
  • 047 (Form of Musical Composition Code) (broad)
  • Readable by patrons
  • 500
  • 650 /655
  • SCM H 1917
  • heading(s) for musical genre, type, or style,
    for ballads and songs, or for songs implying
    national emphasis

24
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Instrumentation
  • Machine readable
  • 048 (Number of musical instruments or voices
    code) (broad)
  • Readable by patrons
  • 500/511
  • 6XX

25
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Language
  • Machine readable
  • 008/35-37 (Language)
  • Source MARC Code List for Languages
  • 041 (Language code)
  • d (code for sung or spoken text)
  • Source MARC Code List for Languages
  • Readable by patrons
  • 546 (Language note)
  • 6XX
  • SCM H 1917
  • heading(s) qualified by language of text

26
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Dates
  • Machine readable
  • 033 (Date/Time and Place of an Event)
  • a (Formatted date/time )
  • 1st 8 characters yyyymmdd (hyphen for unknown
    digits)
  • Readable by patrons
  • 518 Date/Time and Place of an Event Note

27
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Contributors
  • Machine readable
  • -None-
  • Readable by patrons
  • 1XX
  • 245
  • 500/511/505
  • 7XX

28
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Content/Works
  • Machine readable
  • -None-
  • Readable by patrons
  • 245
  • 505/520
  • 740

29
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 1 (see handout)
  • Natalie MacMaster, My Roots Are Showing
  • Geographic Location
  • 033 b 3422 c C29
  • 043 a n-cn-ns
  • 500 Traditional fiddle music of Cape Breton
    Island--Container
  • 518 Recorded Dec. 1997 at Lakewind Sound
    Studios, Point Aconi, Cape Breton, N.S.
  • 650 z Nova Scotia z Cape Breton Island

30
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 1, cont.
  • Cultural/Ethnic Identity
  • 500 Performer Canadian.
  • Inference from geographic location
  • Form/Genre
  • 008/18-19 fm or mu
  • 047 a fm a df
  • 500 Traditional fiddle music of Cape Breton
    IslandContainer
  • 650 a Fiddle tunes
  • 650 a Folk music
  • 650 a Folk dance music

31
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 1, cont.
  • Instrumentation
  • 500 Traditional fiddle music of Cape Breton
    IslandContainer
  • 511 Natalie MacMaster, fiddle Mary Jessie
    MacDonald, piano (1st work) Joel Chiasson, piano
    (2nd work)
  • 650 a Fiddle tunes
  • Language
  • N/A for the works

32
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 1, cont.
  • Date (of performance)
  • 033 a 199712--
  • 518 Recorded Dec. 1997 at Lakewind Sound
    Studios, Point Aconi, Cape Breton, N.S.
  • Contributors
  • 100 a MacMaster, Natalie. 4 prf
  • 511 Natalie MacMaster, fiddle
  • 700 a Chiasson, Joel. 4 prf
  • Content/Works
  • 505 a Hey, Johnny Cope! -- Willie Fraser -- The
    boys of the lake --

33
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 2
  • Sam-Ang Sam Ensemble, Music of Cambodia
  • Geographic Location
  • 033 b 3804
  • 033 b 4284
  • 043 a a-cb--- a n-us---
  • 245 a Music of Cambodia
  • 518 a Recorded May 8, 1987, at Greenwich House,
    New York City, and Dec. 3, 1988, at Ruskin
    Studio, Seattle, Washington.
  • 650 z Cambodia
  • ? 650 z United States

34
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 2, cont.
  • Cultural/Ethnic Identity
  • 650 a Cambodian Americans v Music
  • Inference from geographic location in title and
    background of performer
  • Form/Genre
  • 008/18-19 fm
  • 650 a Folk music

35
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 2, cont.
  • Language
  • 008/35-37 khm
  • 041 d khm
  • 546 not mentioned in existing bibliographic
    record
  • Dates (of performance)
  • 033 a 19870508
  • 033 a 19881203
  • 518 Recorded May 8, 1987, at Greenwich House,
    New York City, and Dec. 3, 1988, at Ruskin
    Studio, Seattle, Washington.

36
Cataloging commercial sound recordings
  • Example 2, cont.
  • Instrumentation
  • not mentioned in existing bibliographic record
  • Contributors
  • 110 Sam-Ang Sam Ensemble. 4 prf
  • Content/Works
  • 505 Kath troeuy Crossing the river bank --
    Khek Nup Bun Indian from Nup -- Kolap Phnom
    Penh Rose of Phnom Peng --

37
  • Collections and Unpublished Materials

38
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Elements to Consider
  • Information discussed in previous section
  • Additional elements for consideration
  • Collection title
  • Content, Summaries, and Access to Individual
    Recordings in a Collection
  • Physical Description
  • Notes (Genre/Form and Provenance)
  • Subject Headings

39
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Collection titles (245)
  • Titles on item(s)
  • Supplied titles
  • AACR2 1.1B7
  • Supply a title proper for an item lacking a
    chief source of information from the rest of the
    item, or a reference source, or elsewhere. If no
    title can be found in any source, devise a brief
    descriptive title.
  • Internal/Institution-specific practices
  • ATM Location, Cultural group, Dates / c
    collected by Name
  • Brazil, Tupi Indians, ca. 1935 sound
    recording / collected by Charles Wagley.

40
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Collection titles (245)
  • Supplied titles, cont.
  • DACS (Describing Archives Content Standard)
  • 245 a Name segment nature of materials
  • Mary Smith collection of fiddle tunes
  • Date
  • 245 f Date range
  • Mary Smith collection of fiddle tunes, f
    1965-1970.
  • Other 245 g (bulk date) and 260 c

41
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Content, Summaries, and Access to Individual
    Recordings in a Collection
  • Contents or Summary Notes
  • 505
  • 520
  • Access to individual recordings
  • Bibliographic Records
  • Finding Aids
  • Indexes

42
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Physical Description (300)
  • Multiple formats in one collection
  • Content to include in bibliographic record
  • Only sound recordings or-
  • Sound recordings and accompanying materials
  • Single entry
  • 21 sound discs analog, 78 rpm, mono. 7-10 in.
    4 sound tape reels (10 in.) . documentation
  • Multiple entries in one record
  • 50 sound tape reels  analog, 7 1/2 ips  10 in.
  • 100 sound cassettes  analog.
  • 120 sound discs  analog, 33 1/3 rpm  12 in.

43
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Notes
  • Genre/Form Note
  • Suggest including a note listing various
    genres/forms in a collection
  • Provenance
  • Institutional repository of original recording
  • Collector who gathered the recordings
  • Narrative provenance story
  • Copies

44
Collections and unpublished materials
  • Subject Headings
  • LCSH
  • Local subject headings
  • How many is too many?

45
  • Ethnic Music and
  • FRBR-Like Models

46
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • FRBR
  • http//www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/
  • Entities
  • Group 1
  • Work (a distinct intellectual or artistic
    creation)
  • Expression (the intellectual or artistic
    realization of a work)
  • Manifestation (the physical embodiment of an
    expression of a work)
  • Item (a single exemplar of a manifestation)

47
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • FRBR
  • Group 1 entities, cont.

48
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • FRBR
  • Entities, cont.
  • Group 2
  • Person
  • Corporate body
  • Group 3
  • Concept (an abstract notion or idea)
  • Object (a material thing)
  • Event (an action or occurrence)
  • Place (a location)

49
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • FRBR
  • Shared Work and Expression Attributes (but
    applied differently)
  • Title
  • Form
  • Date
  • Other distinguishing characteristics
  • Context
  • Medium of Performance
  • Group 2 and 3 Entities
  • Person
  • Corporate body
  • Event
  • Place

50
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Special Considerations Regarding
  • Geographic Location
  • Contributors and Cultural/Ethnic Group
  • Form/Genre
  • Instrumentation
  • Content/Works
  • Other Misc. Issues

51
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Geographic Location (Place)
  • Location types that may be tracked
  • Contributors place of origin
  • Works and Styles place of origin or affiliation
  • Place of performance
  • Place of publication
  • Manner in which geographic location is presented
    on ethnic music recordings
  • Specific countries, cities, or towns identified
  • Descriptive identifications of settlement,
    region, such as within the borderlands of
    several countries
  • In conjunction with cultural groups, such as
    lands of the Shona people

52
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Contributors and Cultural/Ethnic group
  • Should contributors be associated with roles and
    how will those be searched?
  • Creator, Performer, Other
  • Inclusion of roles related to ethnic music
  • Source of roles MARC relator terms other
    options
  • Roles often not associated with Western Art
    music ethnographer/recorder, researcher,
    collector, and donor
  • Cultural/Ethnic groups could be thought of as
    creators or performers

53
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Contributors and Cultural/Ethnic group, cont.
  • Full names vs. incomplete or vague contributor
    statements
  • Varies widely, depending upon collector or
    publication
  • Incomplete or vague first names, descriptive
    identifications (i.e. school children, priests,
    village members), and ethnic groups/tribes/castes
  • Traditional often found in place of a creator
    name.
  • Should contributor records be made for all such
    entries? If not, need to allow for a unique place
    where this information may continue to be traced.

54
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Contributors and Cultural/Ethnic group, cont.
  • Authority record patterns for ethnic
    music-related contributors
  • Authority records generally already exist for
  • Ethnographers
  • Performers who have released solo or small
    ensemble recordings
  • In general, records do not exist for most
    performers and identified composers
  • Confusion determining correct heading Names from
    certain regions (particularly Latin American and
    Hispanic names)

55
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Form/Genre
  • Controlled vocabulary or not?
  • Current terms in LCSH
  • Ethnic music under-represented in general
  • Terms from certain regions, such as Afghanistan
    and Australia, are not well-represented
  • Difficulty understanding where forms/genres fall
    in a hierarchy
  • As music Form/Genre term list being established
    ideal time to add more ethnic music terms

56
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Form/Genre, cont.
  • On recordings, range from precise terms to
    descriptive statements incorporating ethnic
    group, region, and techniques/styles of playing.
    How to handle?
  • Example one ethnic group identified as
    performing in the style of another ethnic group.
  • In liner notes, unfamiliar terms often described
    or defined.
  • Possibility of consolidating this information for
    the betterment of all?
  • Requires a conscious effort on the part of the
    cataloging community.

57
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Instrumentation
  • Controlled vocabulary or not?
  • Sources and organization of selections
  • If yes, define mechanism for adding more terms
  • Incorporate broader terms for instrument classes?
  • Western Art music composers may incorporate such
    instruments in their compositions, so all terms
    must be accessible regardless of musical
    tradition.

58
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Contents/Works
  • What is a work in ethnic music?
  • Concept of a work in ethnic music is
    problematic.
  • Distinct titles vs. form or vague titles
  • Title might consist of a combination of
    instrument, ethnic group, function, context, etc.
    terms
  • Origination of titles ethnic group, collector,
    or publisher
  • Relationships

59
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Contents/Works, cont.
  • Collections as works?
  • Field recordings
  • Could be thought of as being created/organized by
    the collector/ethnographer
  • Each individual selection would be a part of the
    whole.
  • At what level may subject headings, form/genre,
    instrumentation, etc. be indicated?
  • Broad terms for the Collection work title but
    more distinct ones for the individual parts?

60
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Other Issues to Consider
  • Language
  • Language used (1) in performance and (2) in
    accompanying materials
  • Controlled list or not? If so, how to develop and
    add new terms?
  • Ability to select multiple languages
  • What should be done if no language is indicated
    or there is a vague statement like African
    dialect?
  • Language of accompanying print materials may not
    be understood.

61
Ethnic Music and FRBR-like Models
  • Other Issues to Consider, cont.
  • Shared attributes or Groupings
  • This information is often not tracked in
    bibliographic records. Should it be?
  • Example tracks grouped according to deities,
    holidays, instrument classification.

62
  • The End
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