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Faraday: Electricity and Magnetism

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... curves or lines of force were not accepted readily by physicists of the day. ... 1826: Institutes the Christmas Lectures for Children at the Royal Society ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Faraday: Electricity and Magnetism


1
Faraday Electricity and Magnetism
2
Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867)
  • Son of a Blacksmith in and around London
  • Family were Sandemanians
  • Learn to Read, Write and Cipher
  • Apprenticed as a Bookbinder

3
  • Consummate Reader of Scientific Books as an
    Apprentice
  • Attends in 1812 a Public Lecture by Sir Humphrey
    Davy, a Leading Chemist, and Took Extremely
    Careful Notes
  • He Bound and Sent a Set of the Notes to Davy

4
  • 1813 Davy Hires Faraday as his Assistant at the
    Royal Institution
  • 1813 Faraday Accompanies Davy on an 18-month
    Tour of Europe
  • Meets Ampere and Volta
  • Learns French and Italian
  • 1815 Begins Lecturing on Chemistry

5
Discovery and Transfer to Technology
  • Phase One Fundamental Discovery with No
    Application Pure Science
  • Phase Two Technological Niche Appears
    Engineering and Entrepreneurship
  • Phase Three Need for Additional Research

6
Faradays Intent
  • 1822 hope to obtain electricity from ordinary
    magnetism.
  • What was known?
  • Hans Christian Oersted Showed in 1820 that you
    could create a magnetic field from a flowing
    current.

7
Hans Christian Oersted (1777 1851)
  • Born in Southern Denmark
  • Studied Medicine, Physics, Astronomy
  • Degree in Pharmacy
  • Excited by Voltas Discovery of the Battery and
    Galvanis Discovery of Animal Electricity

8
Hans Christian Oersted (1777 1851)
  • Benjamin Franklin Magnetized Needles and Showed
    Lightning to be a Form of Electricity
  • 1800 1820 Some 68 Books, Pamphlets, and
    Notices on Voltaic Experiments

9
1821 The Lecture Demonstration Surprise
  • Demonstrating the Heating of Platinum Wire
    Through Which a Current Flowed
  • Noticed that a Nearby Compass Needle Was
    Deflected Whenever the Current Flowed
  • First Demonstrated Connection Between Electricity
    and Magnetism

10
Oersted Further Experiments
  • Found That the Magnetic Force Surrounded the Wire
    in a Circular Pattern
  • Circular Pattern Reversed When Current Reversed

11
Faraday Experiments of 1822 1831
12
Faraday Experiments of 1822 1831
13
  • Faraday Discovered that Changes in the Magnetic
    Field Causes Electrical Current
  • Notebook If a terminated wire (one forming part
    of a completed circuit) move so as to cut a
    magnetic curve, a power is called into action
    which tends to urge an electric current through
    it.
  • The idea of magnetic curves or lines of force
    were not accepted readily by physicists of the
    day.
  • Relationship between magnetism arising from
    currents and permanent magnets not understood or
    appreciated.

14
Other Contributions of Faraday
  • 1823 Liquefied Chlorine
  • 1824 Elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society
  • 1825 Isolates Benzene
  • 1826 Institutes the Christmas Lectures for
    Children at the Royal Society
  • Chemistry of the Candle
  • Various Forces of Matter

15
Other Contributions of Faraday
  • 1845 Showed a Strong Magnetic Field Can Change
    the Polarization of Light
  • He was by any sense and by any standard a good
    man and yet his goodness was not of the kind
    that make others uncomfortable in his presence.
    His strong sense of duty did not take the gaiety
    out of life. … his virtues were those of his
    action, not of mere abstention …

16
James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879)
  • Raised in Glenair in Kirkcudbridgetshire
  • Age Three …he has great work with doors, locks,
    keys, etc., and Show me how it doos is never
    out of his mouth. He also follows the hidden
    course of streams and bell wires, …

17
James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879)
  • Age 14 First Paper before the Royal Society of
    Edinburgh on On the Description of Oval Curves,
    and Those Having a Plurality of Foci
  • 1856 On Faradays Lines of Force Read to the
    Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1862 Calculates the Speed of Light
  • We can scarcely avoid the conclusion that light …
    is caused by electric and magnetic phenomena.
  • 1864 Develops a Theory of Electromagnetism
    Explaining All of Faradays Experiments

18
Early Models of Electrical Generators
  • 1832 Hippolyte Pixii France
  • 1833 Joseph Saxon America
  • Wired Bobbin
  • 1842 John Woolrich -- England
  • Multiple Horseshoe Magnets with Wired Bobbin
  • Used for Electroplating

19
Early Models of Electrical Generators
  • 1857 Fredrick Hale Holmes
  • Thirty-Six Permanent Magnets Rotated Past
    Stationary Coils
  • Weighed 4,000 Pounds
  • Generates 1,500 Watts
  • Lit a Carbon Arc Light for a Light House
  • Very Bright Light But Inefficient

20
Early Models of Electrical Generators
  • 1863 Henry Wilde
  • Generator Provides Current to Create the Magnetic
    Field
  • Self-Excited Dynamo-Electric Generators

21
DC Generators
22
AC Generator
23
And What Would Come
  • Thomas Alva Edison Electrical Lighting
  • Marconi / Telsa Radio
  • Steinmetz and Westinghouse AC Power Generation

24
A Diversion The Water Wheel
  • Lester Pelton Born in 1829 in Vermillion, Ohio
  • Migrates to California in 1850 for the Gold Rush
  • Creates A Vastly Improved Water Wheel

25
Pelton and His Wheel
  • Patents the Pelton Wheel in 1880
  • Idaho Mining Company of Grass Valley Holds a
    Competition for the Most Efficient Water Wheel
  • Peltons Wheel is Measured to be 90.2 Efficient
  • Nearest Competitor was 76.5 Efficient

26
The Pelton Wheel Today
  • Pelton Water Turbine Built in 1990s at
    Sindelova, Czech Republic
  • Head of 40 Meters
  • 750 RPM
  • 85 Efficient
  • 51 KW

27
Hoover Dam
28
The Steam Turbine
  • Brown, Boveri Steam Turbine Under Construction
  • 320 Mega Watts or 400,000 Horsepower
  • Entry Steam 2,640 pounds/in2 at 977 degrees
    Fahrenheit
  • After passing through the initial high pressure
    turbine, the steam is reheated to 977 o F
  • Steam Passes to a Double Flow Intermediate-Pressur
    e Turbines
  • Steam Passes into Two Double Flow Low-Pressure
    Turbines

29
Steam Turbine (1300 MW) Brown-Boveri (TVA)
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