MLA Style - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: MLA Style


1
MLA Style
  • Prepared by Diane Dates Casey

2
1.11. Language Style
  • Good organization development of ideas.
  • Unity coherence of presentation.
  • Command of sentence structure, grammar diction.
  • Avoid unsubstantiated generalizations about such
    personal qualities as age, economic class,
    ethnicity, sexual orientation, political or
    religious beliefs, race, or sex.

3
Avoid Sexist Language
  • Avoid using he, him, or his to express meaning
    that includes girls or women.
  • Recast such sentences in the plural or eliminate
    the pronouns.
  • Focus the discussion on a particular person
    rather than speaking generally.
  • Avoid terms that unnecessarily integrate a
    persons sex with a job or title.

4
3.3. Italics
  • Either underline or use italics for titles of
    books, journals or plays.
  • Be consistent.

5
3.7.2. Prose Quotations
  • If a prose quotation is less than four lines, put
    it in quotation marks integrate it into the
    text.
  • Quotes can be less than full sentences.
  • If a quotation runs more than four lines, set it
    off from the text by beginning a new line,
    indenting one inch or ten spaces from the left
    margin, and typing double-spaced, without adding
    quotation marks.

6
In-text Reference Following Prose Quotes
  • Quotes that are integrated into the text are
    followed by a parenthetical reference and a
    period. Example For Charles Dickens the
    eighteenth century was both the best of times
    and the worst of times (35).
  • A parenthetical reference at the end of an off
    set quotation is preceded by a period. Example
    the other little boys began to shake and sob
    too. (Golding 186)

7
3.7.3. Poetry Quotations
  • If part or all of a single line of verse is
    quoted, put it in quotation marks within the
    text.
  • Two or three lines of poetry may be incorporated
    in this way with slashes (/) between the lines.
  • Verse quotations of more than three lines should
    begin on a new line. Unless the quotation
    involves unusual spacing, indent each line one
    inch from the left margin and double-space
    between lines, adding no quotation marks that do
    not appear in the original.

8
In-text References Following Poetry Quotes
  • Poetry is cited by lines, not pages.
  • In-text references for poetry follow the same
    pattern as for prose quotations.

9
Example Bradstreet frames the poem with a sense
of mortality All things within this fading
world hath end (1).Example Elizabeth Bishops
In the Waiting Room is rich in evocative
detail It was winter. It got dark
early. The waiting room was full
of grown-up people, arctics and
overcoats, lamps and magazines.
(6-10)
10
3.7.4. Drama Quotations
  • When quoting dialogue between two or more
    characters in a play, set the quotation off from
    your text.
  • Begin each part of the dialogue with the
    appropriate characters name indented one inch
    (10 spaces) from the left margin and written in
    all capital letters HAMLET. Follow the name
    with a period, and start the quotation. Indent
    all subsequent lines in that characters speech
    an additional quarter inch (3 spaces).

11
  • When the dialogue shifts to another character,
    start a new line indented one inch (10 spaces)
    from the left margin. Maintain this pattern
    throughout the entire quotation.

12
In-text references for drama are cited by act,
scene and lines.
A short time later Lear loses the final symbol of
his former power, the soldiers who make up his
train GONERIL.
Hear me, my lord. What
need you five-and-twenty, ten or five,
To follow in a house where twice so
many Have a command to tend
you? REGAN
What need one? LEAR O, reason
not the need! (2.4.254-58)
13
5.3. List of Works Cited Other Source Lists
  • Types of lists Works Cited, Annotated
    Bibliography, Work Consulted, Selected
    Bibliography.

Example of Annotated Bibliography Thomson,
Stith. The Folktale. New York Dryden, 1946. A
comprehensive survey of the most popular
folktales, including their histories and their
uses in literary works.
14
5.6. Books
  • Books by a Single Author
    Gerber, John C. Mark Twain. Boston Twayne, 1988.
  • Two or more Books by One Author Frye,
    Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism Four Essays.
    Princeton Princeton U P, 1957.
    ---, The
    Double Vision Language and Meaning in Religion.
    Toronto U of Toronto P, 1991
  • Books by Two Authors
    Long, E. Hudson and J.R. LeMaster. The Mark
    Twain Handbook. New York Garland, 1985.

15
5.6.2. Anthology or Compilation
  • Editor of an anthology
    Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the
    Romantic Era. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP,
    1997.
  • Compiler
    Sevillano, Mando, comp. The
    Hopi Way Tales from a Vanishing Culture.
    Flagstaff Northland, 1986.
  • Compiler and editor
    Spafford, Peter, comp. and ed.
    Interference The Story of Czechoslovakia in the
    Words of Its Writers. Cheltenham New Clarion,
    1992.

16
5.6.7. A Work in an Anthology
  • Essays in an Anthology


    Allende, Isabel. Toads Mouth. Trans. Margaret
    Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes
    Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie.
    New York Plume, 1992. 83-88.
    A Witchcraft
    Story. The Hopi Way Tales from a Vanishing
    Culture. Comp. Mando Sevillano. Flagstaff
    Northland, 1986. 33-42.

17
  • Works published before
    Franklin, Benjamin. Emigration to
    America. 1782. The Faber Book of America. Ed.
    Christopher Ricks and William L. Vance. Boston
    Faber, 1992. 24-26.
  • Previously Published Scholarly Article in a
    Collection
    Frye,
    Northrop. Literary and Linguistic Scholarhip in
    a Postliterate Age. PMLA 99 (1984) 990-95.
    Rpt. in Myth and Metaphor Selected Essays,
    1974-88. Ed. Robert D. Denham. Charlottesville
    UP of Virginia, 1990. 18-27.

18
Roberts, Sheila. A Confined World A Rereading
of Pauline Smith. World Literature Written in
English 24 (1984) 232-38. Rpt. in
Twentieth- Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis
Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit Gale, 1988. 399-402.
19
5.6.8. Article in a Reference Book
  • Familiar Reference Books
    Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.
    Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. 10th
    ed. 1993. Noon. The Oxford
    English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
  • Citing a specific definition
    Noon. Def. 4b. The Oxford
    English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.

20
  • Less Familiar Reference Books
    Allen, Anita L. Privacy in Health Care.
    Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Warren T. Reich.
    Rev. ed. 5 vols. New York Macmillan-Simon,
    1995.

21
5.6.9. Introduction, Preface, Foreword or
Afterword
  • Foreword
    Borges, Jorge Luis. Foreword. Selected
    Poems, 1923- 1967. By Borges. Ed. Norman Thomas
    Di Giovanni. New York Delta-Dell, 1973.
    xv-xvii.
  • Introduction
    Drabble,
    Margaret. Introduction. Middlemarch. By George
    Eliot. New York Bantam, 1982. v-xi.
  • Afterword
    Elliott, Emory. Afterword.
    The Jungle. By Upton Sinclair. New York Signet,
    1990. 342-50.

22
5.6.19. Book with Multiple Publishers
  • Examples
    Duff. J. Wight. A Literary History of
    Rome From the Origins to the Close of the
    Golden Age. Ed. A. M. Duff. 3rd ed. 1953.
    London Benn New York Barnes, 1967.

    Wells, H.G. The Time Machine.
    1895 London Dent Rutland Tuttle, 1992.

23
5.6.26. Unpublished Dissertations
  • Example
    Jerinic, Maria. Reading for
    Nation Constructions of National Identity in
    Novels by British Women Writers of the Late
    Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Anne
    Radcliffe, Fanny Burney, Jane Austen, Charlotte
    Bonte, Elizabeth Gaskill). Diss. State U of NY
    at Stony Brook, 1997.
  • Moring, Meg Montgomery. Death and the Concept of
    Womans Value in the Novels of Jane Austen.
    Diss. U of North TX, 1996.

24
5.7. Citing Journal Articles Other Publications
in Periodicals
  • Articles in a scholarly journal with continuous
    pagination. Example Carter, Steven
    R. Images of men in Lorraine Hansberrys
    writing. Black American Literature Forum 19
    (1979) 160-62.
  • Articles in a scholarly journal that pages each
    issue separately. Example
    Barthelme, Frederick. Architecture. Kansas
    Quarterly 133-4 (1981) 77-80.

25
5.7.5. Article in a Newspaper
  • Example
    Rubin, Merle. " In So Many Words, all the
    World Became His Stage, and Ours." Wall Street
    Journal 6 July 2000, Eastern ed. A24

26
5.7.6. Article in a Magazine
  • Kermode, Frank. "If it's out there, it's in
    here." New York Times Book Review 1 Oct. 2000
    12. Oakes, Edward T.
    "Never at a loss for words." Commonweal 8
    Sept.2000 38-39.

27
5.7.7. Reviews
  • Bemrose, John. Rev. of The Correspondence of
    Northrop Frye and Helen Kemp, 1932-1939, ed.
    Robert D. Denham. Maclean's 7 Apr. 1997 93.
    Twardy, Chuck. "Pagers,
    pageants and powwows." Rev. of As Long as the
    Waters Flow Native Americans in the South and
    East, by Edward Sheriff Curtis. Afterimage 26.6
    (1999) 17.

28
5.9.7 Articles from Online Scholarly Journals
found in a Library Subscription Database
(Full Text ASCII) Meyer, William, E.H. Jr. "
Faulkner, Hemingway, et al. the Emersonian test
of American authorship." The Mississippi
Quarterly 51 (1998). WilsonSelect Plus. OCLC
FIRSTSEARCH. GSU U Lib., University Park, IL.
20 Nov. 2001 lthttp//newfirstsearch.oclc.org/gt.

29
(Full Page Image - PDF) "Spectacular Sympathy
Visuality and Ideology in Dickens's A Christmas
Carol." PMLA 109 (1994) 254-67. Research
Library. PROQUEST. GSU U Lib., University Park,
IL. 20 Nov. 2001 lthttp//proquest.umi.com/gt.
30
5.9.4.a. Article in a Online Scholarly Journal
  • (Full Text ASCII)
    LeBlanc, Jim. "The
    Closing Words of Finnegans Wake." Hypermedia
    Joyce Studies 2.1 (1999). 20 Nov. 2001
    lthttp//www.2street.com/hjs/leblanc/index.htmlgt.
    Reid, Nicholoas.
    "Coleridge, Language, and Imagination."
    Romanticism On the Net 22 (2001). 20 Nov. 2001
    lthttp//users.ox.ac.uk/scat0385/22reid.htmlgt.

31
5.9.2.c. Professional or Personal Web Site
  • Baxter, Gisele. Notes on Ernest Hemingway's The
    Sun Also Rises. 4 May 1999. 14 June 2000.
    lthttp//www.interchange.ubc.ca/
    gmb/sun.htmlgt. Dawe, James. Jane Austen
    Page. 15 Sept. 1998 lthttp//nyquist.ee.ualberta.c
    a/dawe/austen.htmlgt. Lancashire, Ian. Home
    page. 1 May 1998 lthttp//www.chass.utoronto.ca80
    80/ian/gt. Romance Languages and Literatures
    Home Page. 1 Jan. 1997. Dept. of Romance Langs.
    And Lits., U of Chicago. 8 July 1998
    lthttp//humanities.uchicago.edu/romance/gt.

32
6.3. In-text References
  • Authors Name in Text
    Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
  • Authors Name in Reference
    This point has already been argued (Tannen
    178-85).

33
6.4.1. Citing an Entire Nonprint Work
  • Electronic Sources
    William J. Mitchells City of Bits
    discusses architecture and urban life in the
    context of the digital telecommunications
    revolution.


    Works Cited
    Mitchell,
    William J. City of Bits Space, Place, and the
    Informationbahn. Cambridge MIT P, 1995. MIT P
    Electronic Books. 9 July 1998 lthttp//mitpress.m
    et.edu/e-books/City_of_Bitsgt.

34
6.4.2. Citing Part of a Work
  • Electronic Sources
    The study of comparative
    literature, Bill Readings wrote, takes off from
    the idea of humanity (6). Works Cited

    Readings, Bill.
    Translatio and Comparative Literature The
    Terror of European Humanism. Surfaces 1.11
    (1991) 19 pp. 8 July 1998 lthttp//tornade.ere.u
    montreal.ca/guedpm/Surfaces/vo l1/readin-a/htmlgt.

35
6.4.6. Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author
  • Shakespeares King Lear has been called a comedy
    of the grotesque (Frye, Anatomy 237).
    For Northrop
    Frye, ones death is not a unique experience, for
    every moment we have lived through we have also
    died out of into another order (Double Vision
    85). Works Cited

    Frye,Northrop. Anatomy of
    Criticism Four Essays. Princeton Princeton UP,
    1957.
    ---, The Double Vision Language
    and Meaning in Religion. Toronto U of Toronto
    P, 1991.

36
6.4.7. Citing Indirect Sources
  • Whenever possible, take material from an original
    source, not a secondhand one.
  • If what is quoted or paraphrased is a quotation,
    the source is indirect.
    Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an
    extraordinary man (qtd. In Boswell 2 450).

    Works Cited
    Boswell,
    James. The Life of Johnson. Ed. George Birkbeck
    Hill and L. F. Powell. 6 vols. Oxford
    Clarendon, 1934-50.

37
6.4.8. Citing Literary Religious Works
  • Include the name of the author in either your
    text or the in-text reference.
  • In the reference for classic prose works, include
    book, section, part, or chapter numbers as
    applicable.
    Raskolnikov first appears in Crime and Punishment
    as a man contemplating a terrible act but
    frightened of meeting his talkative landlady on
    the stairs (Dostoevsky 1 pt. 1, ch. 1).

38
6.4.8. Use Arabic Numerals
  • Use arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals
    for division and page numbers.
    Our Shakespearean protagonist seems resolute
    at first when he asserts, Haste me to knowt,
    that I, with wings as swift / As meditation /
    May sweep to my revenge (Ham. 1.5.35-37), but he
    soon has second thoughts another tragic figure,
    initially described as too full o th milk of
    human kindness (Mac. 1.5.17), quickly descends
    into horrific slaughter.

39
7. Abbreviations
  • 7.2. Time Designations
  • 7.3. Geographic Names
  • 7.4 Common Scholarly Abbreviations
  • 7.5 Publishers Names
  • 7.7 Titles of Literary and Religious Works Bible,
    Shakespeare, Chaucer, Other Literary Works
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Title: MLA Style


1
MLA Style
  • Prepared by Diane Dates Casey

2
1.11. Language Style
  • Good organization development of ideas.
  • Unity coherence of presentation.
  • Command of sentence structure, grammar diction.
  • Avoid unsubstantiated generalizations about such
    personal qualities as age, economic class,
    ethnicity, sexual orientation, political or
    religious beliefs, race, or sex.

3
Avoid Sexist Language
  • Avoid using he, him, or his to express meaning
    that includes girls or women.
  • Recast such sentences in the plural or eliminate
    the pronouns.
  • Focus the discussion on a particular person
    rather than speaking generally.
  • Avoid terms that unnecessarily integrate a
    persons sex with a job or title.

4
3.3. Italics
  • Either underline or use italics for titles of
    books, journals or plays.
  • Be consistent.

5
3.7.2. Prose Quotations
  • If a prose quotation is less than four lines, put
    it in quotation marks integrate it into the
    text.
  • Quotes can be less than full sentences.
  • If a quotation runs more than four lines, set it
    off from the text by beginning a new line,
    indenting one inch or ten spaces from the left
    margin, and typing double-spaced, without adding
    quotation marks.

6
In-text Reference Following Prose Quotes
  • Quotes that are integrated into the text are
    followed by a parenthetical reference and a
    period. Example For Charles Dickens the
    eighteenth century was both the best of times
    and the worst of times (35).
  • A parenthetical reference at the end of an off
    set quotation is preceded by a period. Example
    the other little boys began to shake and sob
    too. (Golding 186)

7
3.7.3. Poetry Quotations
  • If part or all of a single line of verse is
    quoted, put it in quotation marks within the
    text.
  • Two or three lines of poetry may be incorporated
    in this way with slashes (/) between the lines.
  • Verse quotations of more than three lines should
    begin on a new line. Unless the quotation
    involves unusual spacing, indent each line one
    inch from the left margin and double-space
    between lines, adding no quotation marks that do
    not appear in the original.

8
In-text References Following Poetry Quotes
  • Poetry is cited by lines, not pages.
  • In-text references for poetry follow the same
    pattern as for prose quotations.

9
Example Bradstreet frames the poem with a sense
of mortality All things within this fading
world hath end (1).Example Elizabeth Bishops
In the Waiting Room is rich in evocative
detail It was winter. It got dark
early. The waiting room was full
of grown-up people, arctics and
overcoats, lamps and magazines.
(6-10)
10
3.7.4. Drama Quotations
  • When quoting dialogue between two or more
    characters in a play, set the quotation off from
    your text.
  • Begin each part of the dialogue with the
    appropriate characters name indented one inch
    (10 spaces) from the left margin and written in
    all capital letters HAMLET. Follow the name
    with a period, and start the quotation. Indent
    all subsequent lines in that characters speech
    an additional quarter inch (3 spaces).

11
  • When the dialogue shifts to another character,
    start a new line indented one inch (10 spaces)
    from the left margin. Maintain this pattern
    throughout the entire quotation.

12
In-text references for drama are cited by act,
scene and lines.
A short time later Lear loses the final symbol of
his former power, the soldiers who make up his
train GONERIL.
Hear me, my lord. What
need you five-and-twenty, ten or five,
To follow in a house where twice so
many Have a command to tend
you? REGAN
What need one? LEAR O, reason
not the need! (2.4.254-58)
13
5.3. List of Works Cited Other Source Lists
  • Types of lists Works Cited, Annotated
    Bibliography, Work Consulted, Selected
    Bibliography.

Example of Annotated Bibliography Thomson,
Stith. The Folktale. New York Dryden, 1946. A
comprehensive survey of the most popular
folktales, including their histories and their
uses in literary works.
14
5.6. Books
  • Books by a Single Author
    Gerber, John C. Mark Twain. Boston Twayne, 1988.
  • Two or more Books by One Author Frye,
    Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism Four Essays.
    Princeton Princeton U P, 1957.
    ---, The
    Double Vision Language and Meaning in Religion.
    Toronto U of Toronto P, 1991
  • Books by Two Authors
    Long, E. Hudson and J.R. LeMaster. The Mark
    Twain Handbook. New York Garland, 1985.

15
5.6.2. Anthology or Compilation
  • Editor of an anthology
    Feldman, Paula R., ed. British Women Poets of the
    Romantic Era. Baltimore Johns Hopkins UP,
    1997.
  • Compiler
    Sevillano, Mando, comp. The
    Hopi Way Tales from a Vanishing Culture.
    Flagstaff Northland, 1986.
  • Compiler and editor
    Spafford, Peter, comp. and ed.
    Interference The Story of Czechoslovakia in the
    Words of Its Writers. Cheltenham New Clarion,
    1992.

16
5.6.7. A Work in an Anthology
  • Essays in an Anthology


    Allende, Isabel. Toads Mouth. Trans. Margaret
    Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes
    Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie.
    New York Plume, 1992. 83-88.
    A Witchcraft
    Story. The Hopi Way Tales from a Vanishing
    Culture. Comp. Mando Sevillano. Flagstaff
    Northland, 1986. 33-42.

17
  • Works published before
    Franklin, Benjamin. Emigration to
    America. 1782. The Faber Book of America. Ed.
    Christopher Ricks and William L. Vance. Boston
    Faber, 1992. 24-26.
  • Previously Published Scholarly Article in a
    Collection
    Frye,
    Northrop. Literary and Linguistic Scholarhip in
    a Postliterate Age. PMLA 99 (1984) 990-95.
    Rpt. in Myth and Metaphor Selected Essays,
    1974-88. Ed. Robert D. Denham. Charlottesville
    UP of Virginia, 1990. 18-27.

18
Roberts, Sheila. A Confined World A Rereading
of Pauline Smith. World Literature Written in
English 24 (1984) 232-38. Rpt. in
Twentieth- Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Dennis
Poupard. Vol. 25. Detroit Gale, 1988. 399-402.
19
5.6.8. Article in a Reference Book
  • Familiar Reference Books
    Azimuthal Equidistant Projection.
    Merriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary. 10th
    ed. 1993. Noon. The Oxford
    English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.
  • Citing a specific definition
    Noon. Def. 4b. The Oxford
    English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989.

20
  • Less Familiar Reference Books
    Allen, Anita L. Privacy in Health Care.
    Encyclopedia of Bioethics. Ed. Warren T. Reich.
    Rev. ed. 5 vols. New York Macmillan-Simon,
    1995.

21
5.6.9. Introduction, Preface, Foreword or
Afterword
  • Foreword
    Borges, Jorge Luis. Foreword. Selected
    Poems, 1923- 1967. By Borges. Ed. Norman Thomas
    Di Giovanni. New York Delta-Dell, 1973.
    xv-xvii.
  • Introduction
    Drabble,
    Margaret. Introduction. Middlemarch. By George
    Eliot. New York Bantam, 1982. v-xi.
  • Afterword
    Elliott, Emory. Afterword.
    The Jungle. By Upton Sinclair. New York Signet,
    1990. 342-50.

22
5.6.19. Book with Multiple Publishers
  • Examples
    Duff. J. Wight. A Literary History of
    Rome From the Origins to the Close of the
    Golden Age. Ed. A. M. Duff. 3rd ed. 1953.
    London Benn New York Barnes, 1967.

    Wells, H.G. The Time Machine.
    1895 London Dent Rutland Tuttle, 1992.

23
5.6.26. Unpublished Dissertations
  • Example
    Jerinic, Maria. Reading for
    Nation Constructions of National Identity in
    Novels by British Women Writers of the Late
    Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries (Anne
    Radcliffe, Fanny Burney, Jane Austen, Charlotte
    Bonte, Elizabeth Gaskill). Diss. State U of NY
    at Stony Brook, 1997.
  • Moring, Meg Montgomery. Death and the Concept of
    Womans Value in the Novels of Jane Austen.
    Diss. U of North TX, 1996.

24
5.7. Citing Journal Articles Other Publications
in Periodicals
  • Articles in a scholarly journal with continuous
    pagination. Example Carter, Steven
    R. Images of men in Lorraine Hansberrys
    writing. Black American Literature Forum 19
    (1979) 160-62.
  • Articles in a scholarly journal that pages each
    issue separately. Example
    Barthelme, Frederick. Architecture. Kansas
    Quarterly 133-4 (1981) 77-80.

25
5.7.5. Article in a Newspaper
  • Example
    Rubin, Merle. " In So Many Words, all the
    World Became His Stage, and Ours." Wall Street
    Journal 6 July 2000, Eastern ed. A24

26
5.7.6. Article in a Magazine
  • Kermode, Frank. "If it's out there, it's in
    here." New York Times Book Review 1 Oct. 2000
    12. Oakes, Edward T.
    "Never at a loss for words." Commonweal 8
    Sept.2000 38-39.

27
5.7.7. Reviews
  • Bemrose, John. Rev. of The Correspondence of
    Northrop Frye and Helen Kemp, 1932-1939, ed.
    Robert D. Denham. Maclean's 7 Apr. 1997 93.
    Twardy, Chuck. "Pagers,
    pageants and powwows." Rev. of As Long as the
    Waters Flow Native Americans in the South and
    East, by Edward Sheriff Curtis. Afterimage 26.6
    (1999) 17.

28
5.9.7 Articles from Online Scholarly Journals
found in a Library Subscription Database
(Full Text ASCII) Meyer, William, E.H. Jr. "
Faulkner, Hemingway, et al. the Emersonian test
of American authorship." The Mississippi
Quarterly 51 (1998). WilsonSelect Plus. OCLC
FIRSTSEARCH. GSU U Lib., University Park, IL.
20 Nov. 2001 lthttp//newfirstsearch.oclc.org/gt.

29
(Full Page Image - PDF) "Spectacular Sympathy
Visuality and Ideology in Dickens's A Christmas
Carol." PMLA 109 (1994) 254-67. Research
Library. PROQUEST. GSU U Lib., University Park,
IL. 20 Nov. 2001 lthttp//proquest.umi.com/gt.
30
5.9.4.a. Article in a Online Scholarly Journal
  • (Full Text ASCII)
    LeBlanc, Jim. "The
    Closing Words of Finnegans Wake." Hypermedia
    Joyce Studies 2.1 (1999). 20 Nov. 2001
    lthttp//www.2street.com/hjs/leblanc/index.htmlgt.
    Reid, Nicholoas.
    "Coleridge, Language, and Imagination."
    Romanticism On the Net 22 (2001). 20 Nov. 2001
    lthttp//users.ox.ac.uk/scat0385/22reid.htmlgt.

31
5.9.2.c. Professional or Personal Web Site
  • Baxter, Gisele. Notes on Ernest Hemingway's The
    Sun Also Rises. 4 May 1999. 14 June 2000.
    lthttp//www.interchange.ubc.ca/
    gmb/sun.htmlgt. Dawe, James. Jane Austen
    Page. 15 Sept. 1998 lthttp//nyquist.ee.ualberta.c
    a/dawe/austen.htmlgt. Lancashire, Ian. Home
    page. 1 May 1998 lthttp//www.chass.utoronto.ca80
    80/ian/gt. Romance Languages and Literatures
    Home Page. 1 Jan. 1997. Dept. of Romance Langs.
    And Lits., U of Chicago. 8 July 1998
    lthttp//humanities.uchicago.edu/romance/gt.

32
6.3. In-text References
  • Authors Name in Text
    Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
  • Authors Name in Reference
    This point has already been argued (Tannen
    178-85).

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6.4.1. Citing an Entire Nonprint Work
  • Electronic Sources
    William J. Mitchells City of Bits
    discusses architecture and urban life in the
    context of the digital telecommunications
    revolution.


    Works Cited
    Mitchell,
    William J. City of Bits Space, Place, and the
    Informationbahn. Cambridge MIT P, 1995. MIT P
    Electronic Books. 9 July 1998 lthttp//mitpress.m
    et.edu/e-books/City_of_Bitsgt.

34
6.4.2. Citing Part of a Work
  • Electronic Sources
    The study of comparative
    literature, Bill Readings wrote, takes off from
    the idea of humanity (6). Works Cited

    Readings, Bill.
    Translatio and Comparative Literature The
    Terror of European Humanism. Surfaces 1.11
    (1991) 19 pp. 8 July 1998 lthttp//tornade.ere.u
    montreal.ca/guedpm/Surfaces/vo l1/readin-a/htmlgt.

35
6.4.6. Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author
  • Shakespeares King Lear has been called a comedy
    of the grotesque (Frye, Anatomy 237).
    For Northrop
    Frye, ones death is not a unique experience, for
    every moment we have lived through we have also
    died out of into another order (Double Vision
    85). Works Cited

    Frye,Northrop. Anatomy of
    Criticism Four Essays. Princeton Princeton UP,
    1957.
    ---, The Double Vision Language
    and Meaning in Religion. Toronto U of Toronto
    P, 1991.

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6.4.7. Citing Indirect Sources
  • Whenever possible, take material from an original
    source, not a secondhand one.
  • If what is quoted or paraphrased is a quotation,
    the source is indirect.
    Samuel Johnson admitted that Edmund Burke was an
    extraordinary man (qtd. In Boswell 2 450).

    Works Cited
    Boswell,
    James. The Life of Johnson. Ed. George Birkbeck
    Hill and L. F. Powell. 6 vols. Oxford
    Clarendon, 1934-50.

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6.4.8. Citing Literary Religious Works
  • Include the name of the author in either your
    text or the in-text reference.
  • In the reference for classic prose works, include
    book, section, part, or chapter numbers as
    applicable.
    Raskolnikov first appears in Crime and Punishment
    as a man contemplating a terrible act but
    frightened of meeting his talkative landlady on
    the stairs (Dostoevsky 1 pt. 1, ch. 1).

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6.4.8. Use Arabic Numerals
  • Use arabic numerals rather than Roman numerals
    for division and page numbers.
    Our Shakespearean protagonist seems resolute
    at first when he asserts, Haste me to knowt,
    that I, with wings as swift / As meditation /
    May sweep to my revenge (Ham. 1.5.35-37), but he
    soon has second thoughts another tragic figure,
    initially described as too full o th milk of
    human kindness (Mac. 1.5.17), quickly descends
    into horrific slaughter.

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7. Abbreviations
  • 7.2. Time Designations
  • 7.3. Geographic Names
  • 7.4 Common Scholarly Abbreviations
  • 7.5 Publishers Names
  • 7.7 Titles of Literary and Religious Works Bible,
    Shakespeare, Chaucer, Other Literary Works
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