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Reeves Petroff MSU Extension Pesticide Education Specialist

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Title: Reeves Petroff MSU Extension Pesticide Education Specialist


1
Reeves PetroffMSU ExtensionPesticide Education
Specialist
  • http//mtpesticides.org

2
Water Quality Pesticide Performance
3
How water quality affects certain pesticides
Goal
  • Minerals
  • pH
  • Dirty Water

4
How water quality affects certain pesticides
Goal
  • Weak acid herbicides
  • Insecticides
  • Organophosphates
  • Carbamates

5
Water
- Covalent Bonds shared electrons
pH of 7 neutral
  • Universal Solvent Dissolves attracts many
    substances

6
Hydrological Cycle
Adds minerals and pH to water
CO2 H20 carbonic acid
Carbonate CO3Alkaline
Bicarbonate HCO3Alkaline
Minerals
7
What Causes pH in water?
CarbonicAcidH2CO3
CO2 H20
Acid
BicarbonateHCO3
CarbonateCO3
Alkaline
8
Water
Primary diluent
New Term
  • Why water quality is important!
  • 1 pint or 1 quart per acre
  • 30 GPA application volume
  • 99 and 93 of spray solution

9
Minerals
Hard Water
10
Total Dissolved Solids
ppm
grains 17 ppm per grain
TDS
11
Common mineral elements in Montana water
Ions -
Charged atoms
nitrate (NO3-)
potassium (K)
iron (Fe, Fe),
12
What is hard water?
13
How is TDS measured?
  • Weight
  • EC
  • Chemical reaction (Test Strips)

Calcium 666 ppm Sulphate 2434
ppm Magnesium 234 ppm Chloride 32 ppm
Sodium 130 ppm Bicarbonate 346 ppm
3842 ppm.
TDS gt 500 mg/L (ppm) is salty to taste
14
Types Of Water
? Drinking water lt500 TDS (EPA) ? Fresh Water
lt1,000 TDS ? Brackish 1,000-5,000 TDS ?
Highly Brackish 5,000-15,000 TDS ? Saline
15,000-30,000 TDS ? Sea Water 30,000-40,000
TDS ? Brine 40,000-300,000 TDS
15
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17
Understanding Water HardnessWater Softening
Ion Exchange
  • Resin Beads
  • anionic (-)
  • hold cations()

18
Mg
Ca
Na
Na
Ca
Mg
Mg
Na
Mg
Na
Na
Mg
Flow
Ca
Na
Mg
Ca
Mg
Na
Na
Na
Ca
Na
Ca
Na
Ca
Na
19
Water Quality Effects on Herbicides
Hard Water
20
Weak Acid Herbicides
  • Most affected by hard water and pH
  • Acids release H ions in water
  • Weak acids release H slightly

Glyphosate Roundup Paraquat
Gramoxone Clethodim Select Sethoxydim
Poast Many 2,4-D products
21
Weak Acid Herbicides
CH3 NH2 CH3
Dissociation splitting of the molecule
22
Weak Acid Herbicides
CH3 NH2 CH3
Ca
23
- Herbicide molecule -
  • Penetrate the target weed intact
  • Travel to the site of action
  • Kill the plant.

24
CH3 NH2 CH3
Intact molecule more plant penetration
25
Water pH Herbicides
What is pH?
  • Measures H ions
  • potential Hydrogen
  • More H lower pH more acid

26
Logarithmic
27
pH
  • 0 to 14
  • 7 is neutral
  • Logarithmic - 102 100
  • pH of 3 has 100 times H as pH of 5

28
pH and Herbicides
  • Acidic conditions for most herbicides
  • pH 3 to 6
  • Lower pH avoids dissociation
  • The exceptions
  • Ally
  • Escort
  • Read the label

29
pH
Hard Water
High pH dissociation Molecule is vulnerable
CH3 NH2 CH3
Ca
30
Bicarbonate Waters
  • Associated with sodium
  • gt 500 ppm high pH
  • Affects 2,4-D
  • Affects dim herbicides
  • Poast - sethoxydim
  • Select clethodim
  • Achieve -tralkoxydim

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33
Bicarbonate Waters- Solution -
  • Use maximum allowed rate
  • Apply during optimal growth stage
  • Adjuvants
  • - Non-ionic Surfactant (NIS)
  • - Acidifiers/buffers

34
Water Quality Effects on Herbicides
Turbidity
  • diquat (Reglone, Reward)
  • paraquat (Gramoxone)
  • glyphosate (Roundup, Touchdown, etc.

Dirt
Organic MatterOM
35
Water Quality Effects on Herbicides
  • Binds the herbicide

Roundup
- - OM --
Herbicide not absorbed
  • Clogs screens
  • Pumps?

36
TSS Solutions
  • Clean water supply
  • Filtering

37
pH Insecticides
  • Organophosphates
  • Malathion
  • Parathion
  • Carbamates
  • Sevin

38
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39
Solutions?
1. Test the water
  • Test strips
  • Meters
  • Labs

40
Test strips
  • Easy to use
  • Cheap - 8 to 20
  • Some combine ph hardness
  • Improved accuracy

41
Meters
pH, EC, TDS 179.00
  • Accurate
  • Calibrated
  • 100

www.gemplers.com
42
Labs
  • Collection guidance
  • Tests performed
  • How to interpret results
  • 50 100

http//mtpesticides.org ? Links ? Labs
43
  • Less ions present
  • Example
  • 25 to 15 GPA
  • Only if practical
  • pH still a problem
  • Label?

1. Test the water
2. Reduce Water Volume
44
  • More pesticide ions present
  • More costly
  • Non-target damage?

1. Test the water
2. Reduce Water Volume
3. Use maximum allowed rate
45
  • Mix what you need
  • Smaller areas
  • Planning
  • Scouting
  • Good notes

1. Test the water
2. Reduce Water Volume
3. Use maximum allowed rate
4. Spray ASAP after mixing
46
1. Test the water
2. Reduce Water Volume
3. Use maximum allowed rate
4. Spray ASAP after mixing
5. Adjuvants
47
Adjuvants
  • Additives to improve performance
  • Acidifiers
  • Buffers
  • Conditioners
  • Ammonium Sulfate (AS)
  • Non-ionic surfactants (NIS)

www.herbicide-adjuvants.com
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