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AUXNAV Review

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Title: AUXNAV Review


1
Navigation Course
Review
2
Hi Guys and Gals this is a reveiw
3
1
On the surface of a sphere, the shortest distance
between two points is ?
A Great Circle
4
2
What the name of bearings, indicating degrees of
angular measure, clockwise, and related to
the direction the bow of the boat is pointing ?
Its called the Relative Bearing
5
3
The great circle passing through both geographic
poles and a specific point in Greenwich England
Prime Meridian
6
4
One nautical mile on the surface of the earth
equals ?
One Minute of Latitude
7
5
A chart with a scale of 110,000 would be
considered what type of chart ?
A harbor chart
8
(No Transcript)
9
6
The civil time of 730 pm is written how in 24
hours time ?
1930
930 pm is 930 1200 2130 1145 pm is
1145 1200 2345
10
7
The speed in knots at which the current is moving
is called ?
Drift
11
8
The measure from the equator the the poles on
the earth surface is called ?
Latitude Measure
12
9
What are the internal magnets in a compasses
used for ?
Adjustments of Deviations
13
10
Where are the chart symbols, abbreviations, and
nomenclature published ?
Chart 1
14
11
What is a Line Of Position labeled only with the
time called ?
The Range
15
12
Where can the distance be measured on a chart ?
Latitude Side
16
13
The difference between the magnetic meridian and
and the geographic meridian is called ?
The Variation
17
14
Low water is the minmum height reached by what
type of tide ?
A falling Tide
18
15
Mean high water mark is the datum or tidal
reference for what measures on the charts ?
Clearence under a bridge
19
16
When mounting a compass the Lubbers line
must align with what part of the boat?
Keel
20
17
What is the deviation correction for a compass
used for ?
Correcting a Compass headings to Magnetic
headings
21
18
How will increasing the speed of a boat effect
the range and fuel for the boat ?
Both will decrease This is on a HowGoItChart
22
19
The geographic coordinate measure along the
arc of the equator in degrees, minutes, and
seconds from the prime meridian are called ?
Longitude
23
20
Good reflector for Radar energy are ?
Electrical conductors and Metal
24
21
The moon in a quadrature ( not full) has tides
called ?
Neap Tides
25
22
The moon in a new or ( full) has tides called ?
Spring Tides
26
23
The term CONFORMAL indicates what property of a
chart ?
Correct angular relationships
27
24
At what angle will two LOP produces the greatest
accuracy for a Fix ?
90 Degrees Apart
28
25
What rule is used to solve time speed and
distance calculations ?
Nautical slide rule
29
26
How is the depth of water calculated form the
chart reading ?
Add the tide height to the chart reading
30
27
The spherical surface of the earth, projected on
a cylinder provide the basis for what type of
projection ?
Mercator
31
28
Radio bearing are usually what type of bearing ?
Relative Bearing
32
29
What type of binocular are the best for the
marine environment ?
7 X 50
33
30
What factors are not used when doing Dead
Reckoning ?
Tide, Current, and Wind
34
31
A LOP is labeled with time where on the line and
bearing where on the line ?
Above, and Below
35
32
Dear Reckoning position is labeled how ?
A dot with semicircle, and time at 45 degrees
36
33
What is a Reference Station ?
The station what original current and tides are
measured
37
34
A known position in dead reckoning is called ?
A FIX
38
35
A fix determined by means of LOPs taken at
different time and adjusted to a common time
is a practice which involves advancing LOPs is
called ?
Running Fix
39
36
Sounder depth finder using flashing light show a
hard bottom as what and soft bottom as what ?
Narrow line and Fuzzy line
40
37
60 nautical mile on the chart would be
measured as what latitude on the chart ?
One Degree
41
38
Why are LOP drawn from Buoys are not safe ?
Buoys can move
42
39
Where are polyconic charts used ?
In higher latitudes like the Great Lakes
43
40
What is a polyconic chart ?
Chart made using tangent cones
44
41
What is the purpose of a compass rose ?
Used to get heading on Marine Charts
45
42
Objects on the chart are plotted and listed
relative to what heading ?
True North
46
43
A Chart with a scale of 1/600,000 would be
called ?
A small scale chart
47
44
What is a good measuring tool for direction
which does not need deviation adjustments ?
Hand held bearing compass
48
45
The direction the bow is point at any time is
called ?
The boat heading
49
46
The desired direction of travel with respect to
the earth is called what ?
Intended track
50
47
Using charted objects distinguishes plotting from
other types or branches of ?
Navigation
51
48
The different in minutes between 905 am and
132 pm is ?
175 92 267
52
49
Using local knowledge, skill and judgement in
navigation technique obtained through
experience is called ?
Seamans Eye
53
50
A line of position established by the alignment
of charted objects is called ?
A range
54
51
A lighted buoy marked CP would be a mid
channel buoy. The light would be what color. The
buoy would be painted what color and it means ?
White Light , Painted Red and White Means safe
water
55
52
A Quick flashing lights denote, what in the
Uniform State Waterway marking system ?
Imedicated Action is needed
56
53
In the Uniform State Waterway marking system a
regulatory marker in the form of a diamond with a
cross within it indicate what ?
Boats are excluded from the area
57
54
In the lateral system of buoyage, Red would be
the color marking right side of the channel for
which direction?
Inbound or upstream Red, Right, Return
58
55
A green diamond with reflective edges on the
right bank is used to marker deep water for what
process ?
River Corssing
59
56
What is the formula for calculating the distance
using the height of a object as the reference ?
distance height / 6076 x Tan o
60
57
An Estimated Position can be determine by the
intersection of what two processes ?
A Range and the Course Line
61
58
A straight line connecting the master and
secondary Loran-C station is called?
The Base Line
62
59
Components of current have defining factors ?
Magnitude-- Speed Course-------Direction
63
60
Leeway is directly caused by what ?
The wind
64
61
Problems with the Loran-C are shown by ?
Blinking display
65
62
The range of tide is the difference between
consecutive high and Low tides ?
True
66
63
What is the Most Probable Position ?
When information have errors and the best quess
is used to estimate position
67
64
What is the cause in inaccuracies in tide height
The Wind
68
65
The direction a boat is moving caused by the
water is called ?
The Set
69
66
During TWILIGHT, night effect is most apt
to cause error in what bearings
RDF bearing
70
67
When are Light list published ?
Annually
71
68
What is the time peroid of the dirurnal Tides and
the time peroid for semidirurnal Tides ?
Dirurnal ------- 24.8 Hours Semidirurnal---12.4
Hours
72
69
The peroid between end of flood tide and the
start of ebb tide is called
Slack Tide
73
70
What are Local Mean Time indicate in tide tables
?
Sunrise or Sunset
74
71
What is the average height of the surface of a
tidal river at any point for all stages of the
tide called ?
Mean River Level
75
72
Each Loran-C chain consist of 3 or 4
secondary station are designated by what letter ?
W, X, Y, and Z
76
73
All Loran-C stations broadcast on what frequency ?
100 KHZ
77
74
The best angle for intersection of the TDs for
Loran-C measurement should be what ?
Greater than 30 degrees and less than 90 degrees
78
75
What is the minimum angle a boat should turn to
be seen by Radar ?
60 degrees
79
76
Occulting is a flashing light which on longer
than off or off longer than on
On longer than Off
80
77
A quick flashing light flashs how many times a
minute ?
50 to 80 times a minute
81
78
A green diamond with green reflective corners is
used on the RIGHT BANK of
Western Rivers
82
79
Green markers and Buoys are number with
what numbers, and Red markers and Buoys are
number with whatnumbers
Green are odd, Red are even
83
90
Fairways and Mid channel are marked by
Octagonal Daymarkers with what colors and design ?
Red and White vertical stripes
84
91
A buoy using a light that emits a short flash
followed by a long flash (MOA) is painted what
colors ?
Red and White vertical stripes
85
92
Perpare a navigation plotting, requires correct
use of quality ______ and good _________?
Tools , Techniques
86
93
In simple terms, navigation is _____ .
Getting from where you are to where you wish to
go -- safely and efficiently
87
94
There are several types of navigation names three
of them?
a. terrestrial or land navigation involved with
navigation on land surfaces. b. air navigation
-- navigation of various craft through the
atmosphere (air) of our planet. c. marine
navigation -- dealing with the navigation of
craft on on the surface and under the surface of
the water.
88
95
That form of navigation involving frequent or
continuous reference to landmarks, aids to
navigation, and depthsoundings is termed _____ .
Piloting
89
96
Determining a position (location) by advancing a
previous position using only courses steered and
distances travelled is termed _____ .
Dead Reckoning
90
97
Positions are determined using radio waves of
known characteristics emitted from known
locations in _____ .
Radio Navigation
91
98
In small craft navigation, this course will be
dealing withpiloting, including the use of _____
and _____ , dead reckoningand radio navigation
using _____ and the _____ system.
Radio direction finders RADAR Radio beacons
LORAN-C
92
99
For our purposes, the earth is a _____ with a
mean (average)diameter of _____ nautical miles
and a circumference of _____
Sphere.6,880 Nautical miles 21,614 Nautical miles
93
100
At the end of the earth's axis is a pole , the
NORTH _____ POLE, or _____ NORTH POLE, and the
SOUTH _____ POLE, or _____ SOUTH POLE.
GEOGRAPHIC TRUE GEOGRAPHIC TRUE.
94
101
A plane which passes through the center of the
earth forms a _____at its intersection with the
surface of the earth.
GREAT CIRCLE
95
102
On the surface of the earth, the shortest
distance between any two points lies on a _____ .
GREAT CIRCLE
96
103
The great circle passing through both poles and a
specific point in Greenwich, England, is called
the _____ .
PRIME MERIDIAN
97
104
A circle contains _____ degrees of arc measure.
Each degree is divided into _____ minutes of arc
measure. Each minute can bedivided into _____
seconds or in tenths of minutes.
360 Sixty Sixty
98
105
The first coordinate in the system is called
_____ , which is abbreviated _____ (or, sometimes
by the Greek letter, Lambda), and is specified by
identifying its angular distance, in
degrees, minutes, and tenths of minutes (or in
seconds, rather than tenths of minutes) _____ or
_____ from the prime meridian through 180
LONGITUDE Lo east (E) west (W)
99
106
Any plane passing through the earth, but not
passing through its center, produces a _____ at
its intersection with the earth.
SMALL CIRCLE
100
107
Using the equator as a reference point (zero),
any parallel can be identified by its angular
distance_____ or _____ of the equator, in
degrees, minutes and seconds, or tenths of
minutes. This coordinate is termed _____ ,
abbreviated _____ or simply _____
North (N) South (S) LATITUDE L LAT.
101
108
Any position on the earth can be specified
uniquely by specifying its _____ and its _____ .
LATITUDE LONGITUDE
102
109
_____ is measured along a parallel, in degrees,
minutes, and tenths of minutes (or seconds), from
the from the Prime Meridian east or west, to the
180 00.0 meridian
LONGITUDE
103
110
One degree of _____ equals, for all practical
purposes, 60 nautical miles in surface length.
LATITUDE
104
111
On the earth's surface, direction, in angular
measure, is expressed relative to the _____
passing through the observer's location on the
earth. This direction is also relative to the
pole, or to _____
local meridian TRUE NORTH
105
112
Direction is specified in angular measure
(degrees) in a _____manner, using _____ digits,
from zero degrees _____ due north,to _____ , due
east, to _____ due south, to _____ due
west,and back to due north, _____ .
clockwise three 000090180 270 360
106
113
When the complete 360 directional system is
developed as a circle with each degree graduated
upon it, and with the 000 indicated as true
north, the resulting figure is called a _____ or
_____ .
TRUE ROSE COMPASS ROSE
107
114
When a direction (other than due east or west) is
specified on the surface of the earth, and
followed for any distance, so that each
subsequent meridian is crossed at the same
angle relative to the direction of the pole, a
line is formed that spirals around the globe.
This spiral is called a _____ or _____ .
LOXODROME RHUMB LINE
108
115
In theory the earth's _____ is generated by the
turbulent flow of the liquid iron alloy core of
the planet.
Magnetic Field
109
116
The angle between the magnetic and the true
meridians, varies with location on the earth's
surface, and is termed _____
VARIATION
110
117
Lines connecting points of equal variation are
termed _____ . line connecting points of zero
variation is termed the _____ .
ISOGONIC LINES AGONIC LINE
111
118
The well designed and constructed magnetic
compass is a sensitive instrument. Its card with
magnets and bearing are sufficient to allow it
easily align with a _____.
Weak magnetic field
112
119
The principle of the magnetic compass is the
magnets will align with a _____ and thus,
indicate direction relative to _____ .
magnetic field that magnetic field
113
120
The magnetic compass will align with the _____
magnetic field it senses, regardless of the
source.
resultant (combination of)
114
121
Unfortunately, with the earth's _____ magnetic
field, there are many other sources of _____
magnetic in today's modern world.
relatively weak stronger
115
122
The effect of the various magnetic fields depends
upon their _____ , in the region of the compass.
relative strength
116
122
Converting a magnetic direction to its equivalent
true direction is termed _____ the direction.
CORRECTING
117
123
Relative Bearings are bearings relative to the
instant direction the_____ , and are indicated
in degrees of angular measure clockwise.
Bow of the boat
118
124
Three direction systems were discussed in this
chapter _____ ,_____ , and _____ .
true directions magnetic directions relative
directions
119
125
In today's modern compass a _____ or an array of
_____ , is supported horizontally on a card free
to rotate on some low friction bearing so that
the _____ may align with a magnetic field
Needle magnet Needle magnets These magnets
120
126
Most compasses also show the _____ (N, E, S and
W) points and _____ (NE, SE, SW, and NW) points.
Cardinal Intercardinal
121
127
To _____ ADD EAST variation and subtract WEST
variation. To _____ SUBTRACT EAST variation and
add WEST variation.
CORRECT UNCORRECT
122
129
The difference in alignment of the compass card
with the resultant local field and the magnetic
meridian is termed.
DEVIATION
123
130
In other terms, _____ is the difference between
the direction that a compass actually points and
the direction that it would point if there were
_____ aboard the vessel.
DEVIATION no local fields
124
131
When measured by compass, the vessel's
fore-and-aft direction is called the vessel's
_____ .
COMPASS HEADING (COMPASS HDG)
125
132
The vessel's heading relative to the magnetic
meridian is termed its _____ , and relative to
the true meridian, its _____ .
MAGNETIC HEADING TRUE HEADING
126
133
If there were no _____ , the magnetic compass
would align with the magnetic meridian, and the
compass could be used _____ for navigation
deviation directly
127
134
Deviation depends on the vessel's _____.
Heading
128
135
When correcting, _____ deviation is added to the
compass heading to obtain the magnetic heading,
and _____ deviation is subtracted.
east west
129
136
To correct from magnetic to a compass heading
_____ deviation is added and _____ deviation is
subtracted from the magnetic heading to obtain
the corresponding compass heading.
west east
130
137
Magnetic directions are considered more _____
than compass directions since compass directions
contain both errors, _____ and _____.
correct variation deviation
131
138
The value for deviation is usually obtained from
a _____, a tabulation of deviations by _____
heading and by _____ heading.
deviation table compass magnetic
132
139
The compass should be mounted so that the
helmsman has an _____ of the card and lubber's
line under all conditions expected while _____ .
unrestricted view underway
133
140
Most important, when mounting the compass, the
lubber's line must line up with a _____ line
_____ to the keel to make sure the vessel's
heading and the compass heading are one and the
same.
fore-and-aft parallel
134
141
Modern magnetic compasses often come with
internal _____ magnets.
adjusting
135
142
It is easier to use the magnetic compass if the
_____ are small or are essentially eliminated.
deviations
136
143
Large deviations may cause the compass response
to be _____ and _____ affect its _____ .
sluggish unsteady operation
137
144
Although the internal adjusting magnets are
small, their _____ to the compass card makes
them effective in _____ stray magnetic fields.
close proximity counteracting
138
145
When the magnets connected to the screw labeled
N-S are adjusted they _____ affect the E-W
headings.
do not
139
146
Zeroing-in the internal adjusting magnets is done
_____ , before the compass is ever brought _____.
ashore aboard
140
147
When the compass is zeroed-in, it is ready to be
taken _____ and _____ to _____ deviation.
aboard adjusted minimize
141
148
Deviation is determined by _____ compass headings
with magnetic headings.
comparing
142
149
The _____ in compass vs. magnetic headings, east
or west, are tabulated by compass heading and by
magnetic heading to develop a _____ table.
differences deviation
143
150
Some navigators find a _____ of deviations
constructed on the _____ more convenient than a
deviation table, especially if they wish to
detect _____ in the compass deviation.
curve Napier Diagram fine structure
144
151
On the Napier Diagram, the _____ line is used to
represent the deviation observed for a magnetic
heading, and the _____ line for the deviation
observed for a compass heading.
solid dotted
145
152
The marine chart is a source of vital
information. List ten of the more important
types of data presented on the chart.
shore line, water depth, buoy locations,
lighthouses direction, distance, latitude,
longitude, landmarks hazards to navigation,
restricted areas and many others
146
153
What goals do all types of chart projections have
in common?
preserve direction, shape, area and angular
relationships.
147
154
The term CONFORMAL as it applies to navigational
charts, is used to describe which properties of a
projection?
preserves correct angular relationship
148
155
The spherical surface of the earth projected on a
cylinder provides the basis for the _____
projection.
Mercator
149
156
The spherical surface of the earth projected on a
series of coaxial, tangent cones provides the
basis for the _____ projection
polyconic
150
157
Which projection preserves shape, direction, and
angular relationships as well as showing a rhumb
line as a straight line?
Mercator
151
158
You wish to plot the shortest line between two
points about 600 M apart over open water. You
have two charts that cover this same area, a
Mercator projection and a Polyconic projection.
How will the line appear on the Mercator chart?
How will it appear on the Polyconic chart?
curved line straight line
152
159
How is distance measured on a small scale
Mercator chart.
The scale at the mid latitude of the course line
is used.
153
162
Take a best you need a rest
YES
154
162
What is the importance of the edition and
revision dates on the marine chart, and where is
this information found?
This information indicates how current the chart
is. It can be found on the lower, left hand
corner, bottom margin.
155
160
The soundings found on nautical charts for the
Gulf coast of the United States are based upon
what tidal reference?
Datum is mean lower,low water.
156
160
How is direction determined on a coastal chart?
.
The compass rose indicates the true and magnetic
directions. Also the meridians indicate true
north and south direction, and the parallels
indicate true east and west direction
157
161
How is direction determined (measured) and
specified (coordinates on a coastal chart?
Measured Use dividers to nearest meridian and
parallel to determine Specification latitude
and longitude
158
162
The polyconic projection used for marine
navigation on _____ (is, or is not) _____
conformal and a great circle is shown as a _____
line.
the Great Lakes is not straight
159
163
How is distance measured on a polyconic chart
(Great Lakes) and what units are used?
The bar scales are used, and the units are
statute miles and tenths of statute miles.
160
164
How is the course rhumb-line of a long E-W
leg measured on a small-scale polyconic chart? .
Measure the angle at charted meridian mid-way
along the course line
161
165
What range of scales are used on coastal charts?
150,000 to 1150,000
162
166
What kind of chart has a larger scale than the
coastal chart?
harbor chart
163
167
The soundings found on nautical charts for the
East coast of the United States are based on what
tidal reference? .
Datum is Mean Low Water
164
168
What tidal reference is used when clearance under
bridges and heights of landmarks are stated on
nautical charts?
Mean high water
165
169
Where on the chart will information on the units
of water depth be found?
General Information Block
166
170
In what publication are the chart symbols,
abbreviations and meanings indicated?
Chart No. 1
167
170
A chart with a scale of 110,000 would be
considered a _____ chart.
harbor
168
171
The _____ is an excellent, easy to construct,
substitute for the printed Mercator chart when
the printed chart is too small in scale, when it
isn't desirable to place additional markings
on the chart, or when land, visual aids to
navigation and depth of are unimportant (such as
plotting distant radio bearings)position.
PLOTTING SHEET
169
172
Charted depth of water may be in (units) _____ ,
_____ , or _____ .
feet fathoms meters
170
173
Contour lines connect points of _____ and profile
the bottom shape.
equal depth
171
174
Most of the tools used by the Navigator of small
craft are relatively inexpensive for the aid
obtained by their use. Accuracy depends on _____
and _____ in use.
Good quality Technique
172
175
What is the function of a gliding-type plotter
and how is it used?
Measure direction. Align and roll from course
line to the parallel, meridian or compass rose
and read direction or align with parallel,
meridian or compass rose and roll to course.
173
176
What calculations are the nautical slide rule
designed for?
Speed, time, and distance
174
177
The _____ is an instrument similar to the
dividers, but one leg has a pencil lead attached.
This tool is used for _____ and _____ .
drafting compass swinging arcs drawing circles
175
178
_____ is one of the basic dimensions of piloting.
A reliable_____ piece is essential. Without a
means of telling _____ , dead reckoning
navigation, running a search pattern, or
identifying the proper characteristics of an aid
tonavigation are all impossible.
time time time
176
179
The _____ is a special _____ for shooting visual
bearings to Aids to Navigation, charted
landmarks and other vessels.
Hand Bearing Compass compass
177
180
Care should be exercised to make sure that the
_____ is not influenced by nearby magnetic
fields set up by masses of_____ (iron, steel)
metals, such as _____ , _____ , _____ ,
hand bearing compass ferromagnetic standing
rigging rails anchors electrical equipment
178
181
A good _____ mm Binocular is useful in locating
and identifying Aids to navigation. Avoid _____
powers such binoculars are difficult to hold
steady.
7 x 50 higher
179
182
Although maligned by some, a _____ may be used to
ascertain shallow depths of the water, when the
depth sounder is not available for use.
hand held lead line
180
183
What is meant by the term and why is it done?
Using wax, grease, tallow, etc., in the bottom
of the lead in the
lead line to hold a sample of the bottom.
181
184
The _____ is one of the key factors which a
navigator must consider in the safety of
navigation.
depth of the water
182
185
_____ is indicated on a screen, by a flashing
light, or on a recorder by a trace or, with
modern, digital devices, directly as numbers on
an electronic (LED or LCD) indicator.
Water depth
183
186
The transducer location in the boat is important
when using a _____ .
depth sounder
184
187
What advantage does the flashing light
displaying-type depth sounder have over the
digital device display. Multiple echoes and
their characteristics providemore information,
such as type of bottom
185
188
A narrow, bright return on the flashing
light-type display depth sounder would indicate
what type of bottom?
hard bottom
186
189
A broad, fuzzy return on the flashing light-type
display depth sounder would indicate what type
of bottom?
soft, silty, or muddy bottom
187
190
Multiple, broad flash returns on the flashing
light-type display depth sounder would indicate
what type of bottom?
fish, or other objects not on the bottom
188
191
Multiple, sharp flash returns on the flashing
light-type display depth sounder would indicate
what type of bottom?
rocky bottom
189
192
What conditions adversely affect the accuracy of
the radio direction finder?
refraction static
190
193
What correction is required for signals received
by an RDF from a very distant station when the
LOP is plotted on a Mercator chart?
great circle correction
191
194
What three directions does the VHF-FM Homer
indicate from a signal source?
to port to starboard dead ahead
192
195
The practice of estimating position by advancing
a known position for courses and distances run is
called _____ .
Dead Reckoning (DR)
193
196
In the process of dead reckoning, courses are
laid down on the chart from a known starting
position called a _____ or _____ .
FIX Departure point
194
197
All directions plotted on the chart will be _____
.
True
195
198
The effects of _____ and _____ are not considered
in determining a position by dead reckoning.
current wind drift
196
199
The DR position is labeled by a _____ on the
track line and the time, using the 24 hour
military system, is written on the chart at an
_____ to the horizontal.
dot surrounded by a semicircle angle
197
200
Depending on indicated precision the vessel's
_____ is written in nautical miles per hour,
knots (kn), using an followed by one, two, or
three _____ .
speed digits
198
201
Course is the average _____ and the horizontal
_____ in which a vessel is intended to be
steered, expressed in angular distance relative
to north, from the point of departure to the
point of arrival ?
heading direction
199
202
An improved position determined through dead
reckoning which may include, among other things,
factoring in the effects of wind and current, or
a single line of position, or both is termed
_____ .
Estimated position
200
203
The charted movement of a vessel as determined by
dead reckoning is termed _____ .
Dead Reckoning Plot
201
204
A known position is termed a _____ .
Fix
202
205
The speed in knots at which the current is moving
is termed _____
Drift
203
206
The instant direction of a vessel's bow is termed
its _____ .
Heading
204
207
The speed intended to be made along the track
line is termed the _____ .
Speed of Advance
205
208
A fix obtained by means of LOPs taken at
different times and adjusted to a common time,
is a practice which involves advancing or
retiring LOPs and is termed a _____ .
Running Fix
206
209
Dead reckoning is accomplished by calculating
_____ run, or to be run, _____ of the vessel, and
_____ of the run.
distance (D) speed (S) time (T)
207
210
A graphic plot of observed speed vs. RPM or log
reading is termed a _____ .
speed curve
208
211
If the hull efficiency is degraded by marine
encrustations, the _____ applying to the clean
hull is _____ .
speed curve invalid
209
213
If the _____ is developed for a relatively small
boat with only one or two persons on board, it
will be _____ if there are more people on board
during the calibration run.
speed curve invalid
210
214
The intended or desired horizontal direction of
travel with respect to the earth is termed _____
.
the track
211
215
The rate at which a vessel advances over a
horizontal distance is termed _____ and is
expressed in terms of _____ .
speed nautical miles per hour
212
216
The effect of the horizontal velocity of water
over ground is termed _____ .
current
213
217
Complete the following forms of the Speed, Time,
Distance formula a. 60D S x ___ b. S 60D
___ c. D S x T ___
a. 60D S x T b. S (60D) / T c. D
(S x T) / 60
214
218
The overall speed actually accomplished along the
course line is termed the _____ .
Speed Made Good
215
219
A line of bearing to a known origin or reference,
upon which a vessel is assumed to be located is
termed _____ .
a Line of Position
216
220
What distinguishes PILOTING from other branches
of navigation?
the use of ATONs and charted landmarks
217
221
Why are LOPs not drawn on buoys?
Buoys may be off station. LOPs should not be
taken off any floating ATON.
218
222
What is the proper way to label an LOP?
time above, direction below
219
223
How can a relative bearing be used to plot a LOP?
Add the relative bearing to the true heading to
obtain LOP.
220
224
How can a range be used to obtain a LOP if no
bearing was obtained for the range?
Extend the range until it crosses the course
line, then record the time the alignment occurred
on top of the LOP.
221
225
A circle of position is based on a measurement of
distance to the charted object. What methods of
measuring distance are generally available to the
navigator?
RADAR Range Finder Angle Measurement
222
226
When using the height of an object printed on the
chart, what is the reference (datum) for the
measurement?
Mean High Water
223
227
List six types of FIXES discussed in the text.
Cross bearings, Range and a Bearing, Two
Ranges, Two Distances, Distance and a Bearing,
Close Aboard Charted Aid
224
228
What factors can affect the accuracy of a FIX?
Bearing on an Off-Station Buoy (Bad Practice),
Inaccurate Compass, Reading, Inaccurate
Plotting, Advancing a LOP more than thirty
minutes
225
229
How are visual FIXES labeled?
A point with a full circle around it and the
time parallel to the horizontal margin of the
chart.
226
230
The broad definition of current used in current
sailing allows the navigator to deal with the
three component parts of the current, any or all
of which may be unknown. What are the three
component parts of movement of water ?
over the ground, leeway, errors in determining
speed and course through water.
227
231
Since current is not used in preparing a DR plot,
what is the position called that includes the
estimated current in its development?
DR Position, Corrected for Current
228
232
What is the difference between the DR position
and the FIX for the same point in time termed?
Current Vector
229
233
How is the current triangle used to find the set
and drift?
The current triangle is a graphic solution to the
vector sum. The vector connecting DR position
and FIX, divided by the time in hours, gives the
drift and set.
230
234
The term Drift, is the direction _____ which a
current flows, or the _____ toward which the
vessel has been moved as a result of the
current.
toward direction
231
235
The term "DRIFT" is the _____ or _____of the
current, expressed in units of Knots or _____ ,
depending on the units used in the area.
magnitude speed MPH
232
236
The components of the current triangle have _____
and _____ .
magnitude direction
233
237
In the determination of Set and Drift, the three
sides of the current triangle are
Set and Drift or Current Vector COG and SOG
Intended Course and Speed
234
238
In the determination of Course to Steer and Speed
to Run the three sides of the current triangle
are
Set and Drift or Current Vector Intended Track
and SOA Actual Course and Fixed Speed
235
239
What are the components of the current triangle
used in the determination of the Course to Steer
at Fixed Speed?
Set and Drift or Current Vector Intended Track
and SOA Actual Course and Fixed Speed
236
240
The Tide Table for the East Coast of North and
South America gives Data for over 2000 locations
but each reference port requires four pages of
data for the year. How is NOAA able to print all
of the data for 2000 locations ina volume of
less than 300 pages?
In a given area, the form of the tide is the
same, and only the time and height of the tide
differs. So, for all subordinate stations a
single line of data will suffice.
237
241
What is the most likely cause of inaccuracies in
the predicted tides?
Wind
238
242
Sometimes the predicted tides are larger, and
sometimes smaller than average. What causes
these variations, and what are these tides
called?
The alignment of the sun and moon Neap Tides
Low Tides Spring Tides High Tides
239
243
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted depth soundings on
charts of the East Coast of the United States?
Mean Low Water
240
244
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted depth soundings on
charts of the West Coast of the United States?
Mean Lower Low Water
241
245
What is the period for a DIURNAL tidal cycle?
24.8 hours
242
246
What is the period for a SEMIDIURNAL tidal cycle?
12.4 hours
243
247
In most locations the duration of rise and fall
of the tide is about equal. Under what
conditions can the period of ebbing become much
longer than flooding?
In a river where its current adds.
244
248
What is the name of the period between the end of
flood and the beginning of ebb?
Slack Water
245
249
What tidal cycle occurs on the Gulf Coast of the
United States?
Diurnal and Mixed
246
250
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted depth soundings on
charts of the Gulf Coast of the United States?
Mean Lower Low Water
247
252
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted heights of objects on
charts of the East Coast of the United States?
Mean High Water
248
253
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted heights of objects on
charts of the West Coast of the United States?
Mean High Water
249
254
What tidal level (chart datum) is used as a
reference for the charted heights of objects on
charts of the Gulf Coast of the United States?
Mean High Water
250
255
What is wrong with the statement A jump in the
tide data occurs when the clocks are changed to
daylight savings time?
Daylight Savings Time is NOT used in the Tide
Tables
251
256
What must be added to the charted depth to obtain
the predicted depth of water?
Height of Tide
252
257
It is important to notice that the predicted
slacks and strengths given in the Current Tables
refer to the _____ motion of the ware and NOT to
the _____ rise and fall of the tide.
horizontal vertical
253
258
The relation of current to tide (is/is not)
constant, but varies from place to place, and the
time of slack water (does/does not) generally
coincide with the time of high or low water,
_____ does the the time of maximum velocity of
the current usually coincide with the time of
most rapid change in the vertical height of the
tide.
is NOT DOES NOT nor
254
259
In using the Current Tables it should be borne in
mind that actual times of slack or maximum
occasionally differ from the predicted times by
as much as _____ and in rare instances the
difference may be as much as an _____ .
half an hour hour
255
260
In area where diurnal tides predominate, there
are usually _____ slacks and _____ maximums each
day.
two one
256
261
A vessel navigating by LORAN-C uses a pair of
radio transmitters of a LORAN-C chain and a
special receiver to establish a _____ .
LOP
257
262
A straight line connecting the Master and
Secondary LORAN-C stations is called the _____ .
base line
258
263
The operating range of LORAN-C based on ground
wave operation is _____ miles.
800 to 1200
259
264
Each LORAN-C chain consists of 3 or 4 Secondary
stations whichare designated by the letters
_____ .
W, X, Y, and/or Z
260
265
What typical position accuracy can be expected
using LORAN-C, ground wave only, at close range
and at long range?
or - 75 to or - 3300 feet
261
266
How is a LOP established using LORAN-C?
Time Differences are measured using the LORAN-C
receiver and plotted on the chart using the
LORAN-C Lattice lines and interpolation
262
267
How are LORAN-C Secondary Stations synchronized
with the Master Station?
Atomic Clocks.
263
268
All LORAN-C stations broadcast on the same
frequency of _____ .
100 kHz
264
269
Even though all LORAN-C stations broadcast on the
same frequency throughout the world that are
easily differentiated by their _____ .
Group Repetition Interval (GRI)
265
270
What is meaning of a blinking display or alarm
light on a LORAN-C receiver?
Something is wrong with the set or the LORAN-C
chain.
266
271
What is the expected REPEATABLE ACCURACY of
a LORAN-C FIX determination using TDs?
50 - 300 feet
267
272
One way to be seen in reduced visibility by
vessels that have radar sets is to hoist a _____
.
Radar reflector
268
273
How long may a LORAN-C receiver take to lock on
to a signal?
several minutes, up to five or more
269
273
Why should the LORAN-C be left on while underway,
rather than just turned on when a position needs
to be determined?
Because the receiver takes a few minutes to
acquire a signal, and works best when allowed to
track TDs continuously
270
274
Where are the LORAN-C Tables most useful?
on the open sea or in areas where no charts with
LORAN-C overprints exist
271
275
How is a LORAN-C FIX determined on a chart with a
LORAN-C OVERPRINT?
Intersecting LOPs are developed from TD
measurements. The FIX is at the intersection of
the LOPs
272
276
What is the effect of taking LORAN-C TD
measurements on or near the baseline extension?
poor signal to noise ratio and bad line spacing
273
277
How is the radio LOP determined using an RDF
equipped with a null meter?
After a suitable station is selected, the
receiver's antenna is rotated until the null
meter reads null (zero). This relative bearing
is transformed into the true bearing of the
transmitted station and plotted on the chart.
274
278
When is "night effect most apt to cause error in
RDF bearings?
during twilight
275
279
What kind of correction is required when plotting
an RDF bearing on a station 200 miles east of
your position?
Since the radio waves propagate along a great
circle path, the angle will have to be corrected
if plotted on a Mercator chart.
276
280
In plotting a vessel's probable position on three
RDF bearings with a presumed accuracy of /- 2 ,
how is the area of most probable position
defined?
The LOPs for each bearing should be plotted.
Then, the error angles should be plotted on each
side of each LOP. The MPP will be within the
area of uncertainty defined by the triangle
formed by the outsideof the error angles.
277
281
What types of targets reflect RADAR energy very
well?
Electrical conductors, metal objects
278
282
What type of targets can marine RADAR systems in
the 3 - 10 GHz frequency range detect?
Direction and distance (range) to target, and
some features of the target, such as size and
crude shape
279
283
What type of visual display is used on marine
RADAR equipment?
Plan Position Indicator (PPI)
280
284
How does the pulse repetition rate (PPR) limit
the maximum rate of the RADAR system?
The pulse must travel to the target and return
before the next pulse can be transmitted. Since
the pulse speed (light) is constant, the range is
dependent on the time to and from the target.
This time is determined by the PPR
281
285
The distance (d) to the RADAR horizon is
dependent on the height (ha) of the antenna
above the surface, and follows the relation
d1.22.What is the effect of a target height of
(ht) on the distance that the target can be
detected?
The target's height also establishes a radar
horizon, which follows the same relationship.
The detection range would be the sum of the two
horizons, or Range 1.22ha 1.22ht
282
286
What is SEA CLUTTER and how may it adversely
affect weak targets at close range?
SEA CLUTTER is echoes from the waves. It can be
indistinguishable from the weaker echoes of poor
targets in the same area.
283
287
What two controls can the RADAR operator
adjust to optimize range resolution and accuracy?
GAIN and RANGE
284
288
What are the RADAR characteristics of a vessel
that is important to its detection and
identification as a vessel?
navigational position, movement, and variation
in echo intensity
285
289
How will radar aids to navigation appear on the
RADAR PPI?
Corner reflectors give a strong sharp pip which
the gain is reduced persists when.
286
290
How will a moving vessel appear over a period of
time observed on the RADAR PPI?
The track of the moving vessel will appear as a
sequence of pips describing its course.
287
291
How much course change must be made in order for
this alteration to be noticed on a RADAR PPI?
Experience has shown that it takes a MINIMUM of
60 of course change to be readily observed on the
RADAR PPI
288
292
How will a buoy or fixed aid to navigation appear
on the RADAR PPI of a moving vessel, as observed
over a period of time?
The buoy or aid to navigation will appear as a
series of pips moving on a reciprocal course from
that of the vessel.
289
293
What condition exists if a RADAR PIP maintains a
constant bearing on the PPI and the range is
decreasing?
You both are on a collision course!
290
294
While the PPI does provide a chartlike
representation when a landmass is being scanned,
why isn't the image painted by the sweep
necessarily a true representation of the
shoreline?
Echoes appear differently from different
surfaces dunes and/or cliffs, green vegetation,
and structures provide stronger returns than low,
sandy beaches and shorelines.
291
295
Who is the publisher of the COAST PILOT and how
many volumes are in the series?
National Ocean Service, 9 volumes
292
296
Where would you expect to find sailing directions
between ports including courses, distances,
channels, harbors,anchorages, facilities, and
local regulations?
COAST PILOT
293
297
How frequently are LIGHT LISTS printed?
Annually
294
298
What kind of information is contained in the
NOTICE TO MARINERS how often are they
published and who is the publisher?
Buoy changes, channels, chart update , COAST
PILOT changes and rule changes published
weekly by the DMA
295
299
Is the LOCAL NOTICE TO MARINERS the same as the
NOTICE TO MARINERS and if not how does it
differ?
No LOCAL NOTICE TO MARINERS relates to one
Coast Guard District and contains local
information which would not be published in the
NOTICE TO MARINERS which overs all waters of the
United States.
296
300
What is Seaman's Eye?
The term Seaman's Eye includes knowledge of the
area being navigated, navigated, skill, and
judgment in navigational techniques obtained
through experience.
297
301
What is the meaning of the term Proceeding from
Seaward as it applies to the Intracoastal
waterway?
The convention is following the Atlantic Coast
south to Florida, Westerly along the Gulf
North in the Western Rivers West in the Great
Lakes North on the West Coast.
298
302
What are Navigable Waters and where are they
found ?
Coastal Waters, and connecting water that can be
navigated by sea-going ships, i.e., rivers and
bays. Navigable waters are marked by a buoyage
system.
299
303
What colors are the buoys of the Lateral System ?
RED GREEN (BLACK-old) WHITE (BLACK-old)
YELLOW After 1989 black as a characteristic
color is deleted
300
304
What type of buoy is painted with black and white
vertical stripes, and what are the new (IALA)
colors for this buoy?
Fairway or Mid-channel Buoy, new IALA shape and
color, spherical, red and white vertical stripes
301
305
What is the significance of a buoy having red and
green horizontal stripes with the top stripe red
?
Junction buoy which can be passed on either side,
but keeping the buoy on the starboard side is
preferred the red top indicates it should be
treated as a red nun buoy when being passed.
302
306
What kind of lighted buoy is marked ?
Mid-channel Buoy (Because it is BW buoy)
303
307
A quick flashing green light is used on what kind
of buoy?
Porthand buoy with a caution note.
304
308
If a nun buoy on an intersecting river is also
serving as a porthand marker on the Intracoastal
Waterway, how will it be marked?
Red with a Yellow Rectangle
305
309
A green diamond with green reflective corners is
used on the right or left bank of Western Rivers,
and why?
Right Bank, Green on starboard when descending
306
309
___
LO
307
309
What two kinds of markers are used in the
Uniform State Waterway Marking System?
Navigational Aids and Regulatory Markers
308
310
What is an occulating light?
The light flashing on longer than off
309
311
What is the difference between a flashing light
and a quick flashing light?
Flashing light flashes fewer than 50 times per
minute, the quick flashing light flashes 50 to 80
times per minute.
310
312
What types of sound producing buoys are used on
the coastal waters?
BELL, GONG, WHISTLE, (or HORN)
311
313
What are daybeacons and daymarks?
a. Daybeacons are unlighted aids that are fixed
in position, not floating like a buoy. b.
Daymarks are the number signs on top of the
daybeacons. They also carry letters
312
314
How are ranges used?
Any two charted objects that can be aligned
establish a LOP
313
315
Are ATON fog signals useful for navigation, and
if so, in what way?
Fog signals are used in distance finding
stations. They also provide a characteristic
sound to identify the ATON.
314
316
How large are Large Navigational Buoys (LNB)?
Diameter of 40 feet
315
317
Green lights are used only on what kinds of buoys
?
Only on green (old black) buoys, or on green (old
black) and red horizontally banded buoys with
green band on top.
316
318
Red lights are used only on what kinds of buoys?
Only on red buoys, and on red and green (old
black) and horizontally banded buoys with red
band on top.
317
319
When the IALA modifications are completed on the
buoyage system in the United States, what buoys
would bear white lights?.
White lights will only be used on safe-water
(mid-channel) and fairway aids to navigation
318
320
The apparent speed indicated by log-type
instruments or determined by use of tachometer
and speed curve or table, as the instant value in
time, along the course line is termed _____ .
Speed through water
319
Do you think you will pass this test ?
YES
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