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Stuart L. Weibel


The Library brand and Web 2.0. Infusing bibliographic ideas ... Are we babes on the. beach? The future of Library catalogs? Evolving towards the network level ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stuart L. Weibel

Making Identifiers Concrete (so library places
and spaces dont have to be)
  • Stuart L. Weibel
  • Senior Research Scientist
  • OCLC Programs and Research
  • Scholar in Residence,
  • University of Washington Libraries and
  • the Information School

VALA 2008-02-07 2008-02-07
  • The Library brand and Web 2.0
  • Infusing bibliographic ideas into the Web (and
    vice versa?)
  • Identities on the Web
  • Gluing the pieces together with Identifiers
  • Design criteria for identifiers
  • WorldCat Identifiers good enough?
  • A Glimir of the future

Where is the Library as a Brand?
  • Perceptions of Libraries and
  • Information Resources
  • A Report to the OCLC Membership
  • 3300 Respondents to questions on
  • Library use
  • Awareness and use of library electronic resources
  • The Internet search engine, the library and the
  • Free vs. for-fee information
  • The "Library" brand

The over-all picture
  • Libraries are trusted sources of information
  • But search engines are trusted about the same
  • People care about the quantity and quality of
    information they find speed is less important
  • They do not view paid information as more
    accurate than free information
  • The overwhelming branding image of libraries is
  • Patrons do not think of the library as an
    important source of electronic information !

Library Brand Equity we need a strong, visible
brand on the Web
Building out the library brand
  • Build on the trust of our patrons
  • Build on our business model Making information
    look free to end-users
  • Build on the scale that libraries represent
  • Presence in every community
  • Global scope and reach
  • Improve awareness of library resources
  • Make libraries a part of the new electronic
    environments that dominate social, educational,
    and work environments

Social Networking Software
  • It isnt new only the technical manifestation is
  • Deliver library services into the emerging social
  • Motivate people to participate
  • Tagging
  • Book Reviews
  • Emergent relationships that are evident from data
    about what people buy and borrow, like and
    dislike (so called business intelligence)
  • Link to the people as well

Social consumer environments
  • Social Networking is not just for games
  • Facebook
  • Myspace
  • Second Life
  • Twitter
  • All are flawed as service delivery models
  • Business models are closed (or obscure) (Closed
  • Features are rudimentary (or overbearing)
  • But they foretell a digital future in both their
    virtues and faults

Libraries must compare favorably with experiences
that our patrons expect
  • Discovery and recommender services
  • Web 2.0 social network capabilities
  • Experiences of comparable commercial service
  • Last-mile delivery capability
  • Bookstore social experiences
  • Coffee-shop salons
  • People to help us navigate complicated knowledge
  • We are offering an experience as well as a service

Can Libraries compete in the social networking
space? Should they?
  • The social software movement is fueled by (dollar
    denominated) entrepreneurial fervor
  • Rate of innovation
  • (and failure) is rapid
  • Distinguish between
  • trends and the trendy
  • Are we babes on the
  • beach?

The future of Library catalogs?
  • Evolving towards the network level
  • Collections linked to people, organizations,
    global locations, concepts, context, metadata,
    and social networking benefits
  • Fit into the workflow and social lives of patrons
  • Help create a scaffolding for past knowledge and
    future productivity

Web or Scaffolding? http//
Web is a wonderful metaphor, but perhaps
something a bit more durable?
  • We want more
  • Coherence and context
  • Durable environments that help us preserve and
    fix resources in the context of culture
  • Librarianship embedded in the emerging
    technologies of a social Web

FRBR Entities Librarianships contribution to a
richer resource model on the Web
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
Work Person Concept
Expression Corporate body Object
Manifestation Event
Item Place
And dont forget Social Bibliography User-Generat
ed Content
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
Work Person Concept
Expression Corporate body Object
Manifestation Event
Item Place
  • Book Reviews
  • Lists
  • Services
  • Commentary
  • Other?

All these entities should be First Class Objects
  • An information entity that has
  • Persistent Identity on the Web
  • Accessible by anyone or any application
  • Stand alone
  • Attribution (authorship)
  • Clear Intellectual property rights
  • Curated (dont leave it lying around untended)
  • Allow the user to enter and traverse the catalog
    from any point

What about the people in social networking?
  • Libraries have large investments in Name
  • How can this be leveraged to support emerging
    identity needs?
  • What is the relation to
  • authentication and
  • authorization?

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WorldCat Identities another piece of the puzzle?
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A complicated puzzle where ya gonna turn?
  • People
  • Information
  • resources
  • Places
  • Terminologies
  • User Generated Content
  • FRBR (explain it to your

Hook everything together with the right sort of
  • A coherent identifier infrastructure is essential
    to establishing a rich and dynamic scaffolding of
    interconnected information resources to support
    users and uses of bibliographic data in a
    climate of changing technology and user
  • Broad dissemination of canonical, globally-scoped
    public identifiers serves the library
    collaborative and is the single most compelling
    means of making library assets persistent and
    visible on the Web

Some Design Parameters for Identifiers in the
Global Library Community
  • Canonical identification
  • Branding
  • Usability
  • Granularity and the FRBR model
  • Persistence
  • Universal accessibility
  • Global scoping
  • Search Engine Optimization

  • Not technological, but rather, a function of the
    commitment of organizations
  • Libraries and other cultural memory organizations
    do this well
  • Harder to do in the digital era, but the
    community is up to the task

Universal access and global scoping
  • Open to all public identifiers in a public Web
  • Should work in Myanmar, Melbourne, and
    Minneapolis alike
  • WorldCat is the first globally-scoped identifier
    architecture for library assets in which the
    global surrogate is mapped to locality
  • But were not quite done

Search Engine Optimization and Canonical
  • Visibility of assets in the global library is
    diluted by the multiplicity of identifiers
  • Many competing identifier schemes
  • Localized versions of identifiers
  • Agreement on a canonical identifier
  • Raises search engine ranking
  • Concentrates aggregation of social content
  • Simplifies supply-chain processing (the
    Amazoogles are interested
  • Supports user needs in answering the question
  • Is Item X the same asrelated to relevant to
    Item Y

Branding is an important component of URIs
(Uniform Resource Identifiers)
  • Every URI is a micro-billboard branding library
    content in a crowded and largely commercial Web
  • Library branding reminds users that libraries are
    in the business of providing sustainable access
    to cultural, educational, scientific, and
    technical information products
  • Citations with persistent identifiers help to
    anchor the content in the collective web-based

Usability of URIs
  • URIs should be designed for people as well as
  • URIs should be speakable
  • URIs should be a short as can be managed
  • URIs should have a predictable pattern that makes
    them hackable and truncatable

Granularity of bibliography on the Web FRBR
  • FRBR is a major contribution to resource
    organization on the Web, but it is a challenge to
    explain it to users

And along comes WorldCat
  • WorldCat Mid 2006
  • WorldCat identifiers approximate, for the first
    time, a globally scoped, persistent public
    identifier for library manifestations
  • Globally unique (the easy part)
  • Freely available to everyone
  • Citable and resolvable, independent of location
    (for WorldCat participants)
  • Linked to descriptive surrogates and to the
    content itself (for WorldCat members)
  • Canonical almost, but not quite

WorldCat IDs a global manifestation identifier?
But, but, but
  • Approximates Close, but not quite
  • How does a WC Identifier fall short?
  • Duplicates
  • mistaken duplicates (even as the poor, always
    with us.)
  • functional duplicates (duplicates we want for one
    reason or another)
  • Citable (Yes)
  • Resolvable to content (Yes, but)
  • Canonical (well, sort of)

  • Errors are costly to find and fix
  • Duplicate detection algorithms
  • What about encouraging the participation of
    librarians or even patrons?
  • Institutional records have been loaded into
    WorldCat useful, but dilutes canonical
    character of WC IDs
  • Non-US records
  • Is the UK or Australian or New Zealand English
    language record somehow less canonical than the
    American English language record?
  • Is the (German/Italian/Japanese) record somehow
    less canonical than the English language record?

GLIMIR Global Library Manifestation Identifier
  • The library community needs a global
    manifestation identifier which is
  • Global in scope
  • Canonical
  • Business neutral
  • Provides the URL Equity necessary to support
    the library brand
  • Fits comfortably within the FRBR model

What About Other Identifier Schemes
  • Can a global community agree and adopt a
    canonical identifier in an already
    identifier-rich marketplace?
  • National Bibliographic Numbers NBNs (largely
  • ISSNs and ISBNs (format-limited, but established
    and valuable)
  • DOIs (purpose-built to support IPR management)
  • Handles (based on a belief in the failure of DNS)
  • Local and regional identifiers

Cautious Exploration
  • OCLC is launching a pilot to identify the
    functional requirements and practicalities for a
    community-based manifestation identifier
  • We have solicited review from a collection of
    technical specialists in several countries and
  • Moving forward will require a careful balance of
    use cases, business issues, and community advice
    as to how we can best meet the community need in
    a neutral manner

What if youre not an OCLC member?
  • Can the global library community coalesce around
    a naming architecture derived from WorldCat
    identifiers, even if they are not WorldCat
  • How will OCLC build and support a naming
    architecture that does not require membership?
  • How will non-OCLC members request a Glimir?
  • How much metadata will be necessary to
    disambiguate near matches? Who will manage it?

In summary
  • Identifiers are key
  • To fulfilling the mission of libraries in a
    digital future
  • To competing on the open Web for recognition of
    our communitys brand equity
  • To integrating our traditional bibliographic
    values with social networking content
  • To providing services and access to the digital
    tribe our future constituency

Many thanks!
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • (yeahFacebook, too)