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Title: Bregman Iterative Algorithms for L1 Minimization with

1
Bregman Iterative Algorithms for L1 Minimization
with Applications to Compressed Sensing
W. Yin, S. O., D. Goldfarb, J. Darbon
Problem
Let
Basis Pursuit (S. Chen, D. Donoho, M.A.
Saunders)
(BP)
m lt n (usually m ltlt n)
2
Basis Pursuit Arises in Compressed Sensing
(Candes, Romberg, Tao, Donoho, Tanner, Tsaig,
Rudelson, Vershynin, Tropp)
Fundamental principle Through optimization, the
sparsity of a signal can be exploited for signal
recovery from incomplete measurements
Let
be highly sparse
i.e.
3
Principle
Encode
by
Then recover
from f by solving basis pursuit
4
Proven Candes, Tao
Recovery is perfect,
whenever k,m,n satisfy
certain conditions
Type of matrices A allowing high compression
rations (m ltlt n) include
1. Random matrices with i.i.d. entries
2. Random ensembles of orthonormal transforms (e.g.
matrices formed from random sets of the rows of
Fourier transforms)

5
Huge number of potential applications of
compressive sensing See e.g. Rich Baraniuks
website
www.dsp.ece.rice.edu/cs/
minimization is widely used for compressive
imaging, MRI
and CT, multisensor networks and distributive
sensing, analog-to-information conversion and
biosensing
(BP) can be transformed into a linear program,
then solved by conventional methods. Not tailored
for A large scale dense Also doesnt use
orthonormality for a Fourier matrix, etc.
6
One might solve the unconstrained problem
(UNC)
Need ? to be small to heavily weight the
fidelity term. Also the solution to (UNC) never
is that of (BP) unless f 0
Here Using Bregman iteration regularization we
solve (BP) by a very small number of solutions to
(UNC) with different values of f.
7
• Method involves only
• Matrix-vector multiplications
• Component-wise shrinkages

Method generalizes to the constrained problem
For other convex J
Can solve this through a finite number of Bregman
iterations of
(again, with a sequence of f values)
8
Also we have a two-line algorithm only involving
matrix-vector multiplication and shrinkage
operators generating uk that converges rapidly
to an approximate solution of (BP) In fact the
numerical evidence is overwhelming that it
converges to a true solution if ? is large
enough. Also Algorithms are robust with respect
to noise, both experimentally and with
theoretical justification.
9
Background
To solve (UNC)
Figueiredo, Nowak and Wright
Kim, Koh, Lustig and Boyd
van den Berg and Friedlander
Shrinkage (soft thresholding) with iteration used
by
Chambolle, DeVore, Lee and Lucier
Figueiredo and Nowak
Daubechies, De Frise and DeMul
Hale, Yin and Zhang
Darbon and Osher
Combettes and Pesquet
10
The shrinkage people developed an algorithm to
solve
for convex differentiable H() and get an
iterative scheme
Since u is component-wise separable, we can solve
by scalar shrinkage. Crucial for the speed!
11
where for y,? ? R, define
i.e., make this a semi-implicit method (in
numerical analysis terms)
Or replace H(u) by first order Taylor expansion
at uk
and force u to be close to uk by the
penalty term
12
and the resulting linearized approach was
solved by a graphnetwork based algorithm, very
fast.
Darbon and Osher Wang, Yin and Zhang.
Also Darbon and Osher did the linearized Bregman
approached described here, but for TV
deconvolution
13
Bregman Iterative Regularization (Bregman 1967)
Introduced by Osher, Burger, Goldfarb, Xu and Yin
in an image processing context.
Extended the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi model
(ROF)
b a noisy measurement of a clean image and ?
is a tuning parameter.
They used the Bregman distance based on
14
Not a distance really
However
for all w on the
line segment connecting u and v.
Instead of solving (ROF) once, our Bregman
iterative regularization procedure solves
(BROF)
for
starting with u0 0, p0 0 (gives (ROF) for u1)
The p is automatically chosen from optimality
15
Difference is in the use of regularization. Bregma
n iterative regularization regularizes by
minimizing the total variation based Bregman
distance from u to the previous uk
Earlier results
1. converges monotonically to zero
2. uk gets closer to the unknown noisy image
in the sense of Bregman distance
diminishes in k at least as long as

Numerically, its a big improvement.
16
For all k (BROF), the iterative procedure, can be
reduced to ROF with the input
This is totally general.
Algorithm Bregman iterative regularization (for
J(u), H(u) convex, H differentiable)
Results The iterative sequence uk solves
(1) Monotonic decrease in H
(2) Convergence to the original in H with exact
data
17
(3) Approach towards the original in D with noisy
data
Let and suppose
represent noisy data, noiseless data, perfect
recovery, and noise level) then
as long as
18
Motivation Xu, Osher (2006)
Wavelet based denoising
with ?j a wavelet basis.
Then solve
Decouples
(observed (1998) by Chambolle, DeVore, Lee and
Lucier)
19
This is soft thresholding
Interesting Bregman iterations give
i.e. firm thresholding
So for Bregman iterations it takes
iterations to recover
Spikes return in decreasing orders of their
magnitudes and sparse data comes back very
quickly.
20
Next Simple case
where
Obvious solution
aj is component of a with largest magnitude.
21
assume aj a1 gt 0, f gt 0 and a1 strictly
greater

than all the other a. Then
It is easy to see that the Bregman iterations
give an exact solution in
steps!
This helps explain our success in the general
case.
22
Convergence results
Again, the procedure
Here
Recent fast method (FPC) of Hale, Yin, Zhang to
compute
23
This is nonlinear Bregman. Converges in a few
iterations. However, even faster is linearized
Bregman (Darbon-Osher, use for TV deblurring)
described below
2 LINE CODE
For nonlinear Bregman
Theorem
Suppose an iterate uk satisfies Auk f. Then uk
solves (BP).
Proof
By nonegativity of the Bregman distance, for any u
24
Theorem
There exists an integer K lt ? such that any
is a solution of (BP)
Idea uses the fact that
Works if we replace ? by
for all k.
25
(No Transcript)
26
For dense Gaussian matrices A, we can solve large
scale problem instances with more than 8 ? 106
nonzeros in A e.g. n ? m 4096 ? 2045 in 11
seconds. For partial DCT matrices, much faster
1,000,000 ? 600,000 in 7 minutes
But more like 40 seconds for the linearized
Bregman approach!
Also, cant use minimizer
for ? very small. Takes too long
Need Bregman
27
Extensions
Finite Convergence
Let
be convex on H, Hilbert space,
28
Thm
Let H(u) h(Au f), h convex, differentiable
nonnegative, vanishing only at 0. Then Bregman
iteration returns a solution of
under very general conditions.
Idea
then
etc.
29
Strictly convex cases
e.g. regularize,
for
Then
Let
Simple to prove.
30
Theorem
the
decays exponentially
to zero and
easy.
31
Linearized Bregman
Started with Osher-Darbon
let
Differs from standard Bregman because we replace
by the sum of its first order approximation at uk
and on
proximity term at uk.
Then we can use fast methods, either graph cuts
for TV or shrinkage for to solve the above!!
32
yields
Consider (BP). Let
33
Get a 2 line code
Linearized Bregman
Two Lines
Matrix multiplication and scalar shrinkage.
34
Theorem
Let J be strictly convex and C2 and uOPT an
optimal solution of Then
if uk ? w we have
decays exponentially if
Proof is easy
So for J(u) ?u1 this would mean that w
approaches a minimize of u1 subject to Au
f, as ? ? ?.
35
Theorem
(dont need strict convexity and smoothness of J
for this)
then
Proof easily follows from Osher, Burger,
Goldfarb, Xu, Yin.
36
(again, dont need strict convexity and
smoothness)
NOISE
Theorem (follows Bachmyer)
Then the generalized Bregman distance
diminishes with increasing k, as long as
37
i.e. as long as the error Auk f is not too
small compared to the error in the denoised
solution
Of course if
is the solution of the Basis Pursuit problem,
then this Bregman distance monotonically
decreases.
38
Note, this means for Basis Pursuit
is diminishing for these values of k. Here
belongs to -1,1, determined by the
iterative procedure.