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Wireless SystemsonaChip Research at the Berkeley Wireless Research Center

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Communications Algorithms and Their Implementation. Blast algorithms (Lucent) - antenna arrays which have demonstrated 40 bits/Hz (1Mb/s in 25kHz) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Wireless SystemsonaChip Research at the Berkeley Wireless Research Center


1
Wireless Systems-on-a-Chip Research at the
Berkeley Wireless Research Center
Bob Brodersen Dept. of EECS Univ. of
Calif. Berkeley
  • http//bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu

2
Outline
  • What is BWRC?
  • Defining a wireless system and how you design it
  • Why software radios are a bad idea
  • Single chip radios in a day

3
1990-1997 InfoPad
(Example InfoPad application slide)
Set-top box doubles as basestation and gateway
from WAN
Allows family and personal use of set-top box
access
4
The Success of InfoPad - the Research Projects
ATM and Fast Ethernet Backbone
Scheduling for Quality of Service and
SPEECH AND
Capacity Optimization
BASE STATION
HANDWRITING
and WIRED to
MAC Layer Protocols for Up and Down Links
RECOGNITION
WIRELESS
BRIDGE
CDMA PowerControl Algorithms
Optimization of Modulation and SS Techniques
for Interference Limited, Picocellular Channels
User Interface based on Pen and Speech Input
Indoor Picocellular Channel Measurements
Network and InfoPad Aware Design Tools
Support for Distributed Processing for the
Mobile Network
DESIGN
(the InfoNet)
TOOL
APPLICATIONS
Low PowerMonolithic CMOS Radio Implementations -
Wideband Spread Spectrum
DECT Radio (TDMA)
InfoNet
System Level Power Analysis Tools
AUDIO, PEN
AND VIDEO
Migration of processing between Pad and Network
SERVERS
TYPE
Low Power Signal Processing Accelerators
InfoNet
Energy Optimized ARM Processor Core
NAMESERVER,
CELL and PAD
Text/Graphics Decompression for Color Display
SERVERS
Concurrent Electrical/Mechanical Casing Design
5
What didnt work...
  • Interaction with Industry - great during
    retreats, but inconsistent in between
  • Communication between groups
  • Collaborative tools didnt work
  • Large overhead in meetings
  • Common environment - Spread between multiple
    floors of Cory and Soda hall
  • so . We now have the BWRC

6
Center Organization
  • University affiliated but industrial support will
    be through overhead free gift funds
  • 7 member companies
  • Center lifetime of at least 6 years with yearly
    reviews and 3 year informal commitments
  • New research space off campus
  • 11,000 square foot facility designed for
    collaboration
  • Approximately 4-7 faculty members, 40-60 students
    and 6 staff

7
Center Research
  • Involvement from senior researchers from
    companies to mentor students
  • Full time at center (3 weeks/month)
  • Part time (week/month)
  • Day or two per week
  • Research projects driven by center faculty
  • Uses inputs and capabilities of members
  • Long range to avoid competitive issues
  • Goal is to put research in the public domain as
    soon as possible

8
Application Drivers
  • 1) Universal Spectrum Sharing
  • An approach to channel utilization which allows
    uncoordinated use of spectra without loss in
    capacity
  • Extensible over time to exploit advances in
    technology and support new applications
  • 2) PicoRadio
  • System on a chip implementation supporting all
    functions up to external interface (sensors,
    transducers)
  • Total power dissipation in the 100s of
    microwatts achieved through optimization of
    protocols and architectures

9
Center Activities
Universal Spectrum Sharing
PicoRadio
Applications
Behavioral/Architectural Specification,
Verification And Optimization
Design Tools
Automated Design
Implementation
PicoNode Testbed
BEE Testbed
IC Implementation
10
Outline
  • What is BWRC?
  • Defining a wireless system and how to design it
  • Why software radios are a bad idea
  • Single chip radios in a day

11
CMOS is the technology
f
t
Hemts,HBTs
100GHz
0.18u
30GHz
0.25u
0.35u
0.5u
10GHz
0.6u
0.8u
1u
GaAs
3GHz
1.5u
1GHz
2u
Bipolar
3u
CMOS
95
97
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
99
Year
12
A Complete Wireless System
Communication Algorithms
Analog Baseband and RF Circuits
Protocols
13
Wireless System Design Issues
  • It is now possible to use CMOS to integrate all
    analog and digital radio functions
  • What makes an algorithm appropriate for
    implementation is rapidly changing
  • Complex analog circuits linearly degrading
  • Digital computation exponentially improving
  • Even protocols (Physical and MAC level) require
    high levels of computation for wideband links

14
Our Design Environment for Wireless Systems
SpecificationMatlab, Opnet
Analog Data Processing
Protocols Control
Conceptual
Digital Data Processing
Opnet, VCC
Matlab
Matlab
Behavioral
Simulink
Simulink, Stateflow
C, Stateflow
Structural
Synopsys, Cadence, Unicad
Spectre and Spectre RF
ARMulator,ARM Compiler
Physical
Agilent ADS ASITIC Cadence
ARM FPGAs
Unicad Cadence, Mentor Power TimeMill
15
Communications Algorithms and Their
Implementation
  • Blast algorithms (Lucent) - antenna arrays which
    have demonstrated 40 bits/Hz (1Mb/s in 25kHz)
  • Multiuser detection - eliminates multiuser
    interference
  • Digital implementation of timing and carrier
    synchronization

Requires 1000s of MOPs of processing how to
do it at the lowest energy and smallest area???
16
Outline
  • What is BWRC?
  • Defining a wireless system and how to design it
  • Why software radios are a bad idea
  • Single chip radios in a day

17
First choose the right architecture
.5-5 MIPS/mW
10-100 MOPS/mW
Flexibility
Embedded Processor
DSP (e.g. TI 320CXX )
100-1000 MOPS/mW
Reconfigurable Processors (Maia)
Embedded
Factor of 100-1000
FPGA
Direct Mapped
Area or Power
Hardware
18
Fully parallel implementations
  • Basic building block - adaptive correlator
  • 25 MHz clock
  • 36 multipliers
  • 1.2 GOPS (operations multiplies,adds and MACs)
  • 7 mW

19
Comparison - Software vs Direct mapped
  • Software solutions gt 100 times less efficient
    (even ignoring overhead of parallel processing)
  • .5-5 MIPS/mW software DSP (best case) processor
  • 100-1000 MOPS/mW dedicated

20
But arent software processors improving with
Moores law?
  • Primary means of performance increase of software
    processors is by increasing clock rate

21
The Result Is the Power Crises
Source Microprocessor Report
  • Increasing clock rate directly increases the
    power dissipation

22
Is Arbitrary Digital Complexity Possible?
  • Complexity is increasing by a factor of 100 every
    10 years so that is not a problem
  • The power requirements are!
  • Conclusion the energy efficiency of the
    architectures and algorithms is critical

23
What is the problem?
The Von Neumann architecture was developed in
1945!!
  • The assumptions back then
  • Hardware is expensive
  • Scientific computation is the application
  • Cost, size and power are not an issue
  • Hardware and software were separate
  • Time sharing the
  • hardware
  • was absolutely necessary

24
The Situation Now for Embedded Applications
  • Hardware is cheap
  • Potentially 1000s of multipliers on a chip
  • Power, cost and size is critical
  • Applications are I/O and DSP intensive
  • Software is becoming harder than hardware
  • Hardware and software are on one chip

25
Time multiplexing a multiplier is that a good
idea?
DSP processor (25 mm2)
12x12 multiplier (.05 mm2)
26
Software radios?
  • Computation is incredibly inefficient (for
    communication algorithms) .5-5 mW/MIP vs.
    100-1000 mW/MOP in dedicated hardware
  • Moores law will not fix this problem
  • Myths about software
  • Much faster to develop (prototype yes, final
    product no)
  • It is flexible (not true in embedded systems)
  • Dont need to make early (or any) decisions
    (decisions need to be made sometime)
  • Can fix problems after the product has shipped
    (is this really viable and what does it cost?)
  • The success of software in the GP environment is
    not applicable in the embedded world

27
What is the solution?
  • Software based parallelism is becoming
    increasingly inefficient
  • Speculative execution, Superscalar, VLIW
  • The basic problem is that a conventional software
    description obscures the parallelism

Algorithms
Software
Architecture
Parallel
Sequential
Parallel
A Better Approach - skip the sequential
description
Algorithms
Architecture
Parallel
Parallel
28
An Energy Efficient Architecture Direct Map
Describe the algorithm using a description which
preserves the parallelism and directly convert to
hardware
29
Mathworks tools can be used for algorithm,
analog modeling and protocols
  • Matlab - Procedural language for algorithm design
  • High level language with I/O support
  • Well documented, supported and known
  • Extensive libraries for DSP and Communications
  • Simulink DSP
  • Block diagram discrete time simulator
  • Finite word length, explicit clocks
  • Analog models
  • Stateflow - Control and Protocols
  • Extended finite state machine description
  • Integrated with Simulink

30
Outline
  • What is BWRC?
  • Defining a wireless system and how to design it
  • Why software radios are a bad idea
  • Single chip radios in a day

31
How do we get to a chip?
  • Start from an enhanced Simulink/Stateflow
    description
  • Add floorplan
  • Based on a library of blocks that have physical
    level module generators
  • Can get estimation of area, power and delay
  • Only use synthesis from Stateflow descriptions of
    control
  • Use block level place and route tools work at
    multiplier/adder/shifter level not gates

32
Mapping the Algorithm into Hardware
33
Module generation
  • Take parameters (e.g. bit width) from block
    diagram as input and generatelayout
  • Allows deterministic area, power and delay
    estimates
  • Retains optimized density, speed and power of
    custom design
  • Allows reuse

e.g. 12X12 Multiplier
34
Energy, Area and Delay parameters from Module
Generators
Energy model of real multiplier in terms of word
length
Area model of complex MAC in terms of word length
35
Control
  • Stateflow
  • Extended Finite State Machine
  • Subset of Syntax
  • Converted to VHDL
  • Synthesized
  • VHDL
  • Synthesized directly

VHDL Stateflow Macros map to a netlist of
Standard Cells using standard synthesis
36
Summary The Standard ASIC Design Flow
Architecture Micro-Architecture
  • Difficulties
  • Logic Verification
  • Timing Closure
  • Routing Congestion

Front-End
Critical Problem Indeterminate Design Time
Back-End
  • Design Decisions made at Every Step
  • Critical information lost below Architecture level

37
Our Domain Specific Approach
  • Fully Automated
  • Make design decisions at top level
  • Primary architecture support is for Direct-Mapped
    communication algorithms

Goal Provide predictability in the design
process and a fully automated path
38
(an aside) Déjà vu???
  • The Simulink driven design with parameterized
    modules is just the reincarnation of good ole
    Silicon Compilation of gt10 years ago
  • What happened?
  • A decline of research into design methodologies
  • A single dominant flow has resulted - the
    Verilog-Synopsys-Standard Cell
  • Processor solutions therefore seem competitive
  • Lack of methodologies to support alternative
    styles of design

39
A Complete Wireless System is more than DSP
  • Analog RF and baseband circuits
  • Amplify
  • Mix
  • A/D and D/A
  • DSP and Communication algorithms
  • Protocols

40
Minimizing the Analog Components
Analog
Digital
cos(wot)
RF input
I (50MS/s)
(
f
2GHz)
c
A/D
Digital
Baseband
Receiver
RF filter
LNA
A/D
Q (50MS/s)
chip boundary
sin(wot)
Crystal
A zero IF (direct conversion) receiver
41
Receiver Prototype
  • Active Area 4 mm2
  • Noise Figure (DSB) 8.5 dB
  • S11 lt -30 dB
  • Voltage Gain 41 dB
  • -3-dB Bandwidth 90 kHz lt f lt 18 MHz
  • -1-dB Compression -31.1 dBm
  • IIP2 (27 MHz, 37MHz) - 6.7 dBm
  • IIP3 (35 MHz, 60MHz) - 18.3 dBm
  • PLL Phase Noise -85 dBc/Hz _at_ 2.5 MHz
  • LO-to-RF Leakage -81 dBm
  • SD Dynamic Range 42 dB _at_ 200 MHz
  • Power Dissipation 106 mW

0.25-mm, 6-metal CMOS process
42
Analog RF Flow - What is needed?
  • Characterization and modeling of on-chip passive
    elements, MOS devices and subcircuits
  • Integration of Circuit and RF simulation
    capability - Sceptre, Sceptre RF, EEsof
  • Library of reuseable analog modules
  • Designs that support technology scaling rules
    for analog components
  • But most importantly
  • How to co-design of the analog, communication
    algorithms and protocols?

43
Simulink description of a radio system
Rf modeling
Digital modeling
44
Baseband equivalent analog modeling
45
System Simulation of Zero-IF Receiver
  • pre-MUD
  • post-MUD
  • 10 users (equal power)
  • 13.5dB receiver NF
  • PLL -80dBc/Hz _at_ 100kHz
  • 2.5 I/Q phase mismatch
  • 82dB gain
  • 4 gain mismatch
  • IIP2 -11dBm
  • IIP3 -18dBm
  • 500kHz DC notch filter
  • 20MHz Butterworth LPF
  • 10-bit, 200MHz S-D ADC

Output SNR 15dB
46
With Analog Impairments
  • ideal receiver
  • real receiver
  • 10 users (equal power)
  • 20MHz Butterworth LPF
  • 500kHz DC notch filter
  • 13.5dB receiver NF
  • 82dB gain
  • 4 gain mismatch
  • 2.5 I/Q phase mismatch
  • IIP2 -11dBm
  • IIP3 -18dBm
  • PLL -80dBc/Hz _at_ 100kHz
  • 10-bit, 200MHz S-D ADC

47
Our Design Environment for Wireless Systems
Specification(UML)
Analog Data Processing
Protocols Control
Conceptual
Digital Data Processing
Rational ROSE,Visual Modeler
Behavioral
Matlab, Simulink
Matlab, Simulink
Telelogic, Stateflow
Structural
Synopsys, Unicad
HSPICE
ARMulator,ARM Compiler
Physical
HP EESoft ASITIC Cadence
ARM FPGA Express
Unicad Cadence, Power TimeMill
48
Conclusions
  • What is BWRC?
  • Coordinated research effort on Single chip radio
    systems
  • Defining a wireless system and how to design it
  • Analog RF and baseband processing, Communication
    algorithms and Protocols
  • Why software radios are a bad idea
  • 100 to 1000 times more energy and area, bad
    mapping to the technology
  • Single chip radio implementation in a day
  • Algorithm, Architecture and Physical design from
    the same description can make it possible

49
Conclusions
  • A domain specific approach to wireless system on
    a chip design can provide
  • Orders of magnitude improvement in power and
    area
  • Deterministic and rapid chip implementation
  • Accurate high level estimation leading to useful
    high level design optimization

50
Design of the Analog Components
51
Block Module Macros
  • Block
  • Fixed Layout and Schematic (Analog)
  • Module
  • Parameterized
  • Tiled Layout
  • Generated Schematic

Block Module Macros map to a Single Abstract
52
Microprocessor Macros
  • Includes
  • Processor
  • Memory
  • Bus
  • Interface
  • Hard Soft Cores
  • Automatic Code Generation from Stateflow
  • Modeled in Simulink

Microprocessor macro is a self-contained
processor subsystem
53
DSP and Protocol Design Flow
Specification(UML)
Analog Data Processing
Protocols Control
Conceptual
Digital Data Processing
Rational ROSE,Visual Modeler
Behavioral
Matlab, Simulink
Matlab, Simulink
Telelogic, Stateflow
Structural
Synopsys, Unicad
HSPICE
ARMulator,ARM Compiler
Physical
HP EESoft ASITIC Cadence
ARM FPGA Express
Unicad Cadence, Power TimeMill
54
Prototype A Zero-IF Receiver
  • Zero-IF architecture for high integration and
    efficient power consumption

55
Gated Clocks for Low Power
  • Clock gating is modeled with Enable signals which
    can freeze the state of a register at the
    architecture level
  • Enable Generators become gated clock buffers in
    the physical design

Entered at the algorithmic/architecture level
56
Analog/DSP/Protocol
Specification (C, Matlab, SDL)
Analog Data Processing
Protocols Control
Behavioral
Digital Data Processing
Behavioral/ Structural
VCC, Opnet, Telelogic, Stateflow
Stateflow Simulink
Matlab, Simulink
Structural
Unicad, Cadence, Synopsys
Spectre
ARMulator,ARM Compiler
Physical
HP EESoft ASITIC Cadence
ARM FPGA Express
Unicad Cadence, Power TimeMill
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