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Department of Maternal and Child Health

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Title: Department of Maternal and Child Health


1
MCH/Public Health Milestones Part II 1900-1909
2
Greg R. Alexander, MPH, ScD Cathy Chadwick, MPH
Donna J. Petersen, MHS, ScD MaryAnn Pass, MD,
MPH Martha Slay, MPH Nicole Shumpert, BS
  • Department of Maternal and Child Health
  • The MCH Leadership Skills Training Institute
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham

3
Acknowledgement
  • Supported by funding from the Maternal and Child
    Health Bureau

4
1900
Progressive Periodreform movement for children
and concern for adequate child health care
AMA Section Obstetrics and Diseases of Women
First National Child Labor Committee
Responsibility for School Health assigned to
local communities
Education Act
First Bureau of Child Hygiene
First White House Conference on Care of Dependent
Children
American Association for the Study and Prevention
of Infant Mortality
1909
5
The Progressive Period
  • The first decade and a half of the 1990s was
    known as the Progressive Period, with the federal
    government expressing greater concern for the
    welfare of its citizens.
  • The government began to take a more direct
    interest in public health issues, particularly in
    regard to the health and social welfare of
    children.

6
National Progressive Convention
7
Crusade for Children
  • During this period, a reform movement referred
    to as the crusade for children, engaged in
    efforts to improve child health and labor
    conditions.
  • On the state and local levels, the increased
    development of health departments provided new
    forums for expanding and disseminating pediatric
    and obstetric knowledge.

8
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9
Crusades for Children
  • The private sector increased its involvement in
    programs for the handicapped.
  • Notably, voluntary organizations such as the
    Shriners, the National Society for Crippled
    Children (Easter Seal Society), the Rotary Club,
    and the Lions Club, each initiated new programs
    for disabled adults and children.

10
Private Sector Involvement
11
1901 First State Child Labor Committee
  • The first state child labor committee was
    organized in Alabama in 1901.

12
Child Labor
13
1902 First Full-Time School Nurses
  • Ideas for health education and school medical
    inspection led to a request from the New York
    Health Commissioner for the loan of a full-time
    nurse to provide medical inspection in schools.
  • Lina L. Rogers, from the Henry Street
    Settlement, was appointed to this position.

14
Full-time School Nurse
15
1902 First Full-Time School Nurses
  • Eventually, other nurses were employed to teach
    parents and children about prevention, treatment
    of minor skin conditions, malnutrition and other
    diseases.

16
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17
1903 AMA Section Obstetrics and Diseases of
Women
  • In 1903, the American Medical Association (AMA)
    established a section called Obstetrics and
    Diseases of Women.

18
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19
1904 First National Child Labor Committee
  • In 1904, the first national child labor committee
    met in New York.
  • The central purpose of the National Child Labor
    Committee was to prevent child labor through
    legislation.

20
Child being weighed and measured for working
papers
21
1906 Responsibility for School Health Assigned
to Local Committees
  • The Education Act of 1907 required educational
    authorities to appoint school doctors and nurses,
    as well as the principal country school medical
    officer (usually the county public health
    officer) as responsible for running health
    services in the schools.

22
Early School
23
1908 First Bureau of Child Hygiene
  • Dr. Josephine Baker was the first Chief of the
    MCH Bureau of Child Hygiene in the New York City
    Health Department.
  • Through her efforts to organize visits to
    tenement homes of newborn babies, instruction and
    assistance was provided to mothers on infant care
    and the prevention of diarrheal diseases.

24
Dr. Josephine Baker
25
1908 First Bureau of Child Hygiene
  • The MCH Bureau of Child Hygiene in the NYC
    Health Department also provided care to school
    children, conducted health clinics, supervised
    midwives, and regulated childrens institutions
    and boarding homes.

26
Nurse helping new mother
27
1909 First White House Conference on Care of
Dependent Children
  • In 1909, President Theodore Roosevelt convened
    a group of medical professionals and lay leaders
    interested in the care of dependent children.
  • One of the major recommendations of this
    enclave was for the development of a Federal
    Childrens Bureau.

28
Theodore Roosevelt
29
American Association for the Study and Prevention
of Infant Mortality
  • The American Association for Study and
    Prevention of Infant Mortality was organized in
    New Haven, Connecticut.
  • It was the first nationwide association whose
    mission was to study and identify ways to prevent
    infant mortality.
  • In addition, the Association played a major
    role in creating a new registration procedure for
    all infant births and deaths in the country.

30
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31
Organized Prenatal Care
  • Organized prenatal care in the United States
    began in Boston in 1909.
  • The Instructive District Nursing Association
    was responsible for developing an intensive
    prenatal care program for women with special
    health care needs.

32
Visiting Nurses Prenatal Care
33
Organized Prenatal Care
  • Due to the success of this program, outpatient
    clinics were created for prenatal care on a
    wide-scale basis.

34
Little Mothers League Older daughters were
trained to help take care of younger children
35
Maternal and Child Health/Public Health
Milestones 1900-1909 Photo Acknowledgements Sli
de 6 National Progressive Convention, Chicago.
August 6, 1912. memory.loc.gov (American
Memory) Slide 8 DHEW book. Department of
Health, City of New York Slide 10 Organization
websites Slide 12 Greels Shoe-shining parlor.
Said he was 15 years old. Works some nights
until 11 pm. Indianapolis, IN. Photo from
National Archives and Records Administration at
College Park. www.jwa.org Slide 14 DHEW book.
Health examination in New York City schools.
Department of Health, City of New York Slide 16
Demonstration in child care to home economics
class. Courtesy of National Library of Medicine.
www.nlm.nih.gov. Slide 18 Visiting nurse shows
mother how to sterilize bottles. Courtesy of the
National Library of Medicine. www.nlm.nih.gov Sli
de 20 Getting working papers. New York, 1908 .
Photo by Lewis W. Hine. Lillian Wald Exhibit -
1912 Federal Children's Bureau.
www.jwa.org/ Slide 22 www.atchison.k12.ks.us/gift
ed/history_sara_baker_.htm Slide 24 Buffalo
County School, Solomon D. Butcher, creator.
1907. http//memory.loc.gov (American
Memory) Slide 26 DHEW book. Department of
Health, City of New York Slide 28 Theodore
Roosevelt. www.encarta.com Slide 30 DHEW book.
Department of Health, City of New York Slide 32
Photograph of Philadelphias Visiting Nurses.
(calendar from Visiting Nurse Association of
Greater Philadelphia). Philadelphias Visiting
nurses of 1909 prepare to leave their
headquarters at 1340 Lombard Street to begin
their daily rounds Slide 34 The Little Mothers
League. Department of Health, City of New York.
DHEW book
36
CREDITS
  • This work builds upon the earlier efforts of
    Dr. Allan C. Oglesby, Cindy Camberg, EdD, and
    Cathy Chadwick of the Maternal and Child Health
    Institute to Increase Leadership Skills Project,
    San Diego State University, and draws upon their
    Manual of the History and Philosophy of Maternal
    and Child Health as a foundation for this
    multi-volume series.
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