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Public Safety on College Campus and Surrounding Communities


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Title: Public Safety on College Campus and Surrounding Communities

Public Safety on College Campus and Surrounding
  • What Colleges and Universities Should Be Doing to
    Advance Campus Safety

ASJA Conference Presenters
  • Lisa A Sprague
  • Associate Chief of Police Florida State
    University. President Elect ,International
    Association of Campus Administrators.
  • Kelli Smith
  • Watch Commander, Patrol Division University of
    Central Florida Police Department

  • Become familiar with IACLEA
  • Understand the importance of Campus
  • Security and Police Readiness to
  • respond to active shooter situations
  • Be aware of basics on risk analysis
  • Value Coordination and Cooperation
  • Realize the realities of campus crime

  • The International Association of Campus Law
    Enforcement Administrators advances public safety
    for educational institutions by
  • providing educational resources,
  • advocacy,
  • and professional development.

  • IACLEA membership represents over 1,300 colleges
    and universities located in twenty countries.
  • In addition to the colleges and universities,
    which are the Institutional Members, individual
    memberships are held by campus law enforcement
    staff members, criminal justice faculty members
    and municipal chiefs of police (current
    membership is over 2,000).

10 Recommendations for Safer Campuses
  • Ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local
    laws and regulations
  • Create a culture of prevention and preparedness
  • Adopt an environmental management approach to
  • Resource the campus public safety department
  • Provide effective mental health services to
    community members

10 Recommendations for Safer Campuses
  • Require collaboration among student service
    providers on crime prevention programs
  • Leverage technology to enhance safety efforts
  • Support participation in regional/local consortia
    and professional associations
  • Develop a crisis communications strategy
  • Encourage support for campus safety initiatives
    from Federal and state governments

Ensure compliance with Federal, State, Local Laws
and Regulations
  • The compliance environment has changed
  • Drug Free Schools Communities Act, Clery,
    FERPA, SEVIS (International exchange), HIPAA,
    Patriot Act
  • Legislation may not have intended impact, but.
  • High profile events raise consciousness
  • April 16, 2007 Virginia Tech
  • Eastern Michigan University

Create a culture of prevention and preparedness
  • September 11, 2001 drastically altered landscape
  • FBI Director says campuses are soft targets
  • Hurricanes Katrina Rita loom large
  • Tragic events at Virginia Tech is a defining
  • In spite of these, some still think
  • It cant happen here!

Create a culture of prevention and preparedness
  • What we should do to
  • Prevent, protect against, recover from and
    respond to catastrophic events
  • Conduct a comprehensive assessment of potentially
    catastrophic risks it faces
  • Make a plan to address those risks
  • Form an emergency management team led by a senior
    administrator? Full time emergency manager?
  • Regularly participate in emergency preparedness
  • Ensure you have multiple means to communicate
    with students, faculty, staff, and visitors
    during emergencies

Create a culture of prevention and preparedness
  • Include your campus information technology
    leadership in emergency planning
  • Develop formal informal networks among campus
    and off-campus first responders and political and
    health officials
  • Develop a process for ongoing inventory of campus
    resources needed during emergencies
  • Assess your policies and procedures for dealing
    with persons who may pose a significant risk

Action by Law Enforcement
  • All agencies charged with responding to violent
    events on a university or college campus train
    and exercise their personnel in the Active
    Shooter response.
  • That each agency develop and train to a protocol
    which will allow the integration of the medical
    response with the law enforcement response

Response to Active Shooters
  • Detail Critical Incident Response Rapid
    Deployment. In the days before Columbine, patrol
    response was to cordon off the affected area and
    wait for SWAT.  Columbine taught us that law
    enforcement must immediately engage the shooter
    and stop the threat.  We no longer wait for

Incident Command
  • To ensure a seamless integration of all
    responders within a clear  chain of command
    during such events, all universities should
    integrate  into the National Incident Management
    System (NIMS) and adhere to the  Incident Command
    System (ICS) within it. 
  • "NIMS ICS is the federal government's emergency
    response framework. It  ensures that all
    responding agencies, from the local level up, can
    work  together and communicate in a domestic
    crisis. Whether it is a tornado, a  terrorist
    attack, or an active shooter on campus, NIMS ICS
    is a  standardized, framework for ensuring
    interoperability between responders  so that they
    can deal with anything.

Incident Command
  • "As a part of NIMS ICS, campuses should execute
    memorandums of  understanding (MOU), which are
    cooperative agreements for mutual help,  with
    other agencies from local to federal level. These
    agreements  outline the roles and
    responsibilities of each responding agency in an
  • "For instance, some campuses are patrolled by
    contract security  officers, while others are
    protected by sworn/ non-sworn police officers or
  • At some campuses, police officers carry guns at
    others, they  don't. Some campuses are
    philosophically opposed to having an armed
    police  presence.
  • Fact Only 20 universities have SWAT teams

Best Practice Programs
  • Florida State University
  • Special Situation Resolution Team In the event
    a student is identified as worthy of special
    attention, campus authorities (Police, Deans,
    Directors, etc.) meet, discuss, and execute plans
    to effectively deal with these persons. This may
    include suspensions, counseling, etc. 

Florida State University Police Department
  • FSU PD is one of the most highly trained agencies
    when it comes to response in major events.  All
    of our officers are trained in Critical Incident
    Response/Rapid Deployment, Incident Command,
    National Incident Management System, and stress
    based shooting. 
  • Further, the FSU PD takes the extra step to set
    up mock disasters/shooting exercises on a full
    scale basis for officer training, and we are a
    designated training site for Incident Command.

Best Practice Programs
  • Crisis Management Unit A student who is
    experiencing emotional or mental issues can talk
    to a plainclothes (specially trained) officer and
    licensed psychology doctoral student 24/7/365. 
  • An Officer and a mental health rep respond to the
    scene and provide emergency counseling and
    referrals.  If the person must be involuntarily
    admitted for mental health treatment, this may
    also occur.

Best Practices Programs
  • Employee Threat Assessment Team Much like the
    Special Situation Resolution Team, but geared
    toward employees/staff with issues.
  • Public Safety Meeting Key campus authorities
    meet every 2 weeks to discuss campus safety
    issues in their respective departments.  Meetings
    are held at FSUPD.

Best Practices Programs
  • Intelligence Officer An Investigator is
    assigned full-time to gather and share
    information that is of interest to public safety
    on campus.
  • This Investigator works with local, state, and
    federal law enforcement on several committees and
    task forces.

University of Central Florida
  • A student that is considered to be a potential
    threat to him/herself or campus community appears
    before the Crisis Committee.
  • Crisis Committee Team consists of
  • Health Services Director
  • Counseling Center Director
  • Associate Director of Safety and Security for
    University Police
  • Director of the Office of Student Rights and
  • Office of Student Conduct Representative
  • Associate Dean for Academic Services
  • Director of Housing and Residence Life

Best Practice Programs
  • Develop a strategy and intervention plan to
    stabilize the situation.
  • Identify resources and plan for the student in
    crisis which may include counseling, suspensions,
    withdrawal, etc

Best Practice Programs
  • Crisis Intervention Team Training
  • At least (3) CIT Officers on each squad.
  • Did you know
  • 70 of UCF officers CIT trained goal of 100.

Best Practice Programs
  • Emergency Response Team (ERT)
  • Team of officers that undergo continuous
    specialized tactical training.
  • UCF Community Relations Unit
  • Encountering Difficult Students in the
    Classroom Workshop
  • Attendees Faculty, Staff, and Graduate Teaching
  • Identify resources and response protocols for
    potential problem students.

Adopt an Environmental Management Approach to
  • Multiple prevention strategies that affect the
    entire campus environment
  • Strong presidential leadership
  • A broad spectrum campus-wide task force
  • Engagement with the local community
  • http//

Environmental cont
  • Participation of campus administrators in public
    policy debates, at all levels
  • Incorporate traditional Crime Prevention through
    Environmental Design (CPTED) processes in the
    reconstruction and refurbishment

Resource the campus protection agency
  • Institutions must be prepared to provide a high
    level of security for their communities
  • The standard for adequate security has evolved,
    requiring a much higher level on campus
  • Dimensions to consider
  • Nature of threats on campus
  • Demographics
  • Physical features
  • Utilization
  • Facilities
  • Main vs. branch campuses
  • Taken from Max Bromley in Campus Crime

Provide effective mental health services to
community members
  • Adequately staffed counseling centers
  • Policies and procedures
  • Professional development for counselors
  • Outreach
  • Interaction with first year students
  • Multidisciplinary crisis team approach
  • Mutual Aid with other providers
  • Tort Claims protection for counselors
  • Clarifying regulations, i.e FERPA, etc

Resource the campus protection agency
  • What does resource mean?
  • Do you have the right people on the bus?
  • Are they appropriately authorized?
  • Are they adequately trained?
  • Are they equipped to meet challenges?
  • Do they have the right financial resources? (1.5
    of the operating budget)

Require collaboration among student service
  • Eliminate stovepipes and barriers to
  • All approaches should be multidisciplinary,
    collaborative, and comprehensive
  • Remove barriers to communication with senior
    level decision makers

Leverage technology to enhance safety efforts
  • Recent advancements in technology have made
    security tools more prevalent and accessible. It
    has become the standard for colleges and
    universities to employ automated card access
    systems, visitor management systems, and security
  • Newer technology such as global positioning
    devices that allow the tracking of students, when
    needed, will expand in the coming years. Other
    enhancements such as multi-modal mass
    notification systems have become the norm within
    a very short time span.

Support participation in consortia and
professional associations
  • Joint Terrorism Task Forces
  • IACP
  • State Associations
  • Local Consortiums
  • Local Emergency Planning Committees
  • Multi Agency Task Forces

Support participation in consortia and
professional associations
  • Foster internal and external capabilities
  • Formal and informal avenues that provide
    opportunities to share ideas with other LE
    professionals, add a complement to structured
    training and experiences.
  • As communication improves best practices can be
    identified and shared.

Develop a crisis communications strategy
  • The flow of information during a crisis is one of
    the most important factors in an effective
  • An effective strategy will include communications
    amongst campus administrators students and other
    campus community members with concerned
    constituents such as parents and trustees among
    and between campus and off-campus first

Encourage support for campus safety initiatives
from Federal, State Government
  • National Center for Campus Public Safety
  • Support the field, foster collaboration and
    lasting relationships
  • Facilitate information sharing
  • Provide quality education.

Some surprising statistics
  • Bureau of Justice Stastistics
  • Campus Victimization Survey
  • Campus Law Enforcement

School Crime
  • FBI UCR Data
  • Of the 17,065,074 incidents reported through the
    NIBRS by law enforcement from 2000 to 2004,
  • 558,219 (3.3 percent) occurred at schools.
  • Age was known for 393,938 offenders. 14 Of those,
    most (38.0 percent) were 13-15 year olds. The
    second largest group was 16-18 year olds (30.7
    percent), followed by those offenders aged 19 or
    older (18.2 percent)

School Crime
  • The most common weapon type
  • reported was personal weapons (the offenders
    hands, fists, feet, etc.),
  • Of the 179,109 arrestees about whom the race was
    known, 72.8 percent were white 25.3 percent were
    black and 1.9 percent were all other race
    categories combined.
  • The number of crime in school-related incidents
    was highest in October

National Crime Victimization Study
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics
  • Violent Victimization of College Students,

Victimization Study
  • From 1995 to 2002 violence against college
    students decreased 54,
  • while violence against nonstudents of similar
    ages fell 45
  • Except for rape/sexual assault, college students
    were most often violently victimized by people
    they did not know

Victimization Survey
  • Characteristics of violent
  • victimizations of college students
  • 58 were committed by strangers.
  • 41 of offenders were perceived to be using
    alcohol or drugs.
  • 93 of crimes occurred off campus,
  • 72 occurred at night.

Victimization Study
  • College students were more likely to be violently
    victimized off campus than on campus between 1995
    and 2002.
  • This was true for both students who lived on
    campus (85) and those living off campus (95).
  • Overall, about 9 out of 10 students were
    victimized off Campus

Law Enforcement Survey
  • Bureau of Justice Statistics 2004-(not yet
  • Survey of 4000 institutions
  • 86 -meet with Housing on a regular basis
  • Emergency Plans
  • 2/3 Have a Terrorism Response Policy
  • 94 Have Emergency Plans
  • 64 Exercise the Plans

Law Enforcement Survey
  • Written Polices
  • 69 Dealing with Mentally Ill
  • 56 Dealing with Student Judicial Affairs
  • 55 Dealing with Housing/Residential Life

Law Enforcement Survey
  • Special Services
  • 67 Alcohol Education
  • 63 Community Policing
  • 73 Drug Programs
  • 78 Rape
  • 60 Stalking

  • Task Force reviewed reports and are discussing
    the following recommendations.
  • RECOMMENDATION Institutions should consider a
    process whereby they ask all members of the
    community upon application (admissions and
    employment) whether they have been charged or
    convicted of a crime and details. Institutions
    should consider using criminal record checks for
    their students, faculty and staff.

  • RECOMMENDATION Institutions use an array of
    means and methods to disseminate information for
    responding to an array of emergencies, and the
    institution's approach to emergency management
    and institutional response. This should include
    an array of delivery options, such as in-person
    presentations (i.e., res life programming
    orientation sessions for students and employees)
    Internet-based delivery and documents

  • RECOMMENDATION The Campus Public Safety
    Executive should have direct access to the most
    senior decision makers during an emergency.

  • RECOMMENDATION Institutions should have plans in
    place for closing all or portions of the campus,
    and for cancelling some or all classes. Not
    really feasible for some, including large and
    sprawling campuses recommend that campuses
    develop a shelter in place policy instead of
    using the word closing (tricky and very difficult
    to close some campuses)

  • RECOMMENDATION Institutions should use the
    National Incident Management System (NIMS) to
    manage emergencies and have a decision making
    process and structure to facilitate interaction
    between institutional leadership, institutional
    resources and local public safety. IACLEA
    sponsors an Incident Command management course
    with support from a U.S. Department of Homeland
    Security grant. The course presents the
    principles of NIMS as well as the Incident
    Command System (ICS) and the Unified Command

  • RECOMMENDATION Institutional emergency
    management plans should include a section on
    victim services that addresses the significant
    impact of homicide and other disaster-caused
    deaths on survivors and the role of victim
    service providers in the overall plan.

  • RECOMMENDATION Universities and colleges should
    ensure that they have adequate plans to stand up
    a joint information center with a public
    information officer and adequate staff during
    major incidents on campus.

  • RECOMMENDATION Universities and colleges should
    work with their local government partners to
    improve plans for mutual aid in all areas of
    crisis response, including that of victim
    services. IACLEA has model mutual aid agreements
    and MOUs for institutional consideration. These
    resources are contained in a Guide to
    Strengthened Communications between Campus Public
    Safety Departments and Federal-State-Local
    Emergency Response Agencies. IACLEA produced this
    Guide with support from a federal DHS grant. The
    guide makes a number of useful recommendations
    intended to enhance communications with first
    responders. Among these is a recommendation to
    develop mutual aid agreements and/or memoranda of
    understanding in cooperation with local law
    enforcement and other emergency response agencies.

  • RECOMMENDATION Universities and colleges must
    comply with the Clery Act, which requires timely
    public warnings of imminent danger. Institutions
    must have a policy that describes their timely
    warning practice and in that policy, they should
    develop an individual definition of "timely" in
    relation to available technology, available
    communication systems, and nature of the crisis.

  • RECOMMENDATION Campus emergency communications
    systems must have multiple means of sharing
    information, including high-technology and

  • RECOMMENDATION Campus Public Safety as well as
    administration officials should have the
    authority and capability to send an emergency
  • RECOMMENDATION Recipients of emergency messages
    should be urged to inform others.

  • RECOMMENDATION Campus public safety (sworn and
    non-sworn) must receive adequate and appropriate
    training for active shooter situations and
    include local public safety agencies.
    Institutions should ensure that their public
    safety function has state of the art equipment
    for such response needs. IACLEA is actively
    seeking partnerships with the federal government
    and other campus safety stakeholders to develop a
    comprehensive model training program to train
    campus public safety departments in effective
    response to campus violence.

  • RECOMMENDATION Universities and colleges should
    involve themselves in regional disaster drills on
    at least an annual basis.
  • RECOMMENDATION Campus public safety should be
    included on the institution's threat assessment
    and emergency response teams.

  • RECOMMENDATION Universities and colleges should
    give appropriate emphasis and balance to the
    multi-faceted roles of their public safety

  • RECOMMENDATIONS IACLEA supports a "safe harbor"
    provision in the appropriate laws and where
    necessary to insulate a person or organization
    from liability (or loss of funding) for making a
    disclosure with a good faith belief that the
    disclosure was necessary to protect the health,
    safety, or welfare of the person involved or
    members of the general public.

  • RECOMMENDATIONS IACLEA supports the need for
    continual review of applicable laws and
    regulations governing privacy for deconfliction,
    efficiency and effectiveness as warranted.

  • RECOMMENDATION IACLEA believes that universities
    and colleges should make clear in their
    literature what their policy is regarding weapons
    on campus. Prospective students and their
    parents, as well as university staff, should know
    the policy related to concealed weapons so they
    can decide whether they prefer an armed or
    arms-free learning environment.

  • RECOMMENDATION IACLEA supports the application
    of best practices in the operations of
    communications centers. Towards this goal, IACLEA
    supports accreditation and related professional
    standards. We strongly recommend collaboration
    between campus and local public safety dispatch
    towards the goal of familiarization with campus

  • RECOMMENDATION IACLEA supports institutional
    review of physical security infrastructure
    including locking mechanisms on all doors to
    ensure optimal safety of faculty, staff,
    students, visitors and guests.

  • RECOMMENDATION IACLEA recommends that all
    emergency service responders receive Critical
    Incident Stress Management services after
    critical incidents.