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Gerunds and Infinitives

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Participle phrases are verbal adjectives. They are (Surprise! ... The infinitive is a verbal which can function as a noun, an adjective or an adverb. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Gerunds and Infinitives


1
Gerunds and Infinitives
  • Not an easy choice!

2
Before we start on this subject
  • What are the six forms of the English verb?
  • Base
  • Past
  • Infinitive
  • s form
  • Present Perfect (or ing form)
  • Past Perfect

3
Gerunds and Infinitives are Verbals
  • Verbals have some of the characteristics of
    verbs.
  • Participle phrases, Gerunds and Infinitives are
    all verbals.
  • Verbs vary as to person and number.
  • Verbals do not vary as to person and number.

4
What is a participle phrase?
  • Participle phrases are verbal adjectives.
  • They are (Surprise!) made from the Present and
    Past Participle forms of the verb.
  • Present Particple Verbs alsways end in ing.

5
Examples of Present Participle Phrases
  • Active voice
  • Knowing him well, we asked for a ride.
  • Having elected him mayor, his friends felt they
    should be rewarded.
  • Passive voice
  • Mr. Portly, being known as a wealthy man, can
    easily borrow money.
  • Which is a present perfect participle?

6
Examples of Past Participle Phrases
  • There is only a passive form.
  • Somewhat embarrassed by this remark, Norris
    smiled and made an awkward bow.

7
Gerunds
  • The Gerund is a verbal noun.
  • It is made from the ing form of the verb.
  • The perfect forms use havING plus the past
    participle.
  • Active Examples
  • Seeing is believing.
  • Having read the book is enough I dont need to
    see the movie.

8
Gerunds can be in the Passive voice also.
  • Examples
  • Doctors often have the experience of being called
    in the middle of the night.
  • His having been fined twice, has caused him to
    drive more slowly.

9
Verbs that are always followed by a gerund
  • This information is on Page 180 of Technically
    Speaking
  • Admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider
  • Delay, deny, detest, dislike, dread
  • Enjoy, finish, involve
  • Mind, miss, postpone, regret, resent, resist,
    risk
  • Fancy (imagine)
  • Keep (continue)
  • Remember (recall)
  • Stop (cease)

10
Expressions that are always followed by a gerund
  • Look forward to
  • Cant help
  • Cant stand
  • Its no use
  • Its worth
  • To be used to

11
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 1 If a verb ends with a consonant single
    vowel consonant combination, double the final
    consonant before adding ing.
  • Example stopping

12
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 2 If a verb ends with a consonant double
    vowel consonant combination, do NOT double the
    final consonant before adding ing.
  • Example lean gt leaning

13
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 3 If a one-syllable verb ends with double
    consonants, do NOT double the final consonant
    before adding ing.
  • Example risk gt risking

14
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 4 If a verb ends with the letter e, drop
    it before adding ing.
  • Example write gt writing

15
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 5 If a two-syllable verb end with a
    stressed syllable, double the final consonant
    before adding ing.
  • Example begin gt beginning

16
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 6 If a two-syllable verb begins with a
    stressed syllable, do not double the final
    consonant before adding ing.
  • Example gather gt gathering

17
Spelling rules for gerunds and participles
  • Rule 7 If a verb ends with y, simply add ing
    to the verb.
  • Example fly gt flying

18
Infinitives are verbals too!
  • The infinitive is a verbal which can function as
    a noun, an adjective or an adverb.
  • The infinitive starts with the word to.
  • Usage frequently defines whether to use a gerund
    or an infinitive. Use the chart on Page 180 as a
    guide.

19
Examples of infinitives
  • Active forms
  • To err is human.
  • He is thought to have left the country.
  • What are the functions of each of these
    infinitives?
  • Passive forms
  • To be forgiven may be divine.
  • Her voice is said to have been praised in all the
    capitals of Europe.

20
A short word on count and non-count nouns
  • There are a number of nouns in English that do
    not take an s because they are considered
    non-countable.
  • Some of these words can take an s in French.

21
Common non-count nouns
  • Furniture
  • Research
  • Information
  • Work
  • Homework
  • Advice
  • Rice
  • Can you name any others?

22
Modifying count and non-count nouns
  • Count nouns
  • Many plural
  • More plural
  • Few plural
  • Some, a lot of
  • The noun is plural
  • Note count nouns are never modified by less
  • Non-count nouns
  • More singular
  • Less singular
  • Some, a lot of
  • The noun stays singular
  • Note non-count nouns are never modified by
    many or few

23
On-line Exercise
  • Please do the on-line exercise linked to this
    information!
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