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TANZANIA GENDER NETWORKING PROGRAMME (TGNP) A CASE STUDY ON STRATEGIES FOR GENDER BUDGETING IN TANZANIA

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Title: TANZANIA GENDER NETWORKING PROGRAMME (TGNP) A CASE STUDY ON STRATEGIES FOR GENDER BUDGETING IN TANZANIA


1
TANZANIA GENDER NETWORKING PROGRAMME (TGNP)A
CASE STUDY ON STRATEGIES FORGENDER BUDGETING IN
TANZANIA
  • INITIATIVE FOR TRANSFORMING AND
  • MAINSTREAMING GENDER INTO NATIONAL PLANNING AND
    BUDGETING
  • PROCESSES MACRO-ECONOMIC
  • POLICIES IN TANZANIA
  • By Usu Mallya
  • usu.mallya_at_tgnp.org

2
1.0 INTRODUCTION-WHO ARE WE?
  • TGNP is a NGO registered in 1992 effectively
    operative since 1993.
  • Engaged in womens empowerment/human rights
    advocacy through promotion of social
    transformation and gender equity and equality
  • Strategies include animation and action oriented
    participatory research , coalition building
    networking, outreach, policy analysis advocacy,
    collective action, capacity building, information
    generation and dissemination

3
1.0 INTRODUCTION-WHO ARE WE?
  • The above activities are operationalised through
    four sub programmes
  • Gender Training Institute (GTI),
  • Feminist Information Centre (FIC)
  • Activism, Lobbying and Advocacy (ALC)
  • Analysis Research and Publications (ARP)
  • TGNPs partners are mainly like-minded
    organisations, individuals and various social
    groups in the country and beyond

4
1.0 INTRODUCTION-WHO ARE WE?
  • Catalysed and facilitation of mechanisms for
    engagement Fem Act , IGNs and fora Gender and
    Development Seminar Series (GDSS), Gender
    Festival (GF)
  • Currently TGNP is undergoing extensive
    transformation within its own programmes to allow
    for more feminists oriented approaches and
    outcomes

5
2.0 TGNP experiences in Gender Responsive
Budgeting Work /Rationale
  • The Gender Budgeting Initiative in Tanzania began
    in 1997 as an NGO process a lobbying initiative
    developed as part of TGNPs and Feminist Activism
    Coalition (Fem Act) vision of influencing the
    conceptual paradigms, particularly among policy
    makers, economists, statisticians and researchers
    to adopt more progressiveness and gender
    approaches

6
2.0 TGNP experiences in Gender Responsive
Budgeting Work /Rationale
  • Part of its broader campaign towards holding
    government (and donors) accountable for pro-poor
    and gender equality policy impacts
  • Context then/now structural adjustment,
    liberalization, open market, conditionality
  • Results massive layoffs decrease of pro-poor
    govt budgeting focus- less to social sectors,
    priority to private sector promotion,

7
2.0 TGNP experiences in Gender Responsive
Budgeting Work /Rationale
  • increased donor dependency debt levels
    ..poverty worsening class ,age, rural and gender
    dimensions
  • CSO/citizen serious marginalisation from
    policymaking and budgetary processes- Not part of
    discussions around SAP neither consulted
    effectively to provide feedback on the negative
    impacts.

8
3.0 Gender Responsive Budgeting Objectives
  • To strengthen consensus building, collective
    action and lobbying and advocacy skills for
    women/gender and human rights groups as regards
    to gender equity and equality and transformation
    in policy and budgeting process.
  • Broadening participation in policy-making and
    their exposure to management structures of public
    resources.

9
3.1 Gender Budgeting Strategies adopted
  • Adopted holistic approach macro /micro inter
    linkages and impact.i.e mainstreaming of gender
    equality and CSOs perspectives in the national
    budgetary processes, while linking with broader
    issues on the context in which national budgets
    are made. eg limitations of GM in challenging
    inequalities embedded in power relations within
    the different levels household, local,
    national, and globally?.
  • Hence visibilising the impact of macro-economic
    issues , globalisation interplay with
    patriarchy and implications as regards gender
    and class inequalities in the distribution of
    national resources at the community levels.

10
3.1 Gender Budgeting Strategies adopted
  • Focused at influencing govt budgets in selected
    sectors- key for engendering direction of budgets
    for pro-poor and gender sensitive impacts
  • Engendering key macro policy and budgeting
    context debt, corruption, privatization
    policies, PRSP frameworks, revenue, statistics
    etc
  • Directed at selected local/district level
    budgeting processes for engendering and tracking
    impacts( pro-poor and gender sensitivity)
  • Cross cutting public engagement and debate

11
3.1.1 GRB Phase One
  • Preparatory Activities/ Planning
  • Instituting the program within TGNP and FemAct
    structures
  • Identifying strategic point of entries and
    building working relations with key government
    actors in selected sectors/institutions
  • Building a documentation base/ building links
    with other related initiatives, such as in South
    Africa, Australia, and the Commonwealth
    Secretariat

12
3.1.1 GRB Phase One
  • Action oriented research activities .Team of
    Researchers (gender activists/researchers,
    academicians and government actors (selected
    Planners/Budget Officers).
  • The national Planning Commission and the Ministry
    of Finance, as strategic sectors in the planning
    and budgeting process Health and Education, as
    vital social sector service providers
    Agriculture as essential to the livelihood of the
    majority of men and women and Industry and
    Commerce, given the significance of market/ trade
    liberalisation policies in the globalisation
    process.

13
3.1.1 GRB Phase One
  • Created space for dialogue, consultations and
    advocating for policy/budget issues from CSOs and
    gender perspectives-
  • point of entry training - allies, information
    dissemination, communication,
  • Phase one GBI process (1997-2000) focused
    primarily on information collection, research and
    dissemination, and capacity building and
    influencing for government ownership.

14
3.1.2 GRB Phase Two
  • Phase two 2001 continued with data collection
    and capacity building of the various actors
    supporting the government in its gender budgeting
    activities, but concentrated more with a focus on
    advocacy through a civil society campaign. This
    campaign was aimed at popularising Budgeting
    issues among ordinary men and women using
    HIVAIDS as an entry point Return Resources to
    the People campaign and linking with Water,
    Maternal Mortality , GBV, 50/50 campaign.....

15
3.2 GRB Strategies Adopted cont./
  • Generating relevant disaggregated data and
    knowledge for powerful GB arguments and evidences
    for macro economists, planners and budget
    officers (action oriented research, evidences on
    impact of privatization policies on water, user
    fees on health, care burden on HIV AIDS, gender
    based violence etc
  • Engaging to influence broader policy frameworks
    by raising key gender/pro-poor issues with govt.
    and donors (PRSP, debt issues, govt. dependency,
    MACMOD/taxation

16
3.2 Strategies adopted cont./
  • Engaging to influence Public Expenditure Reviews
    (national/sectoral) for making visible g key
    gender issues and gaps e.g Water sector and
    current process to undertake a Public Expenditure
    Review on Gender Equality
  • Influencing Medium Term Expenditure Framework
    (MTEF) processes, i.e National/sector budgeting
    and preparations
  • ( Budget guidelines and selected sectors)

17
3.2 Strategies adopted cont./
  • Advocating for pro-poor and gender sensitive
    indicators conducting further analysis of
    Household Budget Surveys/indicator on Female
    Headed Households for policy/budget attention,
    engaged with PRSP monitoring frame
  • Promoting Budget Analysis for gender sensitivity
    and pro-poor approachesraising issues of
    marginalization of women through budget, e.g.
    maternal mortality rates vs allocated budget,
    promoting public debates

18
3.2 Strategies adopted cont./
  • Engaging with Parliamentarians and Local
    Councilors for alerting on areas of
    under-allocation/ expenditure highlight key
    gender issues for government accountability and
    oversight e.g High maternal mortality, gender
    based violence corruption etc
  • Engaging with other CSOs for district level
    budget tracking.efforts towards enhanced
    accountability and awareness raising, etc
  • Documenting and experience sharing (nationally,
    regionally and beyond)

19
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Adopted approach of GB work at macro, sector and
    micro level increasingly leading to holistic
    gender mainstreaming of policy and budgeting
    processes key in linking macro to micro impacts
  • Key pro-poor and gender equality issues adopted
    under the three clusters of (e.g. National
    Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty
    (NSGRP) and Monitoring Indicators - basis for
    budgeting , monitoring and impact tracking of
    NSGRP and CSOs and women rights tool for holding
    government accountable

20
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Gender review/analyses of key macro-economic
    policies leading to identification and making
    visible key gender issues at sector and local
    government levels, e,g, water privatization
    policies, health-user fees, maternal mortality ,
    livelihood and employment GBV , HIV AIDS-care
    burden etc
  • Promoting GB analyses and capacity building for
    influencing macro economists, planners/budget
    officers and implementers

21
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Development of tools for GB Key gender issues
    checklist manuals , Gender Budget Statements
  • Making GB analysis a key issue for annual
    planning and budgeting proposals, e.g. Budget
    Guidelines , national budget critical tools to
    operationalise and institutionalise GRB and a
    measure of commitment for gender equality on
    annual basis
  • .Ministry of Planning/Finance and key Ministries
    increasingly owning the GB process- capacity
    building /efforts to institutionalise.

22
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Time-Use Survey- undertaken as a module of Labour
    Force Survey- to bridge gap in data in terms of
    valuing , recognising and costing unpaid care
    work critical for sustainability of labour force
    and hence contributions to the economy
  • Engaging with govt processes debt relief issues,
    donor coordination/harmonisation, sector wide
    approaches, decentralisation etc, conducted a
    Study on how GB could be part of new funding
    modalities (GBS)

23
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Investing on capacity building on gender
    budgeting/analyses among Economists/Planners,
    Budget Officers the issue of the hows and how
    to grow gender expertise within the government/
    now demand driven MOFEA, Water, Health , Labour,
    MCDGC, Education, Agriculture , PMO RALG etc
  • Conducting gender analyses in PER/budgeting
    processes (e.g. Gender review of Water sector PER
    for influencing Budget Guidelines/budget
    allocations)

24
4.0 What has worked well?
  • Budget tracking at the district/local levelTGNP,
    CSOs, conducting gender analyses and monitoring
    of budget allocations/impacts in selected local
    governments, currently engendering ongoing PETS
    training/analyses
  • Generating capacity/interest of CSOs, gender
    groups in pro-poor and gender sensitive budget
    work, and public debate on macro economic,
    national resources and budgeting issues
    current debates on corruption

25
4.0 What has worked well?
  • CSOs coalitions (Fem Act , Policy Forum, Heath
    Equity etc) work growing and seen key for
    demanding government accountability
  • Generating analyses, studies and data for
    influencing govt/donor accountability,
    influencing public discourse through policy
    briefs, position papers, etc, sharing results,
    popular version of budget analyses, lobbying and
    advocacy

26
5.0 Lessons/ Challenges
  • Many efforts on ground but limited coordination
    and tangible impact change of poor women and
    men situation - poverty, GBV, maternal mortality
    on increase
  • Building capacity at various levels is essential-
    GTI GRB capacity devt of various levels
  • On-going gender budgeting work in selected
    sectors need to be rolled out to all
    sectors/local governments making financing
    reforms have better and equal outcomes
  • Need sustained advocacy work on utilisation of
    Time-Use results to inform relevant policy
    changes Water , Energy, Agriculture , Health
    ,HIVAIDS

27
5.0 Lessons/ Challenges
  • Challenging international macro-economic
    frameworks is essential liberalisation
    /privatisation MACMODs- North-South NGO
    Partnership is a key strategy.
  • Need strengthening citizen demand at local and
    national levels hence the need to ground GRB
    advocacy more within grassroots organising and
    activism

28
Conclusion
  • Systematic investment for institutionalized
    capacity and accountability mechanisms for GRB
    and gender skills of key actors government
    planners , budget officers , monitoring /impact
    tracking structures actors , donor partners and
    CSOs
  • Need sustained efforts, collaboration and
    commitment by the government , CSOs, donor
    partners .

29
  • THANKS FOR YOUR
  • ATTENTION!
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