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The New Nation

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British common law. civil liberties. trial by jury. subordination ... as opposed to unwritten British constitution. defined structure and powers of government ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Nation


1
The New Nation
  • Dr. Kathryn H. Braund
  • Auburn University
  • Summer Academy 2006

2
3 Areas of Discussion
  • Debate over the adoption of the Constitution
  • The establishment of the government
  • Efforts to foster a new national identity

3
Focus Areas
  • Web Resources
  • Content based web sites
  • Primary sources on-line
  • Use of Primary Sources
  • Dissecting a document
  • Making History Relevant
  • The more things change.

4
Why Primary Documents?
  • Prompt students to ask questions
  • Encourage students to acknowledge various points
    of view
  • Allow students to discover evidence
  • Allow students to see cause-and-effect
    relationships
  • Encourage students to compare and contrast

5
Primary Documents. . .
  • Help students understand continuity and change
    over time.
  • Force students to consider and recognize bias
  • Drive students to determine the validity and
    reliability of sources
  • Enable students to realize the impt. of
    referencing multiple sources of information

6
The War of the Revolution
  • Overthrew monarchy
  • Created a republic
  • Republic govt by elected representatives
  • Fear democracy tyranny of the mob
  • Actually 14 new governments!

7
New Governments
  • Guiding Principles
  • Ideas of the Enlightenment (Montesquieu)
  • Separation of Powers
  • Balanced Government

8
New Governments
  • Guiding Principles
  • British legacy
  • British common law
  • civil liberties
  • trial by jury
  • subordination of military to civilian power
  • restrictions on search warrants
  • freedom of speech press

9
New Governments
  • Guiding Principles
  • Colonial experience
  • Written charters
  • as opposed to unwritten British constitution
  • defined structure and powers of government
  • Legislation
  • Establishment of precedent via practice

10
1775-1776
  • Royal governors flee rebels
  • New states called conventions to establish new
    constitutions or fundamental law
  • Authority of Government from the people

11
New State Governments
  • Great variety
  • one vs. two house legislatures
  • various requirements for voters
  • One common principle
  • Separation of powers
  • Governor cant dissolve an assembly
  • Independent judiciary
  • Lower house more powerful than upper house

12
New State Governments
  • Common Trend
  • increased participation by lower orders
  • loosening of property qualifications for voting
  • idea that the elected representatives represent
    the voters

13
Continental Congres
  • Central government
  • no formal authority but acted as the central
    govt
  • declared independence
  • encouraged states to write constitutions
  • est. foreign relations committees
  • created continental army, navy
  • printed money

14
Articles of Confederation
  • Drawn up in fall 1777 adopted 1781
  • Weak central government
  • no power to tax internally
  • each state has one vote (regardless of size or
    population)

15
Why so long?
  • Troubles over western land
  • landless states fear potential power of
    landed states with no western boundaries
  • Solution
  • Landed states cede western lands (Ohio Valle)
    to the central government

16
Confederation Successes
  • Laid foundation for a unified, federal government
  • Established a federal bureaucracy
  • Managed to finance the war
  • Est. a national land policy
  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

17
The Northwest Territory
18
Northwest Ordinance
  • Create 3-5 states (Ohio R. to Great Lakes)
  • New states equal (not colonies)
  • specific process for est. of govt as population
    grew
  • No slavery
  • Freedom of religion

19
Northwest Ordinance
  • Blueprint for the Expansion of the United States
  • Best ideas of the Revolutionary era
  • republican government
  • rights of citizens
  • religious toleration
  • no slavery

20
Northwest Ordinance
  • Blueprint for the Expansion of the United States
  • Worst aspects of the Revolutionary Era
  • Dispossession of Indian tribes who own the land

21
Despite some success. . .
  • Confederation Govt weak
  • No power to raise money to pay debts
  • Cant deal with post-war economic crisis
  • Shays Rebellion in Mass.
  • Fear of mob rule
  • Fear of European powers
  • British hold posts Spain closes Miss. R.
    European markets closed

22
Plan emerges.
  • Strengthen central government
  • create balance of power btn. state and central
    government
  • provide central government with adequate powers
  • idea revise Articles

23
Constitutional Convention
  • Called to order in late May
  • Conducted in secret (why?)
  • Voting
  • each state gets one vote
  • majority required for adoption of a measure
    (compare with unanimous vote under Articles)

24
Important Issues
  • Relationship between states and federal
    government
  • Mixed system
  • John Dickinson the one, the few, the many
    (federal, states, the people)
  • The people actually represented at federal level
    (not just the states)

25
Important Issues
  • Separation of Powers
  • 3 branches of government (not merely one)
  • further division of powers in legislative branch
  • checks and balances
  • protection of rights (large vs. small states)

26
Theoretical Framework
  • the one, the few and the many
  • Connecticut (Great )Compromise
  • Two house legislature
  • House (People)
  • Money bills
  • Senate (States)

27
Two Other Significant Compromises
  • How to Elect the Executive
  • Electoral College
  • satisfied people, state legislatures, federal
    House
  • How to Ascertain Population for Purposes of
    Representation/Taxation
  • Slavery swept under the rug 3/5 Compromise

28
Style Matters!
  • Committee of Style
  • Gouverneur Morris
  • Change in Preamble
  • Signal change in views of power
  • We the People
  • Little noticed

29
Problem
  • No Specific Bill of Rights
  • Americans fear
  • powerful executive
  • concentration of power in federal govt
  • weakening of states

30
Constitution Resources
  • National Archives
  • A More Perfect Union The Creation of the U.S.
    Constitution (essay)
  • The Founding Fathers Delegates to the
    Constitutional Convention (essay)
  • The Constitution (document)
  • Bill of Rights (document)
  • FAQs (Q A)

31
Constitution Resources
  • Library of Congress American Memory
  • Timeline
  • Brief Overview
  • Lesson Plans
  • National Archives
  • NARA Digital Classroom
  • Constitution Day Ideas

32
Writing is one thing. . .
  • Once signed at the convention, it went to the
    states for ratification

33
The Ratification Debate
  • Pro Strong government would. . .
  • preserve U.S. from foreign threats internal
    conflict
  • protect rights of citizens
  • Con Strong government would. . .
  • trample the rights of citizens
  • destroy the states

34
Bernstein essay
  • Launched shared political discourse
  • Created a national political community
  • Created political component to national identity
  • Resource The Federalist Papers

35
Ratification
  • What were the issues?
  • The Ratification Project
  • Slavery Model Edition

36
Analyzing a Written Document
  • How do you use primary source documents in the
    classroom?
  • Ideas from the NARA

37
Analyzing a Written Document
  • 1. Describe the document. Is this a letter, a
    will, a bill of sale or some other kind of
    document?
  • 2. What does the document describe/relate/report?
    (give a brief summary)
  • 3. What is the date of the document? Is there
    more than one date? Why?

38
Analyzing a Written Document
  • 4. Who is the author of the document? Do you
    believe that the author of this document is
    credible? Is this document written as a
    requirement of the author's occupation or is this
    a personal document?
  • 5. For what audience was this document written?
    Why was it written?
  • 6. List three (3) points that the author made
    that you believe are important.

39
Analyzing a Written Document
  • 7. Can you discern the writer's point of view?
    How does the author interpret the facts
    presented? Does the writer's POV effect the way
    in which the facts are presented?
  • 8. What can you learn about the _________ from
    the document.
  • 9. Write one (1) question to the author that is
    unanswered by the document.

40
Using Primary Sources
  • Analysis Worksheets from the NARA
  • Artifacts
  • Cartoons
  • Documents
  • Maps
  • Photographs
  • Posters
  • Sound

41
The New Government
  • The First Federal Congress Project
  • Mini-Edition
  • Web Site

42
A New People
  • Establishing an American Identity

43
Identity A Shared Past
  • Heroes Symbols of New Nation
  • Commemoration
  • Art
  • Public celebrations
  • Books, etc.
  • Emmanuel Leutze, Crossing the Delaware

44
Identity A Shared Past
  • Commemoration of Heroes
  • Celebration of Public Virtue
  • John Trumbull,
  • George Washington Resigns his Commission

45
Identity A Shared Past
  • Commemoration of Heroes
  • Ideal of Sacrifice for Public Good

John Trumbull, The Death of General Warren at
the Battle of Bunker Hill
46
Identity A Shared Past
  • Commemoration of Heroes
  • Military success

John Trumbull, Surrender of General Burgoyne
47
American National Identity
  • Naming the country transform the land to
    American land (from Indian land)
  • Lexington, Kentucky
  • Washington, D. C.
  • Montgomery, Alabama

48
American National Identity
  • New Literature
  • Noah Webster, American Spelling Book
  • Jedediah Morse, American Gazetteer
  • William Bartram, Travels

49
American National Identity
  • Art
  • John Trumbull
  • Charles Wilson Peale
  • Gilbert Stuart
  • Ezra Ames (portrait of Gouverneur Morris)

50
American National Identity
  • Architecture
  • Classical (as opposed to Georgian)

51
American National Identity
  • Symbols
  • Great Seal (1782)
  • Eagle
  • Latin mottos
  • Symbolic 13

52
The Lansdowne Portrait
  • Gilbert Stuart, 1796
  • http//www.georgewashington.si.edu/portrait/index.
    html

53
The Republic of Science
  • William Bartram
  • note flower (botanical discovery)
  • David Rittenhouse
  • telescope
  • banyan

54
A is for American
  • Language holds people together
  • Common identity
  • National unity

55
Additional Reading
  • Carol Berkin
  • A Brilliant Solution Inventing the American
    Constitution
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