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Using Behavior Systems Technology in Teacher Education Programming: Principles, Practice, and HandsO

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1. It is the daily practices and related interactions of caregiver and clientele, ... 2. Most daily practices (i.e., behavior and setting events) may be strongly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Using Behavior Systems Technology in Teacher Education Programming: Principles, Practice, and HandsO


1
Using Behavior Systems Technology in Teacher
Education Programming Principles, Practice, and
Hands-On Applications
  • TOM SHARPE, M.S., Ed.D., BCBA, ESE
  • Spalding University
  • John Koperwas
  • Educational Consulting, Inc.

2
Traditions in Teacher Education Lots of
Perspectives
  • Quantitative Methods
  • --- Descriptive (Anderson Barrette, 1978)
  • --- Correlational (Sweeting Rink, 1999)
  • --- Experimental (Goldberger Gerney, 1986,
    1990)
  • Qualitative Methods
  • --- Interpretive (Behets, 2001 Chen, 2001
    Cothran Ennis, 1999)
  • --- Critical Theory (Hickey, 2001)
  • Applied Behavior Analysis
  • --- Teaching Practices (Ingham Greer, 1992
    Witt, et. al., 1997)
  • --- Curriculum Models (Sharpe, et. al., 1995
    1996)
  • --- Teacher-Training (Sharpe, Balderson, So,
    2004)

3
The Non-Application ChallengeResearch Data
Non-Use in Professional Practice
  • The traditional S?R?C Skinnerian lens may be too
    narrow for meaningful application in interactive
    settings.
  • There is simply too much data from too many
    methodological sources to absorb.
  • There is a wealth of bad data with the good
    data ignored or distrusted as a result.
  • Positivism and objectivity (e.g., ABA methods)
    have, until recently, been pushed aside by a
    relativist and constructivist epistemology.
  • Landrum, 1997 Sharpe Koperwas, 2003

4
A Longstanding Pedagogical or Teacher Training
Conundrum
  • Do We
  • Talk About How to Teach Effectively?
  • 2. Engage in Deliberate Practice
    Learn-How-To-Teach Activities?

5
Two Appealing Answers We Have for Increasing Data
Use and Recommending Question 2
  • --1-- Interagency Collaboration
  • --- University and teaching professionals working
    together
  • --- Shared leadership roles in teacher-training
    and classroom teaching
  • --- Collective research and development work
    products
  • --- Mutual problem solving and mutual
    accountability
  • Co-Answering the Questions of
  • --- What do we want educational settings to be
    like?
  • --- How do we get them to be that way?
  • Co-working Toward
  • --- A co-developed knowledge base for
    professional preparation
  • --- A co-implementation of data-supported
    classroom practice

6
The Second Answer As If You Didnt Know ? ?
  • --2 -- Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
  • --- Repeated measures over periods of time,
    facilitating trend analysis
  • --- Treatment exposure to all participants using
    alternative design strategies to
  • control for internal validity concerns
  • --- Rigorous data reliability and treatment
    fidelity procedures
  • --- Multiple method compatibility (e.g.,
    ABA??Qualitative Methods)
  • --- User friendly data analysis techniques
    yielding immediate application
  • Some Important Features
  • --- Based on positivism and universal truth
    theory of science
  • --- Emphasis on reliable direct observation
  • --- Emphasis on testability and quantitative
    measurement
  • --- Encourages careful and systematic replication
  • --- Private events are verbally reported through
    social validation
  • Sharpe Koperwas, 2003 Sharpe, Balderson, So,
    2004

7
ABA Compatible Trends with Mainstream
Education/Social Science(They Dont Say What
They Mean, But?)
  • Emphasis on procedural fidelity (i.e., treatment
    implementation accuracy) issues are receiving
    increasing attention. Complex human interaction
    is being more thoroughly described.
  • Ecological description (i.e., setting events) is
    becoming a central concern.
  • Emphasis is being placed on the scientific
    understanding of time-based transactional
    relationships among caregiver and clientele.
  • Interest is in developing behavioral interactions
    for effective therapeutic practice and for
    developing predictive knowledge from which to
    choose in specific situations.
  • In education, performance- and competency-based
    measures (i.e., behavior) are being prioritized
    from a daily teacher and student practice
    perspective.

8
What are our Ongoing Applications?
  • Establish select Professional Development Site
    relationships with public, private, and
    non-traditional educational and therapeutic
    agencies.
  • Logically sequence academic program coursework
    to include data driven guided practice and
    closely supervised observation, professional
    assisting, and professional practice activities
    connected to each core training course.
  • Develop and implement a collaboratively applied
    research agenda to include subject-matter content
    and professional implementation components, and
    to be sensitive to caregiver, clientele, and
    content characteristics.
  • Collect quantitative behavioral data to determine
    immediate and long-range effects of professional
    practice within and across a variety of
    professional settings.
  • Establish a data-driven technology of effective
    professional practice by establishing a
    professional preparation ?? professional practice
    ?? research development feedback loop, with
    each activity informing and improving upon the
    others.

9
Toward A Residency-Based, Deliberate Practice,
Behavioral Research-Bonded Approach to Teacher
Education
  • A Model from Closet Behavioral Technologists
    Trying to Survive Within the Mainstream
    Professional Education Culture ? ?

10
Implications That Direct our Behavior Systems
Approach
  • Increasing Innovation in Data Collection and
    Analysis Techniques Toward More Complete
    Functional Analysis of Complex Interactive
    Education Settings
  • Facilitating Laboratory Simulation Activities for
    Professional Training
  • Demonstrating that Data Matter a Great Deal in
    Professional Practice Decision-Making through
    Feedback and Goal-Setting Experiences in Applied
    Professional Settings
  • Basing Professional Practice on the Need to Know
    What Works in Schools Rather than the Need to
    Believe
  • Documenting and Disseminating More Meaningful
    and More Relevant Professional Practices for
    Therapeutic Benefit

11
Some Notes That Go To OurCore Philosophy
  • 1. It is the daily practices and related
    interactions of caregiver and clientele, in this
    case teacher and student, that matter most to an
    effective therapeutic environment.
  • 2. Most daily practices (i.e., behavior and
    setting events) may be strongly correlated with
    long-term measures of skill acquisition and
    learning.
  • 3. We want to know RIGHT NOW how effective a
    particular educational environment may be, and if
    not optimal, FIX IT behaviorally, in the near and
    long term.

12
A Recommended Teacher Education Progression
  • 1. Learn a common behavioral language designed to
    discuss operationally daily educational practice
    in ecological and situational context.
  • 2. Provide a wealth of laboratory simulations of
    effective and not-so-effective situationally
    specific daily educational practice.
  • 3. Provide a variety of residency-based,
    deliberate practice teaching opportunities under
    the collaborative guidance of trained University
    and practicing professionals.
  • 4. Disseminate current research and development
    information to professionals in training.

13
Once we Develop Collaborative Professional
Relationships, How Do We Do All This???
  • -- Incorporating a Consistent Set of
  • Instructional,
  • Feedback and Goal Setting, and
  • Assessment Tool / Research and
    Development
  • Procedures into a Teacher Education Program.
  • -- Providing a Set of University Class Activities
    as Preparation for the Above Teacher Training
    Experiences.

14
How to Implement our Core Philosophy From a
Scientific Perspective - Unpacking ABA Through
Behavior Systems Analysis
  • Field Theory
  • Contingency Managed
  • Discovery
  • Multiple Variables
  • Context-Bound and Ecologically Valid
  • Conditional Probabilities
  • Focus on Transactional Characteristics
  • Lineal Mechanics
  • Rule Governed
  • Demonstration
  • Limited Variables
  • Context Free
  • Causal Connects
  • Focus on Behavior Characteristics

15
The Questions as Related to Methodological
Capability
  • 1-n 1-n 1-n
  • The New S?R?C
  • How do participants stimulate or respond to
    particular therapeutic situations over time ...
    and were the particular actions effective in
    terms of the probability of altering certain
    behaviors toward desired outcomes within and
    outside of the primary training setting?
  • Discovery
  • The Old S?R?C
  • How does behavior A effect behavior Bhow can
    we make related causal assumptions across these
    isolated discrete variableshow can we stipulate
    a theoretically context-free relationship?
  • Demonstration

16
Computer Technology Really HelpsKahng Iwata,
JABA, 1998, 31(2) Sharpe, 2004, Encyclopedia of
Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior
Therapy
  • BEST System (7.0 7.1) -- Sharpe Koperwas
  • Behavior Observer System -- Martin
  • DATACAP -- Emerson Adrian
  • Data Collection Assistant -- Saunders
  • Direct Observation Data System -- Johnson
  • Ecobehavioral Assessment -- Greenwood
  • Event-PC -- Ha

17
Computer Technology Really Helps - Continued -
  • The Observer -- Noldus Information Tech.
  • Multi-Option Observation System -- Tapp
  • Observational Data Acquisition -- Hetrick
  • Observational Data Collection -- Oliver
  • Portable Computer Systems -- Williams
  • Professional Behavior Evaluation -- Ricketts
  • Virtual Behavior Analyst -- Winston

18
Combining Measurement and Description Capabilities
  • Lineal Mechanics
  • Number
  • Rate
  • Duration
  • Percent
  • Discrete Recording
  • Interval Recording
  • Time Sampling
  • Systems Theory
  • First, Last, Longest, Shortest, Span
  • Inter-Response Time
  • Conditional Probability
  • Multiple, Overlapping Event Recording
  • Recording in Real Time

19
Exploring Additional Measurement Lenses
  • Complexity The number of different behaviors and
    events necessary to complete description of
    behavior transactions.
  • Rhythm Regularity of behavior transactions with
    the probability of temporal occurrence the main
    analysis.
  • Coherence Actual versus possible number of
    different behavioral transactions, determining
    the predictability of the total behavior-event
    system.
  • Velocity Rate of behavior change.
  • Fluency Correlation among rhythm, coherence, and
    velocity.

20
A Professional and Scientific Challenge
  • Overcoming the mainstream education and social
    science mischaracterization of the analysis of
    behavior as a mechanistic, linear, rule-governed,
    exclusionary, and largely technocratic
    enterprise.
  • Presenting the applied analysis of behavior as
    compatible with contemporary performance- and
    outcomes-based education and social science
    reform initiatives.
  • Operating from a framework of more complete
    analysis through
  • --- Linguistic description (talk about what
    occurs)
  • --- Topographic representation (display what
    occurs)
  • --- Transactional modeling (quantify what occurs)
  • of complex interactive settings.

21
Again, Computer Technology Really Helps!
  • More complete and readily understandable data
    descriptions
  • New and alternative data lens capabilities
  • Immediacy of data-driven goal-directed feedback
  • Immediacy of across educational episode
    comparisons
  • Facilitates multiple form data collection
  • Facilitates multiple method data analysis
  • Increased data management capability for
    long-range portfolio construction
  • Facilitates data-support of professional training
    methods
  • Encourages new and alternative educational
    experiences designed for more effective
    professional preparation

22
Some Short-Term Teacher- Training Data
  • Illustrating How a Behavior Systems Analysis Lens
    Operates

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Some Long-Term Professional Teacher Data
  • Illustrating Behavior Systems Training Effects
    When Used as a Long-Term Feedback Plus
    Goal-Setting Instrument

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Some Long-Term Positive Social Behavior Systems
Data
  • Illustrating Behavior Systems as a Method for
    Documenting Effects of Innovative K-12 Curricula

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- Lets Look at the BEST Data Tools -
  • Collection Platforms
  • Obs. System Construction
  • Keyboarding Collection Methods
  • Multi-Tasking for Experimental Research
  • Video Synchronization and File Merging Functions
  • On-Line Data Viewing
  • Pause and Editing Capabilities
  • Ease of Use
  • Analysis Platforms
  • Discrete Measures
  • Time-Based Measures
  • Sequential Data
  • Sophisticated Behavior Graph Statistical
    Capabilities
  • Individual- or Across-Data File Analyses
  • Reliability Analysis for Staff Training and
    Interobserver Agreement
  • Windows Applications Compatibility

39
- Lets Also Look at / Make Our Own Hands on
Teacher Training Applications
  • Preface and Focus
  • Developing A Common Language
  • Video Laboratory Experiences
  • Feedback Strategy Examples
  • Textbook Help (Sharpe Koperwas, 2003)
  • Internet Help (tsharpe_at_spalding.edu )
  • Software Tool Assistance (www.skware.com or
    tsharpe_at_spalding.edu )
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