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Freedom an offer you can't refuse Danish concepts of integration in the debate on Muslim migrants Ul

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Spatiality. Intentionality. Strategy 'Oughtology' at t2. Us ... Spatiality. Intentionality. Strategy Alternative. Strategy. 2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Freedom an offer you can't refuse Danish concepts of integration in the debate on Muslim migrants Ul


1
Freedom an offer you can't refuseDanish
concepts of integration in the debate on Muslim
migrantsUlrik Pram GadResearch Priority
"Europe in Transition" / Department of Political
ScienceUniversity of Copenhagen
  • Mandagsseminar
  • CULCOM 20 October 2008

2
Agenda for the next 40 minutes
  • Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Carving out a Liberal(?) Integration Narrative

3
0. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Dissertation
  • Constructing Danish, European and Western
    Identity through 'Muslim Relations'
  • (How) Can They Become (Like) Us?
  • Cases
  • Danish integration policies re. Migrants
  • European integration policies re. Turkey
  • Western integration policies re. Muslim World
  • How these cases relate

4
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Identity when we speak about A and B being
    identical (or as if A and B were identical)?

5
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Identity when we speak about A and B being
    identical (or as if A and B were identical)?
  • Discourse regularity in the dispersion of
    utterances (Foucault 197238)?

6
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Identity when we speak about A and B being
    identical (or as if A and B were identical)?
  • Discourse regularity in the dispersion of
    utterances (Foucault 197238)?
  • Danish identity discourse the agreement that
    there is such a thing as a Danish identity.
  • the starting point for disagreements over what
    Danish identity would more specifically be.

7
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Basic elements in Danish Identity Discourse
  • Culturally homogenous
  • Danish People built its(!) welfare state
  • NationStateCultureLanguageChurch....
  • An example to the World
  • ... on how to live at home peaceful tolerance
  • ... exporting good
  • Identity needs difference Self/Other, Us/Them
  • Danish identity pt. contrasted to The Muslims

8
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
Radical Other
Radical Other
Radical Other
Difference
Other B
Other C
X
Self
Identity
Self
Self
9
1. Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
Ontology at t1
Them
Spatiality
Intentionality
Them
Temporality
Spatiality
Strategy Alternative Strategy
Intentionality
Temporality
Strategy
Us
Us
Oughtology at t2
10
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
Among all the immigrant groups the
self-reported attachment to Denmark is
generally greater than the attachment to the
country of origin. ... The proportion of
immigrants and descendants who do not want to
stay in Denmark varies from 15 pct. to 23 pct.
9 pct. of the Danes state that they do not want
to live in Denmark for the rest of their lives.
(Gundelach et al. 2007)
11
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Culturalism

Muslims
We Danes are dealing with each other with
tolerance, good manners, politeness, compassion,
and mutual understanding and respect. ...The
Muslim way of life is ... incompatible with
Danish, Christian way of thinking, since it is
against Danish way of thinking to accept extreme
male chauvinism, violent upbringing, separation
of the sexes, forced marriage, female excision,
flogging and brainwashing of school
children (MP Kjærsgaard, DPP, 1998)?
X
Danes
12
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Culturalism

Muslims
We Danes are dealing with each other with
tolerance, good manners, politeness, compassion,
and mutual understanding and respect. ...The
Muslim way of life is ... incompatible with
Danish, Christian way of thinking, since it is
against Danish way of thinking to accept extreme
male chauvinism, violent upbringing, separation
of the sexes, forced marriage, female excision,
flogging and brainwashing of school
children (MP Kjærsgaard, DPP, 1998)?
Assimilation / Separation
X
Danes
13
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Culturalism Multiculturalism

Muslim Danes
Muslims
integration is a mutual process which needs to
be based on equal opportunity and absence of
discrimination. To achieve that, we need to
strengthen the possibilities for the ethnic
minorities to communicate knowledge of their
culture and conditions in Denmark. (centre/left
motion in Parl, 2000)?
Assimilation / Separation
Dialogue
X
Danes
Ethnic Danes
14
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Culturalism Multiculturalism

Muslim Danes
Muslims
Assimilation / Separation
Dialogue
X
Danes
Ethnic Danes
15
2. Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Culturalism Multiculturalism

?
Muslim Danes
Muslims
Culturally agnostic integration?
Assimilation / Separation
Dialogue
Danes
X
Danes
Ethnic Danes
Social-Conservative Liberalism?
16
Agenda
  • Danish Identity through Muslim Relations
  • Culturalism vs. Multiculturalism?
  • Carving out a Liberal(?) Integration Narrative
  • Concentric Fortifications to Limit the Influx
  • Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Cultural Integration as The Duty to be Free
  • Counterterrorism The Return of Dialogue

17
3. Carving out a Liberal Integration Narrative
  • The Irrelevance of Their Culture

I am not minister for shower curtains, head
scarves, and liver pâte in kindergartens.
(Minister for Integration Haarder, lib., 2004)?
The Chinese are perfect immigrants because they
fulfil the only criterion for integration
integration in the labour market. ... no one is
demanding that they dispose of their culture as
long as they prove themselves able to work and
participate in the Danish community... If all
immigrants were like the Chinese, my job as
Minister for Integration would be
superfluous. (Minister for Integration
Haarder, lib., 2002)?
18
3. Carving out a Liberal Integration Narrative
  • The Irrelevance of Their Culture
  • The Ultimate Relevance of Our Culture

We do ... not want a multicultural Denmark. We
find that Danish Christianity, history, culture
and conception of democracy shall be the
foundation upon which Denmark rests. We need to
be better at dialogue ... and in that dialogue
we shall dare to say who we are. The presence of
people of other ethnic background and other
religious faith shall not make us give up what is
ours. (later Minister for Integration Hornbech,
lib., 2000)?
19
3. Carving out a Liberal Integration Narrative
  • The Irrelevance of Their Culture
  • The Ultimate Relevance of Our Culture

Danish culture is more important than other
cultures. ... One need to be familiar with the
biblical story and one need to be acquainted
with other religions. This is discrimination and
this is the way it should be... So, I contend,
all this talk of equality of cultures and
equality of religion it is nonsense... Well,
Denmark is a Danish society. It is the Danes who
decide in Denmark. And we are, as well, the ones
who decide how many should be let in... Isn't
this discrimination? Of course it is
discrimination." (Minister for Integration
Haarder, lib., 2004)?
20
3.a Concentric Fortifications to Limit the Influx
(Muslim) Strangers
Denmark
21
3.a Concentric Fortifications to Limit the Influx
  • Access
  • Visa Policies
  • Asylum Criteria
  • No de facto
  • Potential for Integration
  • Family Reunification
  • Criteria
  • Migration Exam
  • Bureaucracy

22
3.a Concentric Fortifications to Limit the Influx
Access
  • Residence
  • Integration Contracts
  • Expelling Criminals
  • Economic Incentives
  • Repatriation Schemes

23
3.a Concentric Fortifications to Limit the Influx
Access
Residence
  • Citizenship
  • Waiting time
  • Naturalization Exams
  • Excluding Burdens
  • Annulling Citizenships

24
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
(Muslim) Strangers
Denmark
25
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
The significant drop in the influx of refugees
and immigrants has created the preconditions for
an efficient integration of the immigrants who
are already in the country. (Lib./Con.
Government platform 2005)?
  • Processing Integration
  • (Education -gt) Labour Market avert threat to
    Welfare State
  • Disperse Ghettos dissolve threat to Homogeneity
  • Fight Excessive Crime Statistics fight threat
    to Peaceful Society
  • ? INTEGRATION incl. Cultural

26
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?

Integration is ... important for foreigners
with a permanent residence in Denmark. ... it
naturally demands that a foreigner with another
ethnic background coming to Denmark really take
the trouble to become Dane. (MP Kjærsgaard,
DPP, 2000)
"The 1983 Alien Act was one of the most fatal
events ... Here, the Danish people were derived
of their right of primogeniture " (MP
Krarup, DPP 2005)?
27
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Rationalist Reflex Labour Market ?
    Integration Culturalism Distraction

One of the problems is the massive focus on
religion, culture and tradition ... employers who
have experienced new-Danish apprentices quickly
forget about the cultural background of the
apprentices. (Min. for Employment Frederiksen,
lib., 2002)?
28
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Indulgent Rationalist Labour Market! (
    Culture) ? Integration

participation in the labour market ... is the
most important precondition for a successful
integration ... One of the goals of a successful
integration is that the foreigners endorse some
fundamental values and norms ... which are
necessary for their ability to participate on
equal footing in working life and societal life
in other respects. (Tænketanken 2001)?
29
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Indulgent Rationalist Labour Market! (
    Culture) ? Integration
  • Culturalist Rationalist Culture -gt Labour
    Market ? Integration

The point that foreigners should endorse
fundamental values and norms does not in it self
mean that foreigners have to give up their
original culture, e.g. religion, attire, or
cuisine. This may, however, be necessary if
insistence on the original culture is in
conflict with values and norms in Denmark to such
an extent that foreigners cannot participate on
equal footing in working life and societal life
in other respects. (Tænketanken 2007)?
30
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Indulgent Rationalist Labour Market! (
    Culture) ? Integration
  • Culturalist Rationalist Culture -gt Labour
    Market ? Integration
  • Functionalist RationalistHomogenous Culture -gt
    Cohesive Powergt Culture ? Integration

31
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Functionalist Rationalist
  • Sammenhængskraft cohesive power (social
    cohesion)?
  • Social sammenhængskraft social cohesive power

I have come to the conclusion that social
cohesive powerand only a little inequality is
a competitive issue (PM Rasmussen, lib.,
2004)?
Cohesive power that is to secure a society that
hangs together.A society in which there are not
too great social or economical divisions ... But
cohesive power is also to secure a society that
hangs together in terms of values. (PM
Rasmussen, lib., 2005)
32
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Functionalist Rationalist
  • Sammenhængskraft cohesive power (social
    cohesion)?

The strength of the Danish welfare society is
that we are so homogenous and have a great
cohesive power. ... But if there are large
groups with entirely different values ... then
our society starts falling apart.
(Former/later minister Jespersen,
soc.dem.-gtlib., 1999)?
33
3.b Relating Societal and Cultural Integration
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Indulgent Rationalist Labour Market! (
    Culture) ? Integration
  • Culturalist Rationalist Culture -gt Labour
    Market ? Integration
  • Functionalist RationalistHomogenous Culture -gt
    Cohesive Power gt Culture ? Integration
  • Culturalist UniversalistOur Culture
    Universally validgt Culture ? Integration

34
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
(Muslim) Strangers
Denmark
35
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • Danish values, norms and practices are good
  • If They knew what was best for them,They would
    do/be like Us.
  • Works by way of metonymy and contrast
  • Specific Danish Value Specific Muslim Value
  • Danish identity Muslim Other
  • Mouritsen (2006) The particular universalism
    of a Nordic civic nation, ch. 5 in Modood et al
    (eds) Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship,
    Routledge

36
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • basic mode of knowledge production
  • freedom of expression (vs. religious taboo)?

The freedom of expression entails that
everything may be put up for critical
discussion. I will, e.g., never accept that it
should not be possible to discuss sharia
critically. It cannot be that because someone
says that it is sacred then it cannot be made
the object of a discussion. (PM Rasmussen,
lib., 2006)?
37
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • basic mode of knowledge production
  • freedom of expression (vs. religious taboo)?
  • Specific Freedom Specific Coercion
  • Danish Freedom Muslim Coercion

The freedom of expression entails that
everything may be put up for critical
discussion. I will, e.g., never accept that it
should not be possible to discuss sharia
critically. It cannot be that because someone
says that it is sacred then it cannot be made
the object of a discussion. (PM Rasmussen,
lib., 2006)?
38
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • basic mode of rationality of government
  • secular democracy (vs. religious dictate)?

Christianity constitutes the difference between
politics and religion the words of Christ make
politics no longer a holy matter (Min.f.Ch
urch Fergo, lib.) Without the gospel, salvation
becomes a political task. Political ideologies
will reign freely over peoples souls. (later
Min.f. Integration and Church Hornbech,
lib.)? "It is an anomaly to speak of Christian
fundamentalists." (MP Holmsgaard, soc.)?
39
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • basic mode of social interaction
  • peaceful consensus (vs. violence)?
  • basic mode of collective identification
  • the nation state (vs. the ummah)?

40
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Universalism
  • basic mode of social organisation
  • egalitarianism (vs. hierarchy)?

We shall not, by reference to something cultural
or religious, accept if a specific attire,
education or spouse is forced on women ... We
must help the individual immigrant woman to live
an active life and we must change the opinion of
both men and women for the benefit of
integration... It is related to another worrying
tendency ... that is, the coming generations
(Min.f. Integration, Hvilshøj, lib., 2007)?
41
3.c Cultural Integration The Duty to be Free
  • Culturalist Our Culture Our Rightgt
    Culture ? Integration (Alternative Leave)?
  • Culturalist UniversalistOur Culture
    Universally validgt Culture ? Integration
  • NO Alternative Resistance Mis-recognition
    of Universality Existential Threat to
    Identity
  • Freedom an offer the Muslim cant refuse - and
    the State cant afford not to deliver...

42
3.d Counterterrorism The Return of Dialogue
it is important that suspicion of being part of
the problem is not thrown on anyone able to
contribute to the solution... efforts should be
concentrated on disagreeing dialogue that is
direct dialogue with persons who represent
controversial opinions (Government
counterterrorism action plan 2008)
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