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Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

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That involve physical symptoms and complaints suggesting ... Smell. Hearing. Conversion disorder. Primary gain: Escape or avoidance of a stressful situation. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders


1
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
  • Somatoform Disorders
  • Hypochondriasis
  • Somatization Disorder
  • Pain Disorder
  • Conversion Disorder
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative Amnesia
  • Dissociative Fugue
  • Dissociative Identity Disorder

2
Somatoform Disorder
  • Somatoform disorders are a group of
  • conditions
  • That involve physical symptoms and complaints
    suggesting the presence of a medical condition.
  • No evidence of physical pathology.

3
Hypochondriasis
  • Preoccupied with fears of
  • getting a serious disease or
  • the idea that they have one.
  • Cognitive-behavioral views
  • most widely accepted.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy most effective.

4
Somatization Disorder
  • Many different complaints of physical ailments
    with the following characteristics
  • Lasting several years.
  • Beginning before age 30.
  • Not adequately explained by independent findings
    of physical illness or injury.
  • Leading to medical treatment or to significant
    life impairment.

5
Somatization Disorder
  • DSM-IV-TR lists four additional symptom criteria
    needed for a diagnosis of somatization disorder
  • 4 pain symptoms
  • 2 gastrointestinal symptoms
  • 1 sexual symptom
  • 1 pseudo neurological symptom

6
Somatization Disorder
  • Features
  • Usually begins in adolescence.
  • Is 3 to 10 times more common in women than in
    men.
  • Often occurs with major depression/panic disorder
  • There may be a genetic predisposition.
  • Contributory Factors
  • Personality
  • Cognitive
  • Learning variables

7
Somatization Disorder
  • Extremely difficult to treat.
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy.

8
Pain Disorder
  • Persistent/Severe pain in one or moare areas in
    the body.
  • Symptoms of pain disorder resemble the pain
    symptoms of somatization disorder.
  • With pain disorder, the other symptoms are not
    present.

9
Pain Disorder
  • DSM-IV-TR specifies two subtypes of PD
  • Associated with psychological factors.
  • Associated with both psychological/General
    Medical Condition.
  • Treatment
  • Cognitive-behavioral techniques.

10
Conversion disorder
  • Deficits affecting sensory or voluntary motor
    functions lead one to think a patient has a
    medical condition.
  • The patient looses a sensory function.
  • Sight
  • Taste
  • Tactile (limbs)
  • Smell
  • Hearing

11
Conversion disorder
  • Primary gain
  • Escape or avoidance of a stressful situation.
  • Secondary gain
  • Attention and financial compensation.
  • Conversion disorders are no longer as prevalent
    as they once were.

12
Conversion disorder
  • Symptoms of conversion disorder fall under one of
    the following four categories
  • Sensory symptoms/deficits
  • Motor symptoms/deficits
  • Seizures
  • Mixed presentation from the first three
    categories
  • It is crucial that patients receive a thorough
    medical and neurological examination to rule out
    organic illness.

13
Conversion disorder
  • Conversion disorders are considered distinct
    from (Intentionality)
  • Malingering Disorder
  • Factitious Disorder
  • Knowledge of how best to treat conversion
    disorder is extremely limited.

14
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Obsessed with some perceived or imagined flaws in
    appearance.
  • 12 suffer from the disorder.
  • People with the disorder commonly have a
    depressive diagnosis.
  • Many researchers believe BDD is closely related
  • OCD
  • Eating disorders

15
Somatoform Disorders
  • Treatments
  • Antidepressant medications
  • Cognitive-behavioral treatment focused on
    exposure and response prevention.

16
Dissociative Disorders
  • Defined Group of conditions involving
    disruptions in a persons normally integrated
    functions
  • Consciousness
  • Memory
  • Identity
  • Perception
  • Derealization
  • Sense of the reality of the outside world is
    temporarily lost.
  • Depersonalization
  • Sense of ones self and ones reality is
    temporarily lost.

17
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Failure to recall previously stored personal
    information.
  • Cant be explained by basic forgetting.
  • Dissociative fugue
  • Person also departs from home surroundings

18
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Patient manifests two or more distinct identities
    or personality states.
  • Must alternate in taking control of behavior.
  • Alters are not personalities.
  • Rare.
  • Starts in childhood.

19
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Controversy
  • Is the disorder real or faked?
  • How does it develop?
  • Are recovered memories of abuse in the disorder
    real or false?
  • If abuse has occurred, did it play a causal
    role?

20
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • No systematic controlled research has been
    conducted.
  • Possible treatments include
  • Hypnosis
  • Integration of separate alters
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