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PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY. Part 1: Introduction, Measurements, Instruments, etc.

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Title: PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY. Part 1: Introduction, Measurements, Instruments, etc.


1
PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY.Part 1 Introduction,
Measurements, Instruments, etc.
  • GEOL 1033
  • (Lesson 26)
  • Ppt file 103-22

2
PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHERS
  • Interested in
  • Heat exchange
  • Evaporation
  • Density
  • Temperature
  • Water movements currents, waves, tides, etc.
  • Other physical properties of water
  • Measures
  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Density
  • Oxygen content
  • Pressure
  • Currents

3
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • Nansen bottle
  • For water sample collection
  • Lowered on a cable
  • Activate with a messenger ( a little weight
    that slides down the cable until it hits and
    triggers the bottle to take a sample.)

4
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • Nansen bottle Collecting water samples at some
    depth

5
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • Bathythermograph
  • BT acronym
  • Usually lowered on a cable
  • Sensitive to
  • Temperature and
  • Water pressure, which is related to depth
  • Measures any changes in temperature as depth
    increases
  • XBT acronym for expendable bathythermograph
  • Dropped from
  • a moving boat or
  • even from an airplane
  • Radio sends data back to ship/plane

6
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • BT (bathythermograph)
  • Graphic profile of temperature variation with
    depth inscribed on a black-coated glass slide

7
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • XBT
  • Expendable BT
  • Can be attached by a cable to a recorder on ship
  • Depth can be calculated because of known rate of
    descent.
  • Data is radioed back to an airplane that drops
    one

8
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • STD device
  • Electronic
  • Lowered on a cable
  • Measures while being raised or lowered
  • Salinity
  • Temperature
  • Depth (by measuring associated pressure changes)
  • Transmits data by cable back up to ship

9
Some Physical Oceanography Instruments
  • Rosette, a STD device
  • Collect many water samples
  • Up to 10 x30 L Nansen bottles
  • Can be triggered electronically
  • Pinger used to locate depth (or depth can be
    determined by pressure changes)
  • Can record other information at the same time
  • suspended particle matter
  • oxygen

10
MEASURING CURRENTS
11
MEASURING CURRENTS
  • Current meters
  • Mechanical
  • A fan-like device (rotor) spins on a shaft of a
    generator
  • Electrical output is calibrated to water speed
  • Induction
  • Applies the principle that salt water is a
    conductor, so as water flows through a coil of
    wire an electric current is generated that can be
    calibrated.

12
MEASURING CURRENTS
  • Indirect methods of studying water currents
  • Measure other water properties whose variations
    indicate water movements
  • Study
  • Oxygen content
  • Temperature
  • Salinity
  • Density
  • Radioactive isotopes, e. g., 90Sr
  • Distribution of warm- or cold- water organisms
    (Gulf Stream example)
  • Imagery
  • Airplane Aerial photographs, e. g., visible
    spectrum, infrared, etc.
  • Satellite infrared, reflectivity,
    visible-light, radar, etc.

13
MEASURING CURRENTS
  • Determining coastal surface ocean current systems
    using aerial photography

14
Satellite Remote Sensing of the Grand Banks
  • Renewed petroleum exploration in the 1980's
    inspired greater oceanographic research

370 km Canadian exclusive fishing zone
15
SATELLITE IMAGERY TO MEASURE SURFACE TEMPERATURES
16
SATELLITE IMAGERY TO MEASURE SURFACE TEMPERATURES
  • Calibrations permit mapping surface temperature
    variations

17
END OF FILE
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