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Title: Symposium%20Ethics%20and%20Robotics


1
Symposium Ethics and Robotics
  • University of Tsukuba Japan
  • October 3, 2009

2
Ethics and Robotics An Intercultural Perspective
  • Rafael Capurro
  • Steinbeis Transfer Institute Information Ethics
  • http//sti-ie.de
  • Germany
  • Last update July 13, 2009

3
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4
Content
  • Introduction
  • EU Project ETHICBOTS (2005-2008)
  • http//ethicbots.na.infn.it/index.php
  • Wallach Allen on Moral Machines
  • Isaac Asimov Three Laws of Robotics
  • Korean Robot Ethics Charter
  • European Robotics Research Network (EURON)
  • Roboethics
  • AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Workshop on Roboethics, ICRA 2009, Kobe, May 2009
  • ECAP (European Computing and Philosophy) 2007
  • SPT (Society for Philosophy and Technology) 2009
  • Machine Ethics Consortium
  • AP-CAP 2009
  • Being-in-the-world with robots

5
Introduction
  • Ethics and robotics are two academic
    disciplines,
  • one dealing with the moral norms and values
    underlying implicitly or explicitly human
    behaviour
  • and the other aiming at the production of
    artificial agents, mostly as physical devices,
    with some degree of autonomy based on rules and
    programmes set up by their creators.
  • (Capurro/Nagenborg 2009)

6
Introduction
  • Since the first robots arrived on the stage in
    the play by Karel Capek (1921) visions of a world
    inhabited by humans and robots gave rise to
    countless utopian and dystopian stories, songs,
    movies, and video games.
  • (Capurro/Nagenborg 2009)

7
Karel Capek R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)
(1922)
8
Introduction
  • Robots are and will remain in the foreseeable
    future dependent on human ethical scrutiny as
    well as on the moral and legal responsibility of
    humans.
  • (Capurro/Nagenborg 2009)

9
Introduction
  • Human-robot interaction raises serious ethical
    questions right now that are theoretically less
    ambitious but practically more important than the
    possibility of the creation of moral machines
    that would be more than machines with an ethical
    code.
  • (Capurro/Nagenborg 2009)

10
ETHICBOTS
  • EU Project ETHICBOTS on Emerging Technoethics of
    Human Interaction with Communication, Bionic and
    Robotic Systems (2005-2008).
  • The project aimed at identifying crucial ethical
    issues in these areas such as
  • the preservation of human identity, and
    integrity
  • applications of precautionary principles
  • economic and social discrimination
  • artificial system autonomy and accountability
  • responsibilities for (possibly unintended)
    warfare applications
  • nature and impact of human-machine cognitive and
    affective bonds on individuals and society.

11
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12
ETHICBOTS
  • Following issues were analyzed
  • (a) Human-softbot integration, as achieved by AI
    research on information and communication
    technologies
  • (b) Human-robot, non-invasive integration, as
    achieved by robotic research on autonomous
    systems inhabiting human environments
  • (c) Physical, invasive integration, as achieved
    by bionic research.

13
ETHICBOTS

14
Ethics and Robotics
  • R. Capurro and M. Nagenborg (Eds.) Ethics and
    Robotics. Heidelberg
  • Akad.Verlagsgesellschaft 2009 (ISBN
    978-3-89838-087-4 (AKA) and 978-1-60750-008-7
    (IOS Press)
  • P. M. Asaro What should We Want from a Robot
    Ethic?
  • G. Tamburrini Robot Ethics A View from the
    Philosophy of Science
  • B. Becker Social Robots - Emotional Agents Some
    Remarks on Naturalizing Man-machine Interaction
  • E. Datteri, G. Tamburrini Ethical Reflections on
    Health Care Robotics
  • P. Lin, G. Bekey, K. Abney Robots in War Issues
    of Risk and Ethics
  • J. Altmann Preventive Arms Control for
    Uninhabited Military Vehicles
  • J. Weber Robotic warfare, Human Rights The
    Rhetorics of Ethical Machines
  • T. Nishida Towards Robots with Good Will
  • R. Capurro Ethics and Robotics

15
Wallach Allen on Moral Machines
http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/ (Oxford
Univ. Press 2009)

16
Wallach Allen http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/
(Oxford Univ. Press 2009)
  • Three questions emerge naturally from the
    discussion so far. Does the world need AMAs? Do
    people want computers making moral decisions? And
    if people believe that computers making moral
    decisions are necessary or inevitable, how should
    engineers and philosophers proceed to design
    AMAs?(Introd.)

17
Wallach Allen http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/
(Oxford Univ. Press 2009)
  • We take the instrumental approach that while
    full-blown moral agency may be beyond the current
    or future technology, there is nevertheless much
    space between operational morality and genuine
    moral agency. This is the niche we identified as
    functional morality in chapter 2.(Introd.)

18
Wallach Allen http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/
(Oxford Univ. Press 2009)
  • The top-down and bottom-up approaches emphasize
    the importance in ethics of the ability to
    reason. However, much of the recent empirical
    literature on moral psychology emphasizes
    faculties besides rationality.

19
Wallach Allen http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/
(Oxford Univ. Press 2009)
  • Emotions, sociability, semantic understanding,
    and consciousness are all important to human
    moral decision making, but it remains an open
    question whether these will be essential to AMAs,
    and if so, whether they can be implemented in
    machines. (Introd.)

20
Wallach Allen http//moralmachines.blogspot.com/
(Oxford Univ. Press 2009)
  • The field of machine morality extends the field
    of computer ethics beyond concern for what people
    do with their computers to questions about what
    the machines do by themselves. (In this book we
    will use the terms ethics and morality
    interchangeably.) We are discussing the
    technological issues involved in making computers
    themselves into explicit moral reasoners.
    (Introd.)

21
Isaac Asimov Three Laws of Robotics (1940)
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Laws_of_Roboti
cs
  • A robot may not injure a human being or, through
    inaction, allow a human being to come to harm
  • A robot must obey orders given it by human beings
    except where such orders would conflict with the
    First Law
  • A robot must protect its own existence as long as
    such protection does not conflict with the First
    or Second Law

22
Superman-mechanical-monster http//en.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/FileSuperman-mechanical-monster.jpg

23
Korean Robot Ethics Charter See Shim (2007)
24
European Robotics Research Network
(EURON) http//www.euron.org/
25
EURON Roboethics Atelier
26
ROBOETHICS http//www.roboethics.org/
27
EURON Roboethics Roadmap
  • Roboethics (this term was coined in 2002 by G.
    Veruggio) taxonomy
  • Humanoids
  • Advanced production systems
  • Adaptive robot servants and intelligent homes
  • Network Robotics
  • Outdoor Robotics
  • Health Care and Life Quality
  • Military Robotics
  • Edutainment
  • See http//www.roboethics.org/atelier2006/docs/RO
    BOETHICS20ROADMAP20Rel2.1.1.pdf

28
EURON Roboethics Roadmap
  • Ethical issues shared by Roboethics and
    Information Ethics
  • Dual-use technology
  • Anthropomorphization of the Machines
  • Humanisation of the Human/Machine relationship
  • Technology Addiction
  • Digital Divide
  • Fair Access to technological resources
  • Effects of technology on the global distribution
    of wealth and power
  • Environmental impact of technology
  • Seehttp//www.roboethics.org/atelier2006/docs/ROB
    OETHICS20ROADMAP20Rel2.1.1.pdf

29
EURON Roboethics Roadmap
  • Principles to be followed in roboethics
  • Human dignity and human rights
  • Equality, justice and equity
  • Benefit and harm
  • Respect for cultural diversity and pluralism
  • Non-Discrimination and non-stigmatization
  • Autonomy and individual responsibility
  • Informed consent
  • Privacy
  • Confidentiality
  • Solidarity and cooperation
  • Social responsibility
  • Sharing of benefits
  • Responsibility towards the biosphere
  • See http//www.roboethics.org/atelier2006/docs/RO
    BOETHICS20ROADMAP20Rel2.1.1.pdf

30
AAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • AAAI Fall 2005 Symposium on Machine
    Ethics November 3-6, 2005 Hyatt Regency Crystal
    City Arlington, Virginia

31
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Past research concerning the relationship between
    technology and ethics has largely focused on
    responsible and irresponsible use of technology
    by human beings, with a few people being
    interested in how human beings ought to treat
    machines. In all cases, only human beings have
    engaged in ethical reasoning. The time has come
    for adding an ethical dimension to at least some
    machines.

32
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Recognition of the ethical ramifications of
    behavior involving machines, as well as recent
    and potential developments in machine autonomy,
    necessitates this. In contrast to computer
    hacking, software property issues, privacy issues
    and other topics normally ascribed to computer
    ethics, machine ethics is concerned with the
    behavior of machines towards human users and
    other machines.

33
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • We contend that research in machine ethics is key
    to alleviating concerns with autonomous
    systemsit could be argued that the notion of
    autonomous machines without such a dimension is
    at the root of all fear concerning machine
    intelligence.

34
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Further, investigation of machine ethics could
    enable the discovery of problems with current
    ethical theories, advancing our thinking about
    ethics. We intend to bring together interested
    participants from a wide variety of disciplines
    to the end of forging a set of common goals for
    machine ethics investigation and the research
    agendas required to accomplish them.

35
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Topics of interest include, but are not
    restricted to the following
  • Improvement of interaction between artificially
    and naturally intelligent systems through the
    addition of an ethical dimension to artificially
    intelligent systems
  • Enhancement of machine-machine communication and
    cooperation through an ethical dimension

36
AAAI 2005 Symposium on Machine Ethics
  • Design of systems that provide expert guidance in
    ethical matters
  • Deeper understanding of ethical theories through
    computational simulation
  • Development of decision procedures for ethical
    theories that have multiple prima facie duties
  • Computability of ethics
  • Theoretical and practical objections to machine
    ethics
  • Impact of machine ethics on society

37
Workshop on Roboethics ICRA 2009, Kobe, May 2009
38
Workshop on Roboethics ICRA 2009, Kobe, May 2009
  • Topics (CfP)
  • Social (Robotics and job market Cost benefit
    analysis etc.)
  • Psychological (Robots and kids Robots and
    elderly, etc.)
  • Legal (Robots and liability, Identification of
    autonomously acting robots etc.)
  • Medical (Robots in health care and prosthesis
    etc.)
  • Warfare application of robotics (Responsibility,
    International Conventiuons and Laws etc.)
  • Environment (Cleaning nuclear and toxic waste,
    Using renewable energies, etc.)

39
ECAP 07 http//www.roboethics.org/ecap2007/program
me.html
  • European Computing and Philosophy Conference,
    Enschede, The Netherlands, 2007 Philosophy and
    Ethics of Robotics
  • G. Veruggio Roboethics an interdisciplinary
    approach to the social implications of Robotics
  • Ishii Kayoko Can a Robot Intentionally Conduct
    Mutual Interactions with Human Being?
  • Ronald C. Arkin On the Ethical Quandaries of
    Practicing Roboticist A First Hand Look

40
ECAP 07 http//www.roboethics.org/ecap2007/program
me.html
  • Jutta Weber Analysing Material, Semiotic and
    Socio-Political Dimensions of Artificial Agents
  • Daniel Persson Ethics of Intelligent Systems
    Artefacts, Producers and Users
  • Merel Noorman Exploring the Limits to the
    Autonomy of Artificial Agents
  • Susana Nascimento Autonomous Anthropomorphisms
    Robot Narratives and Critical Social Theries
  • Peter Asaro How Just Could A Robot War Be?
  • Edward H. Spence Robot Rights The Moral Life of
    Androids

41
Society for Philosophy and Technology (SPT), 2009
(Track 10) http//www.utwente.nl/ceptes/spt2009/
  • Mark Coeckelbergh Living with Robots
  • Aimee van Wynsberghe What Care Robots say about
    Care
  • Susana Nascimento Self-operating Machines and
    (Dis)engagement in Human Technical Actions
  • Allan Hanson Beyond the Skin Bag On the Moral
    Responsibility of Extended Agencies
  • Scott Sehon Robots and Free will

42
Society for Philosophy and Technology (SPT), 2009
  • Peter Asaro The Convergence of Video Games
    Military Robotics
  • Martinjntje Smits Social Robots How to bridge
    the Gap Between Fantasies and Practices?
  • Helena De Preester The (Im)possibilities of
    Reembodiment
  • Guido Nicolosi Restless Creatures
  • Gianmarco Veruggio Ethical, Legal and Societal
    Issues in the Strategic Agenda for Robotics in
    Europe

43
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
44
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • About Machine Ethics Consortium Machine Ethics
    is concerned with the behavior of machines
    towards human users and other machines. Allowing
    machine intelligence to effect change in the
    world can be dangerous without some restraint.
    Machine Ethics involves adding an ethical
    dimension to machines to achieve this restraint.
    Further, machine intelligence can be harnessed to
    develop and test the very theory needed to build
    machines that will be ethically sensitive. Thus,
    machine ethics has the additional benefits of
    assisting human beings in ethical decision-making
    and, more generally, advancing the development of
    ethical theory.

45
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • Projects
  • EthEl An Ethical Eldercare System Eldercare is a
    domain where we believe that, with proper ethical
    considerations incorporated, machine intelligence
    can be harnessed to aid an increasingly aging
    human population, with an expectation of a
    shortage of human caretakers in the future.

46
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • We believe, further, that this domain is rich
    enough in which to explore most issues involved
    in general ethical decision-making for both
    machines and human beings.  EthEl (ETHical
    ELdercare system) is a prototype system in the
    domain of eldercare that takes ethical concerns
    into consideration when reminding a patient to
    take his/her medication.

47
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • EthEl must decide when to accept a patients
    refusal to take a medication that might prevent
    harm and/or provide benefit to the patient and
    when to notify the overseer.  There is a further
    ethical dimension that is implicitly addressed by
    the system In not notifying the overseer most
    likely a doctor  until absolutely necessary, the
    doctor will be able to spend more time with other
    patients who could be benefited, or avoid harm,
    as a result of the doctors attending to their
    medical needs.

48
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • We believe that EthEl is the first system to use
    an explicit ethical principle to guide its
    actions.
  • Dr. Michael Anderson Department of Computer
    Science University of Hartford West Hartford, CT
    06117
  • Dr. Susan Leigh Anderson Department of
    Philosophy University of Connecticut Stamford, CT
    06901

49
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • Implementing Ethical Advisors
  • In order to add an ethical dimension to machines,
    we need to have an ethical theory that can be
    implemented. Looking to Philosophy for guidance,
    we find that ethical decision-making is not an
    easy task. It requires finding a single principle
    or set of principles to guide our behavior with
    which experts in Ethics are satisfied and will
    likely involve generalizing from intuitions about
    particular cases, testing those generalizations
    on other cases and, above all, making sure that
    principles generated are consistent with one
    another.

50
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • We are developing prototype systems based upon
    action-based ethical theories that provide
    guidance in ethical decision-making according to
    the precepts of their respective theories Jeremy
    , based upon Bentham's Hedonistic Act
    Utilitarianism, W.D., based upon Ross' Theory of
    Prima Facie Duties, and MedEthEx, based upon
    Beauchamp's and Childress' Principles of
    Biomedical Ethics.  MedEthEx (see online demo)
    uses an ethical principle discovered via machine
    learning techniques to give advice in a
    particular type of ethical dilemma in medical
    ethics.
  • Dr. Michael Anderson Peter Larson Department of
    Computer Science University of Hartford West
    Hartford, CT 06117

51
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • Machine Ethics Research Group
  • We are working on advancing Ethical Theory by
    making ethics precise enough to be programmed. We
    are, also, working on the problem of developing a
    decision procedure for determining the correct
    action in a multiple duty ethical theory such as
    W.D. Ross' Theory of Prima Facie Duties. Since we
    believe that such a decision procedure will come
    from abstracting from intuitions about particular
    cases, we are developing a database of ethical
    dilemmas and analyzing them according to Ross'
    theory.
  • Dr. Susan Leigh Anderson Rachel Brody Viktoriya
    Gelfand Ayelet Saul Department of
    Philosophy University of Connecticut Stamford, CT
    06901
  • ISP Machine Ethics Project

52
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • This work involves elements of algorithms, AI and
    philosophy. We are exploring the implementation
    of various ethical theories, with dual purposes
    (1) To shed new light on these theories, which is
    of particular interest to philosophers, and (2)
    To begin to address the need for an ethical
    dimension in software that is becoming
    increasingly autonomous.

53
Machine Ethics Consortium http//uhaweb.hartford.e
du/anderson/machineethicsconsortium.html
  • The project at hand for an ISP student is to
    research existing and proposed software systems,
    particularly in the biomedical field, in order to
    identify the degree of autonomy achieved and
    hence the potential ethical component.
  • Dr. Chris Armen Nick Bazin Jonathan
    Boreyko Department of Computer Science Trinity
    College, Hartford, CT

54
AP-CAP 2009 http//bentham.k2.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ap-c
ap09/
  • Hiroshi Ishiguro "Developing androids and
    understanding humans"
  • Carl Shulman, Nick Tarleton, and Henrik Jonsson
    Which Consequentialism? Machine Ethics and Moral
    Divergence
  • Kimura Takeshi Introducing Roboethics to
    Japanese Society A Proposal
  • Carl Shulman, Enrik Johnsson, and Nick Tarleton
    Machine Ethics and Supertintelligence
  • Soraj Hongladarom An Ethical Theory for
    Autonomous and Conscious Robots
  • Keitz Miller, Frances Grodzinsky, Marty Wolf Why
    Turin Shoudnt Have to Guess
  • Gene Rohrbaugh On the Design of Moral and Amoral
    Agents

55
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • We should analyze
  • how robots are in the world in comparison to
    humans as well as to other living and non-living
    beings.
  • what does it mean for us to be with robots in
    contrast to our being with other human beings
    as well as with other living and non-living
    beings.

56
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • One major difference between a program and an
    agent is, that programs are designed as tools
    to be used by human beings, while agents are
    designed to interact as partners with human
    beings. (Nagenborg 2007, 2)

57
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • An AMA artificial moral agent, RC is an AA
    artificial agent, RC guided by norms which we
    as human beings consider to have a moral
    content. (Nagenborg 2007, 3)
  • Agents may be guided by a set of moral norms,
    which the agent itself may not change, or they
    are capable of creating and modifying rules by
    themselves. (Nagenborg 2007, 3)

58
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • Thus, there must be questioning about what kind
    of morality will be fostered by AMAs,
    especially since now norms and values are to be
    embedded consciouslyinto the ethical
    subroutines. Will they be guided by universal
    values, or will they be guided by specific
    Western or African concepts. (Nagenborg 2007, 3)

59
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • The concepts of autonomy, learning, decision
    etc. are analogies of the human agent deprived of
    its historical, political, societal, bodily and
    existential dimensions. (Capurro 2009)

60
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • An implanted morality in form of a moral code
    programmed in a microprocessor has nothing in
    common with the capacity of practical reflexion
    even in case there is a feed-back that mimicry
    (human) theoretical and/or practical reason. The
    evaluation and decisions coming out of such
    programmes remain lastly dependent on the
    programmer himself. (Capurro 2009)

61
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • It is cynical to speculate, and to spend public
    funds, on the supposed creation of artificial
    agents towards whom we would be morally (and
    legally) responsible (and vice versa!) given the
    present situation of some six billion human
    beings on this planet and the lack of such
    responsibility towards them. We might say that
    artificial agents are only prima facie agents.
    They are basically patients of human moral (and
    technical) agency. (Capurro 2009)

62
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • In contrast, the question of what kind of
    transformation is being operated in human
    societies when millions (and soon also billions)
    of human beings interact in digital networks that
    are interwoven with their bodies is highly
    relevant today and in the future. (Capurro 2009)

63
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • There is a common ground or a common life, so to
    speak, a basic interrelationship between all
    living beings, not dissimilar to what Kant writes
    that we are originally owners of the common
    earth. This original ownership can be reversed
    natural and/or artificial beings are owned
    originally by nature. Nature owns us. (Capurro
    2009)

64
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • ICT and biotechnology invite us to re-invent
    ourselves practically as moral agents and
    patients, not only poietically as technical
    ones, in an interplay with nature and technology
    becoming more and more aware of the
    interrelationship of all things, living and non
    living ones which is a key insight of Buddhist
    thinking. This kind of practical thinking on what
    can be good for our lives as a whole was called
    by Aristotle practical philosophy and by Kant
    practical reason. (Capurro 2009)

65
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • What is it like to be a robot? Wittgensteins
    famous dictum that if a lion could speak, we
    would not understand him (Wittgenstein, 1984, p.
    568) points to the issue, that human language is
    rooted in what he calls forms of life. Humans
    and lions have orthogonal forms of life, i.e.,
    they construct their reality based on systemic
    differences. What is it like to be a human?
    (Capurro Nagenborg 2009)

66
Being-in-the-world with robots
  • Intercultural roboethics is still in its infancy
    no less than intercultural robotics. (Capurro
    Nagenborg 2009)

67
Ethics and Robots East and West
  • Rougly speaking
  • Europe Deontology (Autonomy, Human Dignity,
    Privacy, Anthropocentrism) Scepticism with
    regard to robots
  • USA (and anglo-saxon tradition) Utilitarian
    Ethics will robots make us more happy?
  • Eastern Tradition (Buddhism) Robots as one more
    partner in the global interaction of things

68
Ethics and Robots East and West
  • Morality and Ethics
  • Ethics as critical reflection (or
    problematization) of morality
  • Ethics is the science of morals as robotics is
    the science of robots

69
Ethics and Robots East and West
  • Different ontic or concrete historical moral
    traditions, for instance
  • in Japan Seken (trad. Japanese morality), Shakai
    (imported Western morality) and Ikai (old
    animistic tradition)
  • In the Far West Ethics of the Good (Plato,
    Aristotle), Christian Ethics, Utilitarian Ethics,
    Deontological Ethics (Kant)

70
Ethics and Robots East and West
  • Ontological dimension Being or (Buddhist)
    Nothingness as the space of open possibilities
    that allow us to critizise ontic moralities
  • Always related to basic moods (like sadness,
    happiness, astonishment, ) through which the
    uniqueness of the world and human existence is
    experienced (differently in different cultures)

71
Ethics and Robots East and West
  • A future intercultural ethics of robots (IER)
    should reflect on the ontic and ontological
    dimensions of creating and using robots in
    different cultural contexts and with regard to
    different goals.

72
Bibliography
  • AP-CAP 2009 5th Asia-Pacific Computing
    Philosophy Conference
  • http//bentham.k2.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ap-cap09/program
    .php
  • Anderson, Michael Anderson, Susan Leigh
    Machine ethics Creating an ethical intelligent
    agent. AI Magazine December 22, 2007.
  • Capurro, Rafael (2009). Towards a Comparative
    Theory of Agents http//www.capurro.de/agents.html
  • Capurro, Rafael and Nagenborg, Michael (Eds.)
    (2009), Introduction. In ibid. Ethics and
    Robotics. Berlin Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft
    (in print).
  • Capurro, Rafael Ethics and Robotics (2007)
    http//www.capurro.de/ethicsandrobotics.html
  • Cerqui, Daniela Weber, Jutta Weber, Karsten
    (Guest Editors) (2006) Ethics in Robotics,
    International Review of Information Ethics
  • http//www.i-r-i-e.net/issue6.htm


73
Bibliography
  • ETHICBOTS (2009). http//ethicbots.na.infn.it/inde
    x.php
  • Gates, Bill (2007). Roboter für jedermann
    http//www.spektrum.de/artikel/864268
  • Floridi, L. and Sanders, J.W. (2004). On the
    Morality of Artificial Agents. In Minds and
    Machines, 14, 3, 349-379. http//www.wolfson.ox.ac
    .uk/floridi/pdf/maa.pdf
  • Nagenborg, Michael (2007). Artificial moral
    agents an intercultural perspective. In
    International Review of Inforamtion Ethics
    http//www.i-r-i-e.net/inhalt/007/13-nagenborg.pdf
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