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CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA

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The Nautilus Institute Workshop on Mapping Causal Complexity ... as impact of climate change in Pacitan regency 1998-2002 by Chatarina UW et al., Unair 07. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA


1
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IN
    INDONESIA
  • Budi Haryanto
  • Department of Environmental Health
  • Faculty of Public Health University of
    Indonesia
  • The Nautilus Institute Workshop on Mapping Causal
    Complexity
  • in Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation,
  • Melbourne, 21-22 November 2008

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Climatic changes have already affected numerous
    damaging impacts on human health.
  • Spreading infectious disease, longer and hotter
    heat waves, and extreme weather claim thousands
    of additional lives nationwide each year.
  • Warming climate is creating the ideal conditions
    for spread of infectious disease, putting
    millions of people at risk.
  • Climate change has lead to increase the outbreaks
    and spread of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF),
    malaria, cholera, encephalitis, hantavirus, and
    other diseases all over the world.
  • Ironically, the countries which have less
    contributed to the global warming are highly
    susceptible and more outbreaks of diseases and
    deaths due to global warming impact

3
OUTLINE PRESENTATION
  • Introduction
  • Climate change and health impacts
  • Research in Indonesia
  • Public health adaptation
  • Strategic idea for public health adaptation in
    Indonesia

4
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5
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6
EXTREME EVENTS HEALTH IMPACTS (DoH, WA)
7
Potential health impacts of gradual climatic
changes
8
Potential health impacts of gradual climatic
changes
9
Potential health impacts of gradual climatic
changes
10
Potential health impacts of gradual climatic
changes
11
Trend of Temperature and DHF Cases in Indonesia
1968-Sept 2007
12
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13
Dengues principal vector Aedes aegypti
Principal vector is female Aedes aegypti
mosquito. Infected mosquito remains infective for
life. Indonesia reported dengue cases doubled in
2007 vs. 2005.
14
Malaria Cases
15
Malaria Endemic Areas
16
Effects of Temperature Rise on Dengue
Transmission
  • Shorten viral incubation period in mosquito
  • Shorten breeding cycle of mosquito
  • Increase frequency of mosquito feeding
  • More efficient transmission of dengue virus from
    mosquito to human

17
IMPACTS CLIMATE CHANGE ON HUMAN HEALTH IN
INDONESIA
  • Direct effects
  • Increasing of injuries associated with extreme
    weather events
  • Indirect effects
  • Increasing of vector borne diseases (malaria,
    dengue, filariasis) associated with increasing of
    temperature, rainfall, humidity, and vector
    density.
  • Increasing of water borne diseases (diarrhea,
    cholera, typhoid, leptospirosis) associated with
    decreasing of water quality and water supply as
    well as floods and droughts.

18
  • Indirect effects
  • Increasing of malnutrition cases is related to
    food production and land use shifts
  • Increasing of cardio cerebral vascular diseases,
    hypertension, and mental disorders are associated
    with urban stress, life style, displacements and
    conflicts.
  • Increasing of influenza (ARI) and respiratory
    diseases (asthma, pneumonia) are associated with
    increasing of air pollution outdoor as well as
    indoor
  • Increasing of food borne diseases is associated
    with contamination, food handling, and poverty.

19
MAIN CONCERN SPREADING OF DISEASES
  • Unique transmission pathways
  • Specific for every single disease outcome
  • Once the impact occurred, the disease will spread
    from infected person to others and from the new
    infected people to broader population as snow
    ball phenomenon
  • The spread of disease may not be controlled
    directly even by manipulating or modifying the
    environment
  • Analysis of each of these steps allows a logical
    determination of vulnerability and subsequent
    development of adaptive measures that aim to
    decrease vulnerability
  • It will need specific discipline of technology,
    method, and expert such as public
    health/environmental health, medical, and
    pharmacy to deal with the impacts.

20
CURRENT RESEARCH REVIEWS
  • Rainfall and rain date in Jakarta associated with
    Incidence Rate and Case Fatality Rate of Dengue
    Infection in 2002-2006 by Nainggolan L et al., UI
    07.
  • Aedes aegypti density in Jakarta associated with
    climate change by Sungkar S et al., UI 07.
  • The influence of climate change to the spreading
    of dengue virus serotypes and the increasing of
    cases in Jakarta by Adriansjah et al., UI 07.
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis and climate change in
    Indonesia by Burhan E et al., UI 07.
  • The incidence of leptospirosis and its risk
    factors in Jakarta by Nainggolan L et al., UI
    07.
  • Mental health of adolescents associated with
    climate change by Ismail RI et al., UI 07.
  • Increasing morbidity and mortality caused by air
    pollution associated with climate change in City
    of Bandung 2002-2006 by Soemirat J Dirgawati
    M, ITB 07.
  • Occupational dermatosis incident associated with
    climate change in Surabaya by Martiana T et al.,
    Unair 07.
  • Lung disorders associated with climate change in
    Jakarta by Andarini S et al., UI 07.

21
Research
  • Lung cancer associated with climate change in
    Jakarta by Syahruddin E et al., UI 07.
  • Predicting the increasing of malaria cases in
    endemic area caused by climate change 2002-2003
    by Yudhastuti R et al., Unair 07.
  • Approach and method of studies on health and
    infectious diseases-related to climate change by
    Haryanto B, UI 07.
  • Early warning system for malaria outbreak by
    Subirosa BS et al., UI 07.
  • The pattern of malaria distribution as impact of
    climate change in Pacitan regency 1998-2002 by
    Chatarina UW et al., Unair 07.
  • Global warming ad public health impact in
    Indonesia by Sutomo S, UI 07.
  • Climate change and DHF in Tanah Laut District of
    South Kalimantan Province 2001-2006 by Basuki H
    et al, Unair 07.
  • Climate change and voice of public health
    association in Indonesia by Indonesian Public
    Health Association 2007.

22
Health impact assessment
  • to evaluate the impact of climate variability and
    change in a range of areas and populations
  • to evaluate possible threshold effects
  • to evaluate the effects of multiple stresses,
    including changes in socioeconomic systems
  • to evaluate uncertainty and its implications for
    risk management
  • to evaluate the effects of reducing emissions,
    such as by comparing impact under scenarios with
    business-as-usual and stabilization of emissions
    and
  • to measure coping capacity, especially under
    different socioeconomic futures and in the
    context of sustainable development.

23
PUBLIC HEALTH RESPONSE AND ADAPTATION IN INDONESIA
  • Infectious disease surveillance
  • Health action in emergencies
  • Safe drinking water
  • Integrated vector management
  • Environmental health capacity building
  • Healthy public policy (healthy housing, school,
    forest, industry, city)

24
WHO Adaptation Focus
  • Health security
  • Strengthening health systems
  • Health development
  • Evidence and information
  • Delivery
  • Partnership

25
PUBLIC HEALTH ADAPTATION IDEAS IN INDONESIA
  • Empowering ecological-diseases surveillance
    system and developing public health early warning
    system
  • Development response to disaster effects of
    climate change
  • Enhancing capacity building for government,
    private sector, and civil society on managing
    prevention and control climate change on human
    health
  • Increasing political awareness on climate change
    human health
  • Empowering public health services system for
    disease prevention and control
  • Generating research and method on epidemiology
    and medicine to find out the approach in breaking
    the disease transmission chains
  • Preventing and eradicating climate change
    vector-related diseases

26
Impacts, Vulnerability, Adaptations
Characteristics of exposed group (location,
wealth, resources, health status, culture, etc.)
Adaptations
Vulnerability of group
Learning
Actions in response to impact
Health Impact
Exposure
Mitigation Reduced exposure
BREAKING TRANSMISSION CHAINS
27
THANK YOU
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