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Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System

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Conduit for info to and from brain. PNS: Cranial and spinal nerves ... Septum (rage after lesions) Fornix. Mammillary Bodies. 3.13. Basal Ganglia ' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3: Structure of the Nervous System


1
Chapter 3 Structure of the Nervous System
2
Lecture Overview
  • Overview of Brain
  • Anatomy Terms
  • Blood supply and CSF
  • Development of the Brain
  • Central Nervous System
  • Five divisions
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic Nervous System
  • Autonomic Nervous System

3.3
3
The Two Nervous Systems
  • CNS Brain and Spinal Cord
  • Conduit for info to and from brain
  • PNS Cranial and spinal nerves
  • Run to target organs and muscles (efferent)
  • Carry sensory info (afferent)

3.4
4
Neuroanatomy Terms
  • CNS
  • Nucleus- cluster of cell bodies
  • Tract- bundle of axons (nerve fibers)
  • PNS
  • Ganglion- cluster of cell bodies
  • Nerve- bundle of axons (nerve fibers)
  • But note exceptions

3.5
5
Neuroanatomy Terms
  • Directional
  • Anterior (rostral)
  • Posterior (caudal)
  • Ventral (inferior)
  • Dorsal (superior)
  • Location in brain
  • Ipsilateral same side of brain
  • Contralateral opposite side of brain
  • Bilateral both sides
  • Unilateral one side

3.5
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Anatomical Planes
  • Three anatomy planes
  • Sagittal
  • (mid- vs para-sagittal)
  • Coronal (transverse)
  • Horizontal

3.6
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The Meninges
  • Dura mater-outer (thick) layer
  • Arachnoid-middle layer
  • Overlies the arachnoid space (CSF)
  • Blood vessels run through arachnoid layer
  • Pia mater- inner layer
  • Overlies every detail of the outer brain

3.7
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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Brain floats in CSF (1400 g--gt 80 g)
  • CSF produced by choroid plexus of the ventricles
  • Lateral
  • Third
  • Fourth
  • Ventricles are an access point for drug studies
  • Loss of CSF produces headaches
  • e.g. spinal cord punctures
  • Hydroencephalus

3.8
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Overview of the CNS
3.9
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Cerebral Cortex
  • Grooves in cortex
  • Sulci (small)
  • Fissures (large)
  • Bulges in cortex are termed gyri
  • 6 layers of cortical cells

3.10
16
Cortical Lobes
3.12
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Mapping of the Cortex
  • Fritsch and Hitzig (1870)
  • Penfield (1950s) at Montreal
  • Sensory cortex
  • Motor cortex
  • Homunculus Map of external body region that
    serve various areas of cortex
  • Brodmanns areas based on architectural
    features

3.11
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Limbic System
  • Hippocampus (learning and memory)
  • Amygdala (emotion)
  • Septum (rage after lesions)
  • Fornix
  • Mammillary Bodies

3.13
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Basal Ganglia
  • Ganglia is a misnomer (term refers to
    collections of cell bodies in periphery.
  • Basal ganglia consists of
  • Globus pallidus
  • Caudate nucleus
  • Putamen
  • Basal ganglia are involved in the control of
    movement.

3.14
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The Peripheral Nervous System
  • Somatic
  • Controls muscle action, gland secretion
  • Some afferent info back to CNS
  • Autonomic NS
  • Parasympathetic Digestion
  • Sympathetic Fight or Flight

3.16
31
Somatic Nervous System
  • Spinal Nerves (31 pair)
  • Afferents and efferents
  • 8 Cervical
  • 12 Thoracic
  • 5 Lumbar
  • 5 Sacral
  • 1 Coccygeal
  • Cranial Nerves
  • Three types Motor only, sensory only, mixed
    function
  • On old olympus towering tops, a french-speaking
    German viewed some hops

3.18
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The Autonomic Nervous System
  • Sympathetic division
  • Associated with energy expenditure
  • Derives from thoracolumbar sp. cord
  • Parasympathetic division
  • Associated with energy conservation
  • Derives from cranial-sacral sp. cord

3.19
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