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New developments and issues in forecast verification

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Verification 'Quilts' Forecast performance attributes as a function of spatial scale ... Verification quilt showing a measure of matching capability. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New developments and issues in forecast verification


1
New developments and issues in forecast
verification
  • Barbara Brown
  • bgb_at_ucar.edu
  • Co-authors and contributors Randy Bullock, John
    Halley Gotway, Chris Davis, David Ahijevych, Eric
    Gilleland, Lacey Holland
  • NCAR
  • Boulder, Colorado
  • October 2007

2
Issues
  • Uncertainty in verification statistics
  • Diagnostic and user relevant verification
  • Verification of high-resolution forecasts
  • Spatial forecast verification
  • Incorporation of observational uncertainty
  • Verification of probabilistic and ensemble
    forecasts
  • Verification of extremes
  • Properties of verification measures
  • Propriety, Equitability

3
Issues and new developments
  • Uncertainty in verification statistics
  • Diagnostic and user relevant verification
  • Verification of high-resolution forecasts
  • Spatial forecast verification
  • Incorporation of observational uncertainty
  • Verification of probabilistic and ensemble
    forecasts
  • Verification of extremes
  • Properties of verification measures
  • Propriety, Equitability

4
Uncertainty in verification measures
Model precipitation example Equitable Threat
Score (ETS)
Confidence intervals take into account various
sources of error, including sampling and
observational Computation of confidence intervals
for verification stats is not always
straight-forward
5
User-relevant verification
Good forecast or Bad forecast?
6
User-relevant verification
Good forecast or Bad forecast?
If Im a water manager for this watershed, its a
pretty bad forecast…
7
User-relevant verification
Good forecast or Bad forecast?
O
If Im an aviation traffic strategic planner…
It might be a pretty good forecast
Different users have different ideas about what
makes a good forecast
8
Diagnostic and user relevant forecast evaluation
approaches
  • Provide the link between weather forecasting and
    forecast value
  • Identify and evaluate attributes of the forecasts
    that are meaningful for particular users
  • Users could be managers, forecast developers,
    forecasters, decision makers
  • Answer questions about forecast performance in
    the context of users decisions
  • Example questions How do model changes impact
    user-relevant variables? What is the typical
    location error of a thunderstorm? Size of a
    temperature error? Timing error? Lead time?

9
Diagnostic and user relevant forecast evaluation
approaches (cont.)
  • Provide more detailed information about forecast
    quality
  • What went wrong? What went right?
  • How can the forecast be improved?
  • How do 2 forecasts differ from each other, and in
    what ways is one better than the other?

10
High vs. low resolution
  • Which rain forecast is better?

Smooth forecasts generally Win according to
traditional verification approaches.
From E. Ebert
11
Traditional Measures-based approaches
Consider forecasts and observations of some
dichotomous field on a grid
Some problems with this approach (1)
Non-diagnostic doesnt tell us what was wrong
with the forecast or what was right (2)
Utra-sensitive to small errors in simulation of
localized phenomena
CSI 0 for first 4 CSI gt 0 for the 5th
12
Spatial forecasts
Weather variables defined over spatial domains
have coherent structure and features
  • Spatial verification techniques aim to
  • account for uncertainties in timing and location
  • account for field spatial structure
  • provide information on error in physical terms
  • provide information that is
  • diagnostic
  • meaningful to forecast users

13
Recent research on spatial verification methods
  • Neighborhood verification methods
  • give credit to "close" forecasts
  • Scale decomposition methods
  • measure scale-dependent error
  • Object- and feature-based methods
  • evaluate attributes of identifiable features
  • Field verification approaches
  • measure distortion and displacement (phase error)
    for whole field

14
Neighborhood verification
  • Also called fuzzy verification
  • Upscaling
  • put observations and/or forecast on coarser grid
  • calculate traditional metrics

15
Neighborhood verification
  • Treatment of forecast data within a window
  • Mean value (upscaling)
  • Occurrence of event in window
  • Frequency of event in window ? probability
  • Distribution of values within window
  • Fractions skill score (Roberts 2005 Roberts and
    Lean 2007)

observed
forecast
Ebert (2007 Met Applications) provides a review
and synthesis of these approaches
16
Scale decomposition
  • Wavelet component analysis
  • Briggs and Levine, 1997
  • Casati et al., 2004
  • Removes noise
  • Examine how different scales contribute to
    traditional scores
  • Does forecast power spectra match the observed
    power spectra?

17
Scale decomposition
  • Casati et al. (2004) intensity-scale approach
  • Wavelets applied to binary image
  • Traditional score as a function of intensity
    threshold and scale

18
Feature-based verification
  • Composite approach (Nachamkin)
  • Contiguous rain area approach (CRA Ebert and
    McBride, 2000 Gallus and others)
  • Error components
  • displacement
  • volume
  • pattern

19
Feature- or object-based verification
  • Baldwin object-based approach
  • Cluster analysis (Marzban and Sandgathe)
  • SAL approach for watersheds
  • Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation
    (MODE)
  • Others…

20
MODE object definition
  • Two parameters used to identify objects
  • Convolution radius
  • Precipitation threshold

Raw field
Raw values are restored to the objects, to
allow evaluation of precipitation amount
distributions and other characteristics
Objects
21
Object merging and matching
  • Definitions
  • Merging Associating objects in the same field
  • Matching Associating objects between fields
  • Fuzzy logic approach
  • Attributes used for matching, merging,
    evaluation

Example single attributes Location Size
(area) Orientation angle Intensity (0.10, 0.25,
0.50, 0.75, 0.90 quantiles)
Example paired attributes Centroid/boundary
distance Size ratio Angle difference Intensity
differences
22
Object-based example 1 June 2005
WRF ARW (24-h)
Stage II
Radius 15 grid squares, Threshold 0.05
23
Object-based example 1 June 2006
  • Area ratios
  • (1) 1.3
  • (2) 1.2
  • (3) 1.1
  • Û All forecast areas were somewhat too large
  • Location errors
  • (1) Too far West
  • (2) Too far South
  • (3) Too far North

WRF ARW-2 Objects with Stage II Objects overlaid
24
Object-based example 1 June 2006
  • Ratio of median intensities in objects
  • (1) 1.3
  • (2) 0.7
  • (3) 1.9
  • Ratio of 0.90th quantiles of intensities in
    objects
  • (1) 1.8
  • (2) 2.9
  • (3) 1.1
  • Û All WRF 0.90th intensities were too large 2 of
    3 median intensity values were too large

WRF ARW-2 Objects with Stage II Objects overlaid
25
Object-based example 1 June 2006
  • MODE provides info about areas, displacement,
    intensity, etc.
  • In contrast
  • POD 0.40
  • FAR 0.56
  • CSI 0.27

WRF ARW-2 Objects with Stage II Objects overlaid
26
Applications of MODE
  • Climatological summaries of object
    characteristics
  • Evaluation of individual forecasting systems
  • Systematic errors
  • Matching capabilities (overall skill measure)
  • Model diagnostics
  • User-relevant information
  • Performance as a function of scale
  • Comparison of forecasting systems
  • As above

27
Example summary statistics
22-km WRF forecasts from 2001-2002
28
Example summary statistics
29
Example summary statistics
  • MODE Rose Plots
  • Displacement of matched forecast objects

30
Verification Quilts
  • Forecast performance attributes as a function of
    spatial scale
  • Can be created for almost any attribute or
    statistic
  • Provides a summary of performance
  • Guides selection of parameters

Verification quilt showing a measure of matching
capability. Warm colors indicate stronger
matches. Based on 9 cases
31
MODE availability
Available as part of the Model Evaluation Tools
(MET)
  • http//www.dtcenter.org/met/users/

32
How can we (rationally) decide which method(s) to
use?
  • MODE is just one of many new approaches…
  • What methods should be recommended to operational
    centers, others doing verification?
  • What are the differences between the various
    approaches?
  • What different forecast attributes can each
    approach measure?
  • What can they tell us about forecast performance?
  • How can they be used to
  • Improve forecasts?
  • Help decision makers?
  • Which methods are most useful for specific types
    of applications?

33
Spatial verification method intercomparison
project
  • Methods applied to same datasets
  • WRF forecast and gridded observed precipitation
    in Central U.S.
  • NIMROD, MAP D-PHASE/COPS, MeteoSwiss cases
  • Perturbed cases
  • Idealized cases
  • Subjective forecast evaluations

34
Intercomparison web page
  • References
  • Background
  • Data and cases
  • Software

http//www.ral.ucar.edu/projects/icp/
35
Subjective evaluation
  • Model performance rated on scale from 1-5 (5 was
    best)
  • N22

36
Subjective evaluation
MODEL B
OBS
MODEL A
MODEL C
37
Conclusion
  • Many new spatial verification methods are
    becoming available a new world of verification
  • Intercomparison project will help lead to better
    understanding of new methods
  • Many other issues remain
  • Ensemble and probability forecasts
  • Extreme and high impact weather
  • Observational uncertainty
  • Understanding fundamentals of new methods and
    measures (e.g., equitability, propriety)
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