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Cultural Fit Within a Schoolwide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples


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Title: Cultural Fit Within a Schoolwide System of PBIS: Universal and Secondary Examples

Cultural Fit Within a School-wide System of
PBIS Universal and Secondary Examples
  • Jill Mathews-Johnson, Technical Assistance
  • Illinois PBIS Statewide Network

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student
Success A Response to Intervention Model
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Schools as a Vessel
  • Culture is not inherited rather we are
    socialized to behave according to traditions
    established over generations
  • The cultures of schools may or may not be in
    harmony with the culture each student brings to
  • Schools greatly influence how young people see
    themselves and therefore need to understand and
    validate their backgrounds

Source Cartledge, 1996
  • Culture An integrated pattern of human behavior
    that includes thoughts, communications,
    languages, practices, beliefs, values, customs,
    courtesies, rituals, manners of interacting and
    roles, relationships and expected behaviors of a
    racial, ethnic, religious or social group and
    the ability to transmit the above to succeeding

Source National Center for Cultural Competence
of Georgetown University, 2006
  • Currently there are 5.5 million English Language
    Learners (ELLs) in U.S. public schools who speak
    more than 400 different languages (Source U.S.
    Department of Education, 2004)
  • The 2000 census estimated that 65 of school-age
    children are non-Hispanic White and that 35 are
    from other racial and ethnic backgrounds
  • It is estimated that by 2040, no ethnic or racial
    group will make up the majority of the national
    school-age population
  • Many students of diverse cultures come from
    families in poverty, 39 of children in the
    United States live at or near the poverty level (
    Source National Association of State Boards of
    Education, 2002)

  • A culturally competent school is generally
  • defined as one that honors, respects,
  • and values diversity in theory and in
  • practice and where teaching and learning
  • are made relevant and meaningful to
  • students of various cultures

Source A More Perfect Union Building an
Education System that Embraces All Children,
National Association of State Boards of Education
, 2002
  • A schools social system is a reflection of the
    larger society and is instrumental in
    transmitting cultural values
  • The classroom teacher is the most important
    component of that system as far as social
    development in youth

Source Schneider, B.H., 1993
How Teachers Can Help
  • Learn as much as possible about the cultural
    and linguistic background of students they teach
  • Pronounce students names correctly and learn
    key phrases in their native language
  • Allow students to share their thoughts, ideas
    and feelings through use of cooperative groups,
    role plays, dialogue journals and other forms of
    active and interactive learning
  • Enhance students self-image, motivation and
    cultural pride by using culturally-relevant
    materials and encouraging discussion and actions
    that honor their cultural and linguistic heritage

Source National Association of State Boards of
Education, 2002
  • Invite parents and families to actively
    participate in their childs education
  • Facilitate home-school communication and
  • Beware that families from diverse linguistic or
    cultural backgrounds may not initiate requests
    for help or use in-school resources available to
    address mental health issues. Teachers are urged
    to provide orientations to inform parents and
    families about school resources
  • Seek help from school psychologists or other
    school mental health professional if students
    exhibit academic, behavioral and/or mental health

Source National Association of State Boards of
Education, 2002
Teachers Cannot Do It Alone Cultural Competence
Within the PBIS System Behavioral Side of the
  • School-wide PBIS
  • Use of reliable data to make decisions
  • Look at various forms of data
  • Focus on few key outcomes
  • (Source Lewis Sugai, 1999 Sugai, Horner,
    Sprague Walker, 2000)
  • Cool tools
  • Home/School connection
  • Positive reinforcement

  • To generalize skills, social skills need to be
    taught over a variety of settings, especially
    where a targeted behavior is exhibited
  • (Source Berler, Gross, Drabman, 1982)
  • More than one trainer needed for behavior
    generalization to occur
  • The ability of a classroom teacher to function as
    a social skill trainers has been found to be a
    determining factor in behavior generalization
  • (Source Smith, Young, West, Morgan Rhode,
  • Peers particularly important in the training
    process and generally exercise considerable
    mutual influence
  • (Source Stokes Baer, 1977 Stokes
    Osnes, 1986, 1988 Cartledge, 1996)

Working on Social Skill Instruction with
Culturally Diverse Youth
  • Literature-based instruction to facilitate social
  • Preventative management of behavior
  • Social skill and self-management instruction
  • - Skill training
  • - Cooperative learning procedures
  • Functional Behavior Assessment

Source Cartledge, 1996 Kerr Nelson, 1998
Morgan Jenson, 1988 Sugai Lewis, 1996
Lewis Garrison-Harrell, 1999.
What Schools Are Doing at the Universal Tier
  • Cool Tools with diversity issues imbedded
  • Peer mediation to allow students from diverse
    backgrounds an opportunity to talk about
    potentially divisive issues
  • Student clubs that help large groups of students
    retain cultural identity (e.g., Muslim Student
  • Openness to starting new clubs to reflect the
    interests of the student body
  • Parent liaisons who are paid to work with
    families who would not otherwise have a
    traditional involvement with the school
  • Mentor programs with gender/cultural sensitivity
    (Khan, C. Reis, J., 2006 Rhodes, J. Dubois,
    D., 2006 Cartledge, 1996)
  • Home visits by parent liaisons

Source NASP, March 2006
  • Telephone tree in multiple languages
  • Minority parent committee that organizes evenings
    for minority parents to come to school in smaller
    groups and learn about the college admissions
    process, SAT prep classes, scholarship and grant
    opportunities, and so forth
  • Letters sent home and phone contact with parents
    from culturally and linguistically diverse
    backgrounds to ensure a good turnout at parent
  • Establishment of a Hispanic PTSA with business
    discussion and programs in Spanish
  • Initiation of a challenge program to invite
    promising students to enroll in honors and
    Advanced Placement classes.

Source NASP, March 2006
  • Parent involvement incentives (ie. passport)
  • Wiring of schools for computers and telephone hub
    sites to allow parents to communicate with
    schools via computer. Parents can use terminals
    at nearby schools or local town halls to
    communicate with the schools their children
    attend, which are often many miles away
  • Cleveland Public Schools - teachers hold parent
    conferences off-campus in places that are closer
    to parents' and students' homes. The school also
    holds Block Parent Meetings for those families
    who cannot attend school events because they live
    on the outskirts of the community and lack
    transportation. Block meetings address parent
    concerns and offer an opportunity to share
    school-related information. These meetings take
    place every two or three months in a parent's
    home or a nearby library (
  • Schools are working with organizations like The
    Urban League to obtain books that are culturally
    relevant for libraries, classrooms and curriculum

  • South Delta School District, Rolling Fork,
    Mississippi - implemented weekly take-home
    folders that include a parent participation
    sheet, information on upcoming events, and recent
    curriculum activities and graded tests. Parents
    sign and return folders each week. Teachers and
    parents report that the folders provide important
    academic information for parents, teachers, and
    students, and help increase parent-school
    communication (
  • Parent training and support to parents to enhance
    their communication with their children about
    school, their supervision of their children, and
    their ability to communicate expectations to
    their children within the context of an effective
    parenting style (Marzano, 2003)

Family Literacy Workshop
  • Designed to teach literacy skills to targeted
  • 4 meeting dates per year
  • (Predicting, Connecting, Imaging, and
  • _______________________________
  • 530-6 Eat (free meal)
  • 6-630 Parent instruction/kids play
  • 630-7 Parents practice strategies with
  • their child(ren) with support

Made possible using Title I funds
Mark Twain Elementary, Kankakee, IL
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Data-based Decision Making at the Universal Tier
  • Using school-wide data
  • - Discipline
  • - Attendance
  • - Special education/LRE
  • - Parent Involvement
  • - Academic
  • - Areas of interest mobility, cultural
    background, SES, etc.

Mark Twain Parent Participation _at_ After School
Totals do not include Parent/teacher
conferences, PTO meetings, Hispanic Heritage
Celebration, Family Fun Day, Kindergarten
Celebration, BB Orientation, BB Holiday Shop, BB
Kindergarten Night, BB Valentine Celebration, BB
Ice Cream Social, Starnet, Between the Lions,
or any other Parenting Workshop.
Cooperative Learning
  • The empirical literature documents evidence that
    cooperative activities contribute to positive
    peer interactions, acceptance of disabling and
    racial differences, and academic achievement. On
    the basis of research review, Goldstein observed
    that the beneficial effects of cooperative
    learning appear to be greater for minority than
    for majority students.

Source Cartledge, 1996
Functional Behavior Assessment
Data-based Decision Making at the Secondary Tier
  • Using school-wide data
  • - Discipline
  • - Attendance
  • - Special education/LRE
  • - Parent Involvement
  • - Academic
  • - Areas of interest mobility, cultural
    background, SES, etc.
  • Using school-wide data and national data to
    determine needs

  • Only half of Black and Latino students graduate
    from high school in four years, compared to 82
    percent of Whites
  • Blacks and Latinos are 21 and 18 percent of
    Illinois student population, but are 35 and 22
    percent of the states dropouts
  • White students in Illinois are 64 percent more
    likely to finish high school than Black and
    Hispanic students

Source Illinois Report Card on Racial Equity,
The On-Track Indicator as a Predictor of High
School Graduation
  • Elaine M. Allensworth
  • Consortium on Chicago School Research
  • John Q. Easton
  • Consortium on Chicago School Research
  • June 2005

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  • ? Ninth grade attrition is far more pronounced in
    urban, high poverty schools. 40 of dropouts in
    low-income high schools left after ninth grade
  • (EPE Research Center, 2006)
  • ? More than one semester F in core subjects and
    fewer than five course credits by the end of
    freshman year are key indicators a student is not
    on track to graduate
  • ? Low attendance the first 30 days of the ninth
    grade is a stronger indicator that a student will
    drop out than any other eighth grade predictor
  • (Allensworth Easton, 2005)

  • The on-track indicator is highly predictive of
    whether students will eventually graduate. Among
    students entering CPS high school in 1999, those
    who were on track by the end of their freshman
    year were three and one half times more likely to
    graduate in four years than off-track students

Allensworth Easton, 2005
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What Works?
  • Establish a data and monitoring system that will
    both diagnose why students are struggling and be
    used to hold schools and districts accountable
  • Address the instructional needs of students who
    enter high school unprepared for rigorous,
    college-prep work
  • Personalize the learning environment to lower the
    sense of anonymity and address individual needs
  • Build capacity with faculty and administration to
    address diverse needs
  • Make connections to the community, employers, and
    institutes of higher education to better engage
    students and help them see the relevance of the

What Works
  • Check and Connect
  • Drop out prevention program for high school
    students with learning, emotional and behavioral
  • Partnership with parents, teachers, students and
    University of Minnesota, Institute of Community
  • Program begins in ninth grade. Mentor is matched
    with student who monitors their attendance,
    behavior and academic performance and works with
    them throughout the year

Results of Check and Connect
  • Increases in credits earned
  • Increases in attendance
  • Increases in enrollment rates

Sinclair, 2005
  • Students self-reports indicate that more
    transition support would ease their transition to
    high school
  • Perceived less support and monitoring from
    teachers and principals and generally liked
    school less than when they were in middle school
  • Perceived need for more organization

Barber Olson, 2004
Additional Factors
  • Improved communication between school, parents
    and students
  • Monitoring attendance
  • Progress monitoring in class
  • Better scheduling
  • Incentives to make up failures
  • Relationship building

Why Do Group Interventions Work for Some
Culturally Diverse Students?
  • Troubled inner-city children and adolescents,
    whose relationships to adults are often impaired,
    learn to depend on their peer supports and
    communicate better within this context. They
    benefit from group work because they come from
    cultures where value of groups is above the

Source Canino, I.A., J. Spurlock, 2000
What Schools Are Doing at the Secondary Level
Using Groups
  • TEAM (Modeled off of Mychal Wynns The Eagles Who
    Thought They Were Chickens A Tale of Discovery,
  • Cuentro Therapy (Constantro, 1988)

  • Teaching
  • Excellence
  • Academics
  • Motivation
  • Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle
    School, Champaign, IL 2006

Program inception
  • 2002-2003, school discipline data
  • 30 African American Boys accounted for over
    30 of the schools discipline referrals

Team Expectations
  • Maintain on-task behavior
  • Maintain acceptable academic performance minimum
    GPA 2.5
  • Decrease discipline referrals by 50
  • Be respectful of peers
  • Support other team member academically and

Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle
School, Champaign, IL 2006
Jefferson Middle School TEAM Discipline
Update 2004-05 School Year
  • Cut D.R.s in half from last year
  • 2003-04/ 482/1620 (35 of total)
  • 2004-05/254/1351 (19 of total)

Student of the Quarter… Mr. Tiger ONeil 2nd
Team member to make the Honor Roll
(G.P.A./4.111) Three discipline referrals all
year Highest G.P.A. for 3rd Quarter
November Joe Cross Occupation Academic Advisor
at U of I Topic Student Athletes/Alternative
Plans Overview Mr. Cross discussed his journey
to the University of Illinois and his dream of
being a professional basketball player. He
explained the importance of having an alternative
plan to the dream of playing in the N.B.A. He
discussed his realization of the small percentage
of college athletes that actually play
professionally. He stressed the importance of
obtaining a college education.
Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle
School, Champaign, IL 2006
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  • Community Outings/Incentives
  • University of Illinois vs. Michigan football game
  • University of Illinois vs. Wisconsin basketball
  • Bowling at GTs Western Bowl
  • Chicago Bulls vs. Cleveland Cavaliers basketball
  • Thanksgiving Dinner
  • Christmas Celebration/Gathering
  • Parkland College tour/class observation

Tatum, Ian and Thomas, Orlando, Jefferson Middle
School, Champaign, IL 2006
Tiger 7th Grade-Islands 1st Quarter
G.P.A./3.857 2nd Quarter G.P.A./3.667 3rd Quarter
Jimmy 8th Grade-Orange 1st Quarter
G.P.A./3.375 2nd Quarter G.P.A./3.375 3rd Quarter
TEAM Shaping todays youth…
To become tomorrows leaders.
After School Program
  • ALL 3rd graders
  • Math (Monday and Wednesdays)
  • Reading (Tuesday and Thursdays)
  • 2nd grade boys
  • Brothers Helping Brothers (Thur.)
  • _________________________________________________
  • 320-345 Games
  • 345-515 Teaching and Learning
  • 515-530 Snack

Mark Twain Elementary, Kankakee, IL
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  • Storytelling is a universal experience shared by
    every social group. Oral literature of a people
    was both the highest and truest expression of its
    authentic national culture and the appropriate
    foundation of its national literature.

Baum, 1993 Carter-Black, 2006
Cuentro Therapy Storytelling
  • Traditional Puerto Rican folktales to support and
    transmit cultural values
  • Idea that many Puerto Rican youth that are
    struggling in school and the community have
    weakened cultural value systems, sense of
    distance from society and lack of pride in ethnic
  • Graft themes of adaptive functioning with
    American culture plots

Source Canstantino, 1988
Weekly Lesson
  • Folk story, biography of a successful/famous
    Puerto Rican
  • Analysis of folk story with emphasis on character
    traits (ie. survival and success in adversity
    like poverty and discrimination)
  • Question/Answer
  • Parallels to own life
  • Art project, role plays, practice of skill sets

Source Canstantino, 1988
  • Sexuality
  • Family
  • Independence
  • Racism and discrimination
  • Jobs and job interviews
  • Alcohol and drugs
  • Self-regulation
  • Trust

Source Canstantino, 1988
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Reference List
  • Applied Research Center. (2006). Illinois Report
    Card on Racial Equity. Retrieved July 20, 2007
    from http//
  • Bauman, R. (1992). Story, performance, and event
    Contextual studies of oral narrative. New York
    Cambridge University Press.
  • Berler, E.S., Gross, A.M., Drabman, R.S.
    (1982). Social skills training with children
    Proceed with caution. Journal of Applied
    Behavior Analysis, 15, 41-53.
  • Canino, I. A., J. Spurlock. Excerpt Group
    Approaches. Culturally Diverse Children and
    Adolescents Assessment, Diagnosis and Treatment.
    Guilford Press, 2000. 166-168.
  • Carter-Black, J. (2006). Teaching Cultural
    Competence An innovative strategy grounded in
    the universality of storytelling as depicted in
    African and African-American storytelling
    traditions. Journal of Social Work, 43, 11-32.
  • Cartledge, G. Milburn, J. Cultural Diversity
    and Social Skills Instruction Understanding
    Ethnic and Gender Differences. Research Press,
  • Chen, X., French, D., Schneider, B. H. (2002).
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    York Cambridge University Press.
  • Family Involvement in Childrens Education
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    2007 from
  • Jenson, R. (2004) Developing the Whole Child in
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    (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH Merrill.
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