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FDR

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FDR grew up in a Hyde Park estate in central New York. ... According to college classmates, he was a snob, eating at private clubs. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FDR


1
FDR the New Deal
  • Visual Discovery of the FDRs plan to pull
    America our of the Great Depression

2
4.2A The Presidential Election of 1932
  • What do you see here?
  • In what sort of mood does the man appear to be?
  • Why are people watching him?
  • Who do you think he is?
  • This man is Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • What do you think this slide reveals about his
    personality or character?
  • We see FDR riding in the presidential car during
    a parade, looking at ease smiling confidently.

3
4.2A The Presidential Election of 1932
  • American public overwhelmingly elected FDR in
    1932.
  • Decisive victory in the Electoral/Popular vote.
  • Happy Days are Here Again a New Deal
  • Promised Fed. Gov. would help with welfare at the
    most crucial time in Am. History.
  • 4th year of the Great Depression.

4
4.2A The Presidential Election of 1932
  • FDR takes control at the most unenviable of
    times.
  • 25 of Am. were unemployed.
  • 10 mil people lost jobs since 1929.
  • Those lucky enough to keep jobs suffered wage
    cuts.
  • Daily Stock Market Average dropped significantly.
  • Banks closed and businesses shut their doors.
  • Farmers suffered the most
  • 12 drought stricken states turned into dust
    bowls.
  • Unions and businesses clashed.
  • Schools closed.

5
4.2A The Presidential Election of 1932
  • Relief for Americans through entertainment
    politics.
  • Paramount Studios produced hundreds of movies to
    provide temporary distractions for depressed
    America.
  • Long-term relief relief through politics.
  • Disillusioned with Pres. Hoovers conservative
    ineffective solutions.
  • FDR gave hope to millions.

6
4.2B The Rise of FDR
  • What do you see here?
  • Whom is FDR talking to?
  • On what is he sitting?
  • Why do you think he is in a wheelchair?
  • What ailment might he have had?
  • How do you think the American public viewed FDR
    when he continued to be politically active even
    after having polio?
  • We see FDR in a rare moment of relaxation,
    conversing with a girl while sitting in his
    wheelchair.

7
4.2B The Rise of FDR
  • FDR lived a privileged life, in contrast to the
    average American.
  • FDR grew up in a Hyde Park estate in central New
    York.
  • Wealthy parents, traveled to France to improve
    his French.
  • According to college classmates, he was a snob,
    eating at private clubs.
  • Christian values simplicity, honesty, hard work,
    compassion for the poor.
  • His mother taught him the wealthy/privileged had
    an obligation to serve the public.
  • Private law, NewYork state senator, Asst. Secy
    Navy.

8
4.2B The Rise of FDR
  • Aug. 21, FDR struck with polio as he begins
    national pol.
  • Symptoms similar to cold at first.
  • Lead to paralysis below waist.
  • Unable to stand without 10 lb. Metal braces.
  • God had abandoned me but later saw it as a
    purpose.
  • Spent seven years in semi-private recovery
    while maintaining ties to the political world.
  • After recovery, he spent two terms as Gov. of New
    York.
  • Promoted public works thru creation of jobs,
    old-aged pensions, unemployment insurance, direct
    relief for poor.
  • Viewed as a hero because of ideas to help poor
    America and his battle versus polio.

9
4.2B The Rise of FDR
  • In public, FDR exuded warmth reassuring
    confidence.
  • FDR pledged We Americans will rise from
    destruction we Americans will conquer despair.
  • FDR gave tremendous hope to the American public
    in the midst of the Great Depression.
  • Eager anticipation of his first actions as
    president.

10
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • What do you see here?
  • What are the men doing?What do their facial
    expressions postures reveal about their
    attitude toward one another?
  • Whom doe the forgotten man represent?
  • Whose hand is he shaking?
  • Why do you think ordinary, working-class
    Americans placed their trust in FDR?
  • What expectations might they have had for him as
    president?
  • How might FDRs commitment to working-class
    citizens affect his decisions as president?
  • We see a political cartoon of the forgotten man
    shaking hands with FDR. The caption reads, Yes,
    you remembered me.

11
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • First day in office focused on mobilizing Fed.
    Gov. to rescue the nation from the Great
    Depression.
  • Promised to execute the New Deal promtly,
    fearlessly, generously.
  • Gov. policies based on the needs of the
    forgotten, the unrecognized but the indispensable
    units of econ. Power the forgotten man at the
    bottom of the econ. Pyramid, not gov. officials.
  • Declared a bank holiday the day after he took
    office.
  • Wanted to prevent Americans from panicking and
    withdrawing their money.

12
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • Called a special session of Cong.
  • Hundred Days remarkable period of lawmaking.
  • Created Emergency Banking Relief Act the
    Economy Act to balance the fed. Budget.
  • Quickness of getting things done re-emphasized
    the trust of the American people.
  • Man of Action
  • By Summer of 33, 3/4 of banks reopend,
    depositing 1 bil.
  • National Industrial Recovery Act - 3 bil for
    roads, tunnels, housing projects - created 1,000s
    of jobs.
  • New wage guidelines, hours, working conditions.
  • All of the above formed the foundation for
    recovery.

13
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • In addition to helping banks businesses, Cong
    wanted to relieve poor peoples daily hardship.
  • Hundred Days
  • Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA) - 500 mil
    for unemployed.
  • FERA created NO long-term plans to create jobs
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) provided relief
    for farmers.
  • Raised market prices for crops livestock.
  • AAA encouraged farmers to plow under and burn
    millions of acres of crops to diminish supply
    raise prices.
  • Farmers were given 1.5 bil in subsidies
  • Controversial - 6 mil hogs destroyed, surplus of
    wheat cotton.

14
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • Balanced short-term vs. long-term relief.
  • Hundred Days
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - built dams to
    harness flow of water to create cheap
    electricity.
  • Erected numerous power plants in Al., Tn., Ky.,
    other states.
  • TVA allowed some of the nations poorest people
    to have elect. Lights power to operate farm
    machinery.
  • Flood control, new factories and jobs,
    professionals to serve.

15
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • Several reasons for great success.
  • Both Dems/Reps wanted to enact laws helping end
    the Great Depression.
  • Cooperation btw pol parties.
  • Quick efficient passing of laws.
  • Brain Trust - diverse group of imaginative
    intellectuals.
  • 13 fireside chats to gain Americas trust.
  • Personable, informal talks delivered thru the
    radio.
  • Explained the simple idea behind each reform.

16
4.2C The Beginning of the New Deal
  • After listening to fireside chat
  • What words would you use to describe FDRs tone?
  • Who do you think was listening to this radio
    address in 1935?
  • What techniques did FDR use to connect with his
    audience?
  • What do you think FDRs objectives were in having
    the fireside chats?
  • Based on this example, do you think he was
    successful?
  • Why or why not?

17
4.2D Work Programs
  • What do you see here?
  • What are the young men doing?
  • Where do you think they are
  • How might they have found work at a time when
    unemployment was so high?
  • We see young men at work at the U.S. Department
    of Agriculture research center in Beltsville, Md.

18
4.2D Work Programs
  • The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
  • One of the most popular.
  • Work program by fed gov to relieve unemployment
    poverty.
  • Summer 33 - 250,000 young men, 17 to 24
  • Worked in Natl Parks Forests
  • Planting trees, repairing aprk facilities,
    building wilderness trails, stocking fish in
    lakes and rivers.
  • 30 per month, provided shelter, food, clothing
    and educational opps.
  • By 39, 2.5 mil men put to work, 10
    African-Amer.
  • Improved wilderness areas.

19
4.2D Work Programs
  • National Industrial Recovery Act
  • Modest gains for ind workers and labor unions.
  • Gov monitoring of big business practices to
    prevent violations or workers rights
  • 1938 - Fair labor Standards Act
  • eliminated child labor, est min hourly wage,
    higher overtime pay.
  • Did not help women, or minorities

20
4.2D Work Programs
  • Despite some flaws, the New Deal was greeted with
    gratitude by American families.
  • Fan mail for FDR and Eleanor.
  • Heartfelt thanks to The Boss from Your Pal
  • All groups widely proclaimed their support.
  • Act-it-out!

21
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • What do you see here?
  • What does the sick, elderly man represent?
  • The Woman?
  • The Doctor?
  • How is the Doctor trying to help the man?
  • Why are there so many many bottles on the table?
  • What do they symbolize?
  • What message do you think the cartoonist intended
    to convey?
  • We see a pol cartoon showing FDR as a doctor
    administering a multitude of medicines from his
    New Deal remedies bag to an ailing Uncle Sam. A
    matronly woman - Congress - watches hopefully.
    The cartoon suggests that the U.S. government,
    under the direction of FDR, was willing to try
    everything to make the depressed economy healthy.

22
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • Some raised questions about FDR and the New Deal.
  • Minorities especially questioned motives.
  • Critics believed FDR tried to please too many
    different groups.
  • Critics also believed he did too much or too
    little in Americans lives.

23
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • The American Liberty League - one primary group
    that attacked FDR was Big Business.
  • General motors and General Foods along with
    conserv. Dems questioned his socialist
    leanings.
  • They were concerned about skyrocketing fed
    deficit.
  • Big Business formed the American Liberty League.
  • Too much gov interference in private enterprise.
  • Complained about sovietizing the New York Stock
    Exchange, railroads, radios, elect power,
    INDUSTRIAL LABOR.

24
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • Secy of Ag., Henry Wallace voiced his
    displeasure with AAA.
  • Concerned about throwing away 100 mil pounds of
    pork.
  • AAAs popularity wained as the policies increased
    poverty of farmers.

25
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • Townsend, Long, Coughlin, and the Union Party.
  • Several critics form groups to publicly oppose
    FDR
  • Townsendites - elderly people organized by Dr.
    Francis E. Townsend.
  • Believed FDR neglected the elderly and pensions.
    Rejected by House.
  • Huey Long, Sen., La., charismatic, leftist.
  • Long preached that greedy businessmen upset the
    balance of the nations wealth.
  • Share Our Wealth Dramatic redistribution of
    wealth. Take from the rich to give to the poor.
  • every man would be kingAssassinated shortly
    befor the election of 1936.

26
4.2E Critics of the New Deal
  • Father Charles E. Coughlin initially believed
    FDRs New Deal was Christs Deal
  • Changed his mind and talked his 30 mil listeners
    to follow big business, not FDR.
  • Became more extreme (fascist and anti-semitic)
  • Joined Longs successor and Townsend in creating
    the Union Aprty to challenge FDR in 36.
  • Lost in a landslide to FDR.

27
4.2F Legacy of the New Deal
  • Based on the graphs, describe the economy in the
    late 1920s.
  • How do the data from the late 1920s compare to
    those of 1933 when FDR took office?
  • What effect did the New Deal have on GNP,
    unemployment, business failures by the late
    1930s?
  • What happened to the federal debt between 1933
    1938, the year before WWII began in Europe?
  • Based on these figures, was FDRs New Deal
    successful?
  • How did U.S. entry into WWII in 1941 affect the
    economy?
  • Which impacted the economy more, the New Deal or
    WWII?
  • Why?

28
4.2F Legacy of the New Deal
  • Second Hundred Days
  • Despite criticism, FDR and Cong continued to
    enact experimental New Deal policies and
    programs.
  • FDR/Cong pumped 1 bil into economy.
  • Supreme Court Battle
  • Supreme Court ruled many acts unconstitutional.
  • NIRA especially was ruled unconstitutional
  • 37 FDR asked Cong to allow him to appoint 6 new
    justices (old-age and slow)
  • Packing the court only offended all segments of
    society.

29
4.2F Legacy of the New Deal
  • Legacy of the New Deal
  • New came to an end in 38.
  • 1) FDR leadership reshaped the role of the
    presidency.
  • Strength, dignity, independence like no other
    position in the world.
  • Centralization of power in the Oval Office
    (federal power)
  • 2) Fed gov and its role in Americans lives grew
    larger and had more direct contact with the
    people - Welfare State.
  • 3) FDR and Eleanor ushered in women into more
    prominent national roles.
  • 4) Social Security, old-aged care by the gov,
    regulation of stock market, deficit spending,
    insured banking deposits.

30
4.2F Legacy of the New Deal
  • Did it work? Yes and No.
  • Assessment says New Deal partially rescued
    Americans from the Great Depression.
  • Unemployment dropped, business failures declined,
    farmers benefited from subsidies, publics
    confidence in banks increased.
  • Millions of American were aided by the programs.
  • Success was limited.
  • WWII is often credited with moving the U.S.
    economy from surviving to thriving.
  • FDR and the New Deal can be applauded for bold
    activism and creative experimentation in the
    search for solutions.
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