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The Changes of the 19th Century

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Romanticism also strongly connected to ideas of nationalism, ... Neoclassicism of 18th century remained popular. Neo-Gothic style became popular. Romanticism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Changes of the 19th Century


1
The Changes of the 19th Century
2
Romanticism
  • Artistic and intellectual movement of the late
    18th and early 19th century.
  • Reaction to strict focus on reason of the
    Enlightenment with a strong focus on emotion and
    intuition.
  • Romanticism also strongly connected to ideas of
    nationalism, individualism, and the natural world.

3
Romanticism
  • Literature
  • Germany
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Friedrich von Schiller
  • Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm
  • France
  • Honore de Balzac
  • Alexander Dumas
  • Victor Hugo

Victor Hugo
4
Romanticism
  • Literature
  • Britain
  • William Wordsworth
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Lord Byron
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley
  • John Keats
  • William Blake
  • Alfred Lord Tennyson
  • Robert Browning
  • Sir Walter Scott

Lord Byron
5
Romanticism
  • Painting
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • Francisco Goya
  • J.M.W. Turner
  • John Constable
  • Camille Corot

Goya
6
Eugene Delacroix- Liberty Leading the People
7
Goya - Third of May, 1808
8
Turner Burning of the Houses of Parliament
9
Romanticism
  • Architecture
  • Exotic influences from Middle East and China
  • Neoclassicism of 18th century remained popular
  • Neo-Gothic style became popular.

10
Romanticism
  • Music
  • Ludwig von Beethoven
  • Led transition from classical to romantic
  • Richard Wagner
  • German nationalist operas
  • Giuseppe Verdi
  • Giacomo Puccini
  • Franz Liszt
  • Piano works based on Hungarian folk music
  • Frederic Chopin

Richard Wagner
11
Romanticism
  • Philosophy
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Led revolt against extreme rationalism.
  • Critique of Pure Reason (1781)
  • Metaphysics understanding of the supernatural.
  • G.W.F. Hegel
  • History represented Gods plan for the world.
  • Based on dialectical conflict (thesis,
    antithesis, synthesis)

Immanuel Kant
12
Conservatism
  • Political ideology that developed in the late
    18th century.
  • Defended established social and political order
    of Europe as natural.
  • Conservatism questioned the possibilities of
    radical change.
  • British MP Edmund Burke was its most vocal
    advocate.

Edmund Burke
13
Classical Liberalism
  • Associated with ideas of social progress,
    economic development, and individualism that
    emerged in the Enlightenment.
  • Closely associated with middle class values and
    concerns.
  • Generally advocated political reforms, but also
    promoted an orderly society.
  • In this way, it was often limited in scope and
    not concerned for the needs of the masses.

14
Political Liberalism
  • Political liberalism was based on the ideas of
    John Locke, Voltaire and other philosophes of the
    18th century .
  • Political liberalism called for greater
    individual rights, religious freedom, freedom of
    the press, property rights, representative
    government (at least for the middle class, not
    democracy)

15
Economic Liberalism
  • Based mostly on laissez-faire ideas of Adam Smith
    and other economists.
  • Markets should be as free from government
    intervention as possible.
  • Thomas Malthus
  • An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
  • Population growth would outstrip food.
  • David Ricardo
  • Iron Law of Wages
  • labor based on supply and demand

16
Utilitarianism and Socialism
  • As the 19th century progressed, more and more
    politicians, economists and philosophers began to
    see that conservatism and liberalism were not
    serving the needs of the developing industrial
    society.
  • They began to theorize about alternative systems
    that would bring about a better society.

17
Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • Argued that govt sometimes needed to intervene
    on behave of the oppressed.
  • Every human practice should be valued in terms of
    its utility (happiness).
  • Individual freedom with the benefits for the most
    (welfare state)

18
Utilitarianism
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Further evolution of liberal doctrine away from
    laissez-faire.
  • Strong advocate of womens rights.
  • Supported formation of labor unions, progressive
    taxes, universal suffrage, and child labor
    restrictions.

19
Socialism
  • Utopian Socialism
  • Socialists of the early 19th century did not have
    a coherent ideology, but different ideas put
    forth.
  • Common to most were the ideas of the abolition of
    private property (either owned by the state of by
    groups of workers.
  • And the need to educate workers to cooperate as
    apposed to compete.

20
Socialism
  • Robert Owen
  • Textile entrepreneur who advocated socialist
    ideas.
  • Put workers rights and wages into action at New
    Lanark, Scotland.
  • Began socialist New Harmony community in Indiana
    in 1826.
  • New Harmony failed and he returned to England

21
Socialism
  • Count of Saint-Simon
  • French socialist who believed that government
    should focus on improving economic conditions.
  • Society should be directed by an educated elite,
    providing for the equal benefit of all.

22
Socialism
  • Charles Fourier
  • Advocated the establishment of socialist
    communities known as phalanxes (small workers
    communities)
  • Each person would share in each other's work to
    avoid boredom.

23
Socialism
  • Louis Blanc
  • Published The Organization of Work (1840) calling
    for universal manhood suffrage and the creation
    of a workers party.
  • The workers would eventually control the
    government and establish socialist workshops,
    pushing private industries out of business.

24
The Socialist Critique
  • Utilitarian and especially socialist writers and
    thinkers began to criticize the assertions of
    liberal capitalist society, especially in dealing
    with the condition of workers.
  • More and more of these ideas would filter into
    the mainstream political discourse.
  • At the same time, conservatives were also
    critical, but from a more traditional and
    paternalistic perspective.
  • As the century progressed, conservatism became
    more associated with the aristocracy, liberalism
    with the bourgeoisie, and socialism with the
    working class.

25
The Modern Political Continuum
MORE FREEDOM
Classical Liberalism
Utilitarianism/ Progressivism
Conservatism
Socialism
CENTER
MORE EQUAL
LESS EQUAL
LEFT
RIGHT
EXTREME
Marxist Communism
Royalist
Fascism
Stalinism
Totalitarianism
LESS FREEDOM
26
Civil Unrest in Great Britain
  • Postwar economic depression led to civil unrest
    in Britain.
  • Lord Liverpool, a Tory, served as prime minister
    of a reactionary government.
  • Aug, 1819 Protesters gathered in St. Peters
    Field, Manchester were attacked by Government
    troops. Eleven people were killed in what became
    know as the Peterloo Massacre.

Peterloo Massacre, 1819
27
Conservative Reaction
  • The Six Acts
  • Reaction to the Peterloo Massacre, passed by
    Parliament in Dec. 1819.
  • Restricted freedom of speech press, and assembly,
    allowed for searches of homes.
  • Cato Street Conspiracy
  • January 1820, George IV (r. 1820-1830) succeeded
    to the throne.
  • Government uncovered a plot to kill the entire
    cabinet and the king.
  • Conspirators were arrested and executed.

28
Tory Reforms
  • Younger Tory leaders began to push for reforms in
    the 1820s.
  • Robert Peel, the home secretary, reformed
    criminal codes and reorganized the police
    (bobbies)
  • Free trade policies put in place by reducing
    tariffs on imports.
  • Religious restrictions removed.
  • Test Act Repealed in 1828
  • Catholic Emancipation passed in 1829.

Robert Peel
29
Reform Bill of 1832
  • Whigs won the election of 1830, replacing the
    Tory government of the Duke of Wellington.
  • PM Earl Grey introduced electoral reform.
  • It was blocked two times by the House of Lords.
  • Passed with threat of adding Whig peers to the
    House of Lords by king William IV (r. 1830
    1837).

30
Reform Bill of 1832
  • Eliminated 56 rotten boroughs and pocket
    boroughs and redistributed their 111 seats, 32
    smaller ones lost one of two seats in the House
    of Commons.
  • The bill lowered property qualifications to
    include most middle class men, expanding the
    electorate by 800,000 men.

Earl Grey
31
Reforms Expand
  • In 1833, slavery was abolished throughout the
    British Empire.
  • Factory Act of 1833 placed restrictions of child
    labor.
  • Those under age 9 could not work in mills.
  • 9 to 13 work 9 hours, 13 to 18 could work 12 hrs
  • Municipal Corporations Act of 1835 created town
    councils.

32
Repeal of the Corn Laws
  • Anti-Corn Law League (est. 1839) campaigned for
    repeal of Corn Laws (tariffs on grains)
  • Adopted in 1815, the laws provided protection for
    landowners by inflating prices.
  • Middle class reformers argued that elimination of
    tariffs would lower grain prices, helping the
    workers and industrialists.
  • Under pressure of the Peelites (splitting the
    Tories) and the effects of the Irish Famine, the
    Corn Laws were repealed in 1846.

33
The Chartist Movement
  • Agitation continued for further reform and the
    creation of the Peoples Charter in 1838 by a
    group of working class leaders.
  • Demands centered on
  • Universal Manhood Suffrage
  • Secret Ballot in Voting
  • End of Property requirements to office
  • Salaries for MPs.
  • Creation of Equal Electoral Districts
  • Annual Elections for the House of Commons.
  • Presented demands to Parliament in 1839. They
    were ignored. Agitation continued through 1848.

34
France The Bourbon Restoration
  • Under Louis XVIII (r. 1814-1824) the Charter of
    1814 created a constitutional monarchy.
  • Two house parliament created (on British model)
  • Guarantees of civil liberties
  • Napoleonic Code remained in effect
  • Ultra-Royalists, under the leadership of the
    kings brother, the Count of Artois, won
    elections in 1820 and reduced civil liberties.

35
France The Bourbon Restoration
  • In 1824, the Count of Artois succeeded his
    brother as King Charles X.
  • He angered the bourgeoisie by lowering the
    interest on government bonds to compensate the
    nobility for the lands they had lost.
  • Liberals and moderate royalists gained control in
    elections in 1827.
  • In response, Charles X made the reactionary
    Prince of Polignac premier

Charles X
36
Revolutions of 1830 - France
  • The July Revolution
  • Liberals won elections in May 1830.
  • In response, Charles and Polignac enacted the
    Four Ordinances which imposed limitations on
    freedom of the press, dissolved the Parliament
    and scheduled new elections.
  • On July 27-29, the people of Paris rose in revolt
    against the king.
  • Charles X fled to Great Britain.

37
Revolutions of 1830 - France
  • The July Monarchy
  • Some revolutionaries favored creating a republic,
    but liberals in the Chamber of Deputies supported
    a constitutional monarchy.
  • They proclaimed Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans,
    as king
  • King Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848) cultivated a
    bourgeois image as citizen king.
  • His economic and political policies favored the
    interests of the middle class.

King Louis Philippe
38
Revolutions of 1830 - Europe
  • Belgium
  • Catholics and liberals take opportunity to gain
    independence from Dutch.
  • Constitutional monarchy created.
  • Switzerland
  • Swiss cantons more toward more liberal
    representative governments.
  • Spain
  • Conflicts between the Carlists and the monarchy
    led to expansion of liberal ideas, though reform
    was difficult to maintain

39
The Aristocracy
  • Consisted of traditional landholders as well and
    the upper gentry.
  • Challenged by the new industrial wealth of the
    middle classes (only some aristocrats become
    capitalists.)
  • They still controlled most of the important
    positions of power in government and most of the
    wealth in the nation.

40
The Middle Class
  • Confident and assertive group of the 19th
    century.
  • Bankers, industrialists, professionals, and
    white collar workers.
  • Strongly opposed aristocratic privilege.
  • Middle class values of hard work, self reliance,
    temperance, and the patriarchal family permeate
    all levels of society.

41
Artisans and Skilled Labor
  • Most independent of any of the classes in their
    work and position.
  • Elimination of the guild system opened new free
    market possibilities.
  • Skill laborers faced competition from machines,
    but often learned to work with them.
  • Led labor movements with successful strikes
    despite labor unions being illegal.

42
The Working Class
  • Consisted of mostly unskilled wage laborers in
    the masses who move to the cities.
  • More than half the workers in factories are women
    and a quarter are children do to lower wages and
    their ability to be intimidated.
  • Faced dangerous working conditions.
  • Harsh discipline used by factory managers.
  • Often lived in slum conditions.

Women miners in Wales
43
The Peasants
  • Still the largest class in most of Europe in the
    early 19th century (Britain one exception).
  • Position changes dramatically with the end of
    feudal obligations after the French Revolution
    and Napoleonic Wars.
  • Entering the free marked ended many protections
    brought by feudal obligations (some succeed as
    farmers, others forced into wage labor on large
    farms or in cities.)
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