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Culture and Development

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The Worldview of Post-modernism. Problems. Universal concept of 'power' ... Post-modernism = no solutions. Development = disciplining 'The Third World' World ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture and Development


1
Culture and Development
  • You down there let us get the development
    going

2
  • Program
  • Theme From economics to culture
  • The history of culture
  • Theories about culture Modernism,
    post-modernism, world system, complexity

3
Culture and Development
  • Danida No development without culture
  • Def. culture is the sum of social practices
  • UNESCO Our creative diversity
  • Def. the total and distinctive way of life of a
    people or society
  • Sen
  • Def. Culture is only one among aspects of our
    selfrealization

4
Cultural assumptions
  • Culture determines (can be an obstacle)
  • The Protestant etic Islam
  • Culture is negotiable
  • Skin-deep

5
Economic Development
  • Trumans vision
  • Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for
    making the benefits of our scientific advances
    and industrial progress available for the
    improvement and growth of undeveloped areas.
  • - New economic developments must be devised and
    controlled to the benefit of the people of the
    areas in which they are established
  • Increased welfare development

6
The economic assumptions
  • Development is a result of the economy (growth in
    GNP). If the economy is sound everything else
    will follow.
  • Some contries are already developed, while
    others can follow if they choses the right means
    (which?)
  • Development is a question of time and adjustment
    of the economic theories.

7
The economic paradox
  • Between 1950 and 1995 the Western contires
    contributed 1 billion in development aid (in
    1985 dollars)
  • Development took place in those place that
    recieved least in aid Asia China, Korea
  • Life exptancy in Zambia is 38 år

8
Lack of results
9
Disappointing development
10
The social history of culture
  • The Great Chain of Being
  • Culture nature the supernatural

11
Value transfer from The New World
12
Culture
  • Dobbel meaning
  • culture - civilization
  • Germany France/England
  • (life-form) (process)
  • Germany was isolated in the16-17 century
  • German court culture was importet from France
    German bourgeoisie was impoverish self-respect
    as a vertue (Herder human practice the people)

13
Two versions of culture
14
Culture as process - modernism
  • Bourgeois model state, market and civil
    society
  • Result
  • Culture
  • Attachment to the material reproduction
  • Society pass through similar stages
  • Marx/Rostow
  • Relations of Production
  • ----------------------------
  • Forces of Production
  • Culture dominant ideologi/ bad faith

15
General evolution
  • Social form
  • hunter/gather agriculture industry
    information society
  • ------s1-------------s2----------------s3---------
    --s4
  • Dynamic
  • ------d1-------------d2----------------d3---------
    --d4
  • Stoneage iron bronze
  • (technology,
  • Mode of production,
  • etc.)

16
Worldview of Modernism
17
System of categories
18
Implications
  • Culture
  • Traditions, customs, dressing, table manners,
    etc.
  • Culture is a hindrence for development, can be
    circumvented by using the right means Talk
    lauder and clearer!!!
  • Problems
  • - Assume that underneath different attires there
    is the same (liberal) individual
  • - ethnocentric (compare the organizational form
    of other people to Western standards
  • - the others live in deficiency societies (we
    have what they need)
  • Geography (space) is turned into stages (time)
    Pacific Ocean
  • Development about transferring welfare
  • Modernism show no results

19
Culture as life-form
  • E.g. Franz Boaz, Marshall Sahlins
  • nature
  • Objects a group
  • other groups

20
Implications
  • Culture common system of meaning, common
    categories male woman rich poor relativism
  • Society conditions people do not chose, and
    which they cannot escape, but which are
    negotiated locally provides shifting cultural
    configurations
  • Development non-liniar, complex, and on local
    conditions

21
False premisses according to Tilly
  • How to make boundaries of the same unit
    consistent in time, space and personnel?
  • How to determine whether the proposed boundaries
    do, in fact, delimit a distinct and coherent
    social entity

22
Post-modernism
  • State, market, civil society object of
    post-modernism
  • To udgaver
  • culture (meaning)
  • Agency --------------------------
  • Authentic individuals
  • signifiers
  • Discourse ------------ symbolic
    reconfiguration
  • power
  • Ideology hegemony anti-hegemony

23
The Worldview of Post-modernism
24
Problems
  • Universal concept of power
  • Development as discourse the others are
    accomplices
  • Post-modernism no solutions
  • Development disciplining The Third World

25
World system theory
  • Wallerstein, I. 1999 The End of the World as We
    Know it.
  • Arrighi, G. 1994 The Long Twentieth Century
  • Frank, A. Gunder 1998 ReOrient. Global Economy
    in the Asian Age.
  • Friedman, J. 1994 Cultural Identity Global
    Process
  • Bergendorff, S. 2002 Europas Udvikling
    skiftende livsbetingelser og individualisme

26
World system model
27
The character of development
  • culture identity positions
  • Development a systemic phenomena
  • Welfare geographic luck (place in world system)
  • Aid reorganization
  • Liberal states part of the problem, not the
    solution

28
Complex systems
29
Complexity Theory
  • Complexity Theory offers the following
    propositions that could fruitfully be further
    developed and synthesised into a social theory of
    social change and development (e.g. Nicolis
    Prigogine 1989, Taylor 2001)
  • 1) A dynamic system is based on energy intake
    (resources), which is related to the behaviour of
    the system (praxis), producing an overall pattern
    (institutions) that in turn influences behaviour.
  • 2) Interaction creates differences.
  • 3) The sum of the interaction is different from
    its parts.
  • 4) Dynamic systems are open (energy intake) and
    not in equilibrium (the same parameters can
    generate several solutions).

30
Complex social systems
  • Following Emmeche (199710) and Cilliers
    (20004-5) we can list the following
    characteristics of complex social systems
  • Complex systems consist of groups and sub-groups
    that interact repeatedly according to simple and
    local rules, giving a distinct overall pattern
    e.g. forms of government.
  • Groups interact in multiple ways through various
    forms of exchange, but these exchanges are based
    on individuals who have limited information about
    the system as a whole.

31
Research task
  • we should find out what strategies people pursues
    locally and how persistent interaction according
    to these interests generates properties in the
    social order and how this is converted into
    cultural categories.
  • See cultural categories as experiential, flexible
    and multidimensional reflecting the properties of
    interactions which are systematic but
    unpredictable and open-ended (see Lakoff
    Johnson 1980).

32
Change according to complexity theory
  • culture does not change because categories cannot
    contain the new.
  • Culture changes when new rules for strategies
    become feasibly and dominant in the social milieu.

33
Conclusion
  • Development is a question of how culture is
    conceptualized
  • Different solutions according to which model is
    used
  • Provides different development practices
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