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Models and Theories of Behavior Management


4. Group Interaction- The manner in which systems relate ... a Psychodynamic manner... unofficial, cultural codes, manners, student created,society created, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Models and Theories of Behavior Management

Models and Theories of Behavior Management
  • Danforth S., Boyle, J.(2000) Cases in behavior
  • Columbus Ohio. Merrill Publishing

Social Systems Theory (Ecological theory)
  • No individual truly lives or stands alone.
  • People develop by adjustments between an
    individual and their changing social and physical
  • People live within a number of ecological systems
    (contexts) classroom/school, family system, peer
    network, etc.
  • Persons behavior operates in congruence or
    harmony with their environment
  • Deviant behavior happens when there is a lack of
    congruence or lack of necessary behaviors and
    understanding from the child.

5 Levels of an Ecological Context
  • The Individual- the changing and growing personal
  • 2. Interpersonal Relationships- patterns of
    personal interaction and communication.
  • 3. Relationships between systems-The
    interrelations between home and school, or home
    and a social service agency.
  • 4. Group Interaction- The manner in which systems
    relate to one another. If a parent loses a job,
    may influence a child to feel anxiety and fear.
  • 5. Society- What is bad behavior vs. good
    behavior? Each day institutions and settings are
    making and remaking cultural norms. Cultural
    norms reflect the belief and value system of
    dominant groups alternative norms are
    constructed by persons and groups that disagree
    with dominant and socially mandated ways

Thinking like a Social Systems Theorist
  • Goal to help children improve their behavior and
    gain greater control over what they do.
  • Student has negative and disruptive behaviors
  • Individual- teacher teaches student what anger
  • Interpersonal relationships- teacher plans a
    number of times during the week to spend personal
  • Relationship between systems- teacher talks with
    mother extensively, shares ideas and concerns
  • Group Interactions- teacher arranges for mother
    and student to meet with guidance counselor.

  • Scientific modification of observable behaviors.
  • Behaviors are viewed as responses that occur in
    relation to specific stimuli in the environment.
  • Environmental factors dictate an individuals

Thinking like a Behaviorist
  • 1. What is the specific behavior that is
  • 2. Under what conditions does this behavior
  • 3. What are conditions or events that tend to
    occur in conjunction with this behavior?
  • 4. What is available that is viewed as rewarding
    by the individual?
  • 5. Who can systematically and consistently
    provide the rewards and how can this be arranged?

The reason behavior happens
  • the behavior is rewarded
  • or
  • the behavior has failed to be rewarded
  • or
  • the behavior has been punished

The function of a behavior is a response to
  • Interventions are designed to modify/ change
    behavior by promoting or discouraging a behavior.
  • We do this by carefully studying the stimuli. We
    use the principles of reinforcement.

Five basic Principles of Reinforcement
  • Reinforcement must only be presented when the
    target behavior is exhibited.
  • Reinforce immediately after the target behavior
    is exhibited.
  • Target behavior must be reinforced every time it
    is exhibited.
  • Once target behavior has been increased to the
    desired level, reinforcement occur on an
    intermittent level.
  • Tangible reinforcers should be accompanied by
    social reinforcers.

Psychodynamic Model
  • Looks primarily inside the individual
  • Daily priority of building trustful relationships
  • Neo-freudian, Long, Redl, Wineman, George, Morse
  • Foster the development of self-esteem, personal
    insight, self control and social skills

Psychodynamic (continued)
  • Focuses on developing the individuals insight
    and how feelings are acted out in their
    behaviors. Individuals have options in
    understanding their feelings and find ways of
    having them that are healthy.
  • Trusting relationships- adults able to give
    support to help individual become more
  • Behaviors are the tip of the iceberg, pieces
    of the surface evidence that must be interpreted
    to find the emotions beneath.

Thinking in a Psychodynamic manner
  • 1. What difficult feelings is the child or
    adolescent experiencing (anger, sadness,
    frustration) when they misbehave?
  • 2. Why is the child or adolescent feeling this?
    (What is going on the moment or in the persons
    life that stirs these feelings?)
  • 3. Is there a way to arrange for the child or
    adolescent to move away from the situation and
    cool down at the time these difficult feelings
    rise up?
  • 4. Is there a way to arrange for an adult, that
    the adolescent views as caring and trustworthy,
    to provide support and talk privately with them?
  • 5. Is there a way to increase the number and
    quality of trusting, caring relationships with
    adults in this individuals life?

Surface Interventions- behavior influencing
techniques (Redl/Wineman)
  • Planned ignoring
  • Signal interference
  • Proximity control
  • Tension reduction through humor
  • Program restructuring
  • Support from routine
  • Direct appeal
  • Removal of seductive objects
  • Physical restraint

Environmental Model
  • Behavior is described as a function of the
    individual within the environment.
  • Focuses on the development of specific aspects
    within an individuals immediate environment
    (home, school, neighborhood) that provide
    structure, support, vitality and regularity.
  • What a person does cannot be separated from the
    context in which it happens.

Thinking like an environmentalist
  • For each of the recent incidents of
    misbehavior/conflict, describe the physical
    setting, time of day, activity and participants.
  • Are there any repeated patterns pertaining to the
  • Does the group/individual experiencing the
    behavior problems have any discomfort with the
    setting, time schedule, activity or participants?
  • Are there any patterns in how certain settings,
    times of day, activities or participants provoke
    or promote the problematic behavior?
  • What is your own role(teacher) as a powerful
    element of the social context in contributing to
    or improving upon this problem situation?

  • Are activities of the day,(week, month, year)
    arranged to promote emotional comfort,
    cooperative behavior and personal fulfillment?

Physical Space
  • Are physical objects(chairs, tables
    desks,lighting, etc.) arranged to promote bodily
    comfort, emotional ease, concentration to task,
    constructive communication and positive
    relationships with others?

Patterns of Human Interactions
  • How do the current habits and rules of the
    group/individual promote or not promote the
    desired behaviors (cooperation, attention to task
    , etc.) ?
  • Daily sequences of behaviors that are often
    maintained within habits or rules.
  • Habits are patterns that are usually repeated
    each day.
  • Rules
  • Explicit-posted in class, authority figures
  • Implicit-informal/unofficial, cultural codes,
    manners, student created,society created, etc.

Constructivist Model
  • Children are active constructors of personal and
    social meaning, not passive receptacles.
  • Constantly constructing personal knowledge about
    themselves and the world.
  • Emphasizes development of moral autonomy.
  • All behavior, appropriate/inappropriate is
    meaningful and important.
  • Persons in a common culture or subculture(classroo
    m) borrow ideas,beliefs and words from each

Thinking like a constructivist
  • Describe the qualities of (dis)connectedness,
    (dis)unity and (un)caring within the
    community/classroom/group where the problem
    behavior occurs.
  • How do you think the lack of (dis)connectedness
    (dis)unity and (un)caring within the
    community/classroom/group has encouraged or
    precipitated this behavior problem?
  • Does the individual(s) feel respected and loved
    with in the community or group? Why not?

  • How is the power distributed (equally?
    Unequally?) and used (respected, disrespected)?
  • How could power distribution and use influence
  • How can the sense of connectedness, unity and
    caring be improved in such a way as to provide
    better support for the person(s) experiencing
    behavior problems?

Three Ways to develop the class 1. Moral
  • An individuals ongoing sense of self as a
    responsible moral agent, a concerned evaluator of
    what is good and what is bad in each life
  • Reciprocal respect- people treated with respect
    often reciprocate with respect.
  • Related consequences or punishments must be
    logically related to the misbehavior, then the
    student is more likely to learn a desirable
  • Effective Communication- open, free of judgments,
    shaming. Uses active listening and collaborative
    problem solving.(psychodynamic)

2. Caring
  • The one characteristic of the gifted teacher was
    that they cared.
  • Caring is a quality of ethical, human connection
    in which each person is genuinely invested in the
    well-being of the other(s)
  • Power over- Top down, authoritarian control
    relies on coercive rewards, punishments and
    threats, coercionshort term compliance
  • Power with- adults share decision making with
    children, they are invited to an ongoing and open
    dialogue. Decisions are based on what is best for
    the group.

3. Community Building
  • Social cohesion that fosters many forms of human
  • Can not be mandated by rules.
  • Teacher reflects on distribution of power and
    quality of all interactions.
  • Goal to lead the group to become caring equals,
    collaborators who are personally involved in
    creating the community.
  • Creation of a classroom covenant- a solemn
    agreement that is gradually discussed and
    negotiated by all participants.