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Mars Science Orbiter MSO Science Definition Team SDT Report Overview

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Scientific objectives of an MSO mission building on the SAG-2 Plan A ... as to improve by an order of magnitude or more detection limits on gases not yet ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mars Science Orbiter MSO Science Definition Team SDT Report Overview


1
Mars Science Orbiter (MSO) Science Definition
Team (SDT) Report Overview
  • Michael Smith (NASA/GSFC)
  • 18th MEPAG Meeting
  • 20 February 2008

2
  • MSO SDT preceded by
  • Science Analysis Group (SAG-1), chaired by C.B.
    Farmer
  • Science Analysis Group (SAG-2), chaired by W.
    Calvin
  • The purpose of the SDT effort was to define the
  • Scientific objectives of an MSO mission building
    on the SAG-2 Plan A
  • Science requirements of likely instruments
  • Desired orbits and mission profile
  • Potential science synergies with future missions
    such as MSR
  • The SDT assumed an MRO-class spacecraft able to
    support telecommunications relay for 10 Earth
    years.
  • First telecon 22 October 2007
  • Face-to-face meeting 1213 November 2007
  • Final draft of report 15 December 2007

3
MSO SDT Membership Michael Smith, Chair, NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center Don Banfield, Cornell
University Jeff Barnes, Oregon State
University Phil Christensen, Arizona State
University Todd Clancy, Space Science
Institute Phil James, University of Toledo
(retired) Jim Kasting, Pennsylvania State
University Paul Wennberg, Caltech Daniel
Winterhalter, JPL Michael Wolff, Space Science
Institute Rich Zurek, JPL (Mars Program
Office) Janis Chodas, JPL (MSO Project
Manager) Tomas Komarek, JPL (MSO Mission Concept
Manager)
4
  • The SDT identified five major objectives for MSO
  • Atmospheric Composition
  • Sensitive and comprehensive survey of the
    abundance and temporal and seasonal distribution
    of atmospheric species and isotopologues
  • Atmospheric State
  • Provide new observations that constrain and
    validate models (winds), and extend the present
    record of martian climatology to characterize
    interannual variability and long-term trends
  • Surface Change Science
  • Investigate surface changes as recorded in
    surface properties and morphologies due to
    seasonal cycling, aeolian movement, mass
    wasting, small impact craters, action of present
    water
  • Site Certification Imaging
  • HiRISE-class imaging (30 cm resolution) for
    certification of future landing sites
  • Telecommunications Support
  • Support relay of science data from, and commands
    to, landed assets

5
  • Atmospheric Composition
  • Atmospheric evidence for present habitability
  • Key measurement objectives
  • Photochemistry (H2O2, O3, CO, H2O)
  • Transport (CO, H2O)
  • Isotopic Fractionation (isotopomers of H2O and
    CO2)
  • Surface exchange (CH4 and H2O)
  • Inventory (HO2, NO2, N2O, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6,
    H2CO, HCN, H2S, OCS, SO2, HCl)
  • Measurement goals
  • Solar occultations to obtain sensitivity of 110
    parts per trillion
  • Limb-geometry mapping at sensitivity of 110
    parts per billion with latitude/longitude/altitu
    de/local time coverage
  • Will significantly improve knowledge of
    atmospheric composition and chemistry
  • Could lead to identification of source regions

6
  • But, MSO is more than a methane mission
  • The SDT envisions a comprehensive survey of both
    known gases (H2O, H2O2, CO, etc.), as well as to
    improve by an order of magnitude or more
    detection limits on gases not yet observed.
  • Methane is still an important measurement goal,
    of course. MSO would be able to make a definitive
    statement about whether or not methane is present
    in the atmosphere, and what its distribution is.
    This is still a major finding whether or not
    methane is detected.
  • Plus, MSO has other major scientific objectives
    that would yield a major advance in our ability
    to understand and to simulate (for science and
    engineering) the Mars atmosphere

7
  • Atmospheric State
  • Climate processes responsible for seasonal /
    interannual change
  • Key measurement objectives
  • Wind velocity
  • Water vapor and atmospheric temperature without
    influence of dust
  • Diurnal coverage of all parameters
  • Vertical profiles of all parameters
  • Continue climatology monitoring
  • Measurement goals
  • 2-D wind velocity, temperature, aerosol optical
    depth, water vapor at
  • 5 km vertical resolution over broad height
    range
  • diurnal coverage twice per martian season
  • 85 or better coverage along orbit
  • Extend record of climatology to characterize
    long-term trends
  • Validate and significantly improve models of
    transport and state

8
  • Surface Change Science
  • Recent processes of surface-atmosphere
    interaction
  • Key measurement objectives
  • Polar layered terrain (Swiss cheese)
  • Aeolian features (dust devil tracks, streaks,
    dust storm changes)
  • Gullies, avalanches, dune motions
  • Formation of small impact craters over time
  • Measurement goals
  • 1 meter resolution sufficient for these goals
  • Ability to image all areas (including poles)
  • Understanding of active processes and the role
    of volatiles in this activity
  • Exchange of volatiles between the polar surface
    and atmosphere, and the current evolution of the
    polar terrains

9
  • Sample strawman Payload
  • Solar occultation FTIR spectrometer
  • Atmospheric composition
  • Sub-millimeter spectrometer
  • Wind velocity through Doppler shift
  • Water vapor, temperatures, etc. without
    influence from dust
  • Wide-angle camera (MARCI-like)
  • Daily global view of surface and atmospheric
    dust and clouds
  • Thermal-IR spectrometer
  • Daily global observations of temperature, dust,
    ice, water vapor
  • Direct comparison to previous climatology record
  • High-resolution camera (HiRISE-class or TBD)
  • Imaging of active surface processes

10
Orbit characteristics Near-circular at low
altitude (300 km) Allows best global
mapping Allows most solar occultation
opportunities Near-polar inclination
(82.5) Lower inclination gives faster
precession of local time and more uniform
latitude distribution of solar occultation
points Science requires full diurnal cycle in
less than a Martian season Higher inclination
favors polar surface imaging Desire to image
rotational pole at airmass of two or less Orbit
altitude increased to 400 km at some point for
planetary protection
11
Orbit tracks for one day Good global mapping
Solar occultations for one year Good latitude
distribution
12
  • Summary
  • MSO would enable significant new science and
    provide key infrastructure elements
  • MSO science objectives not covered by any other
    proposed mission (including MSR)
  • MSO science would have nice synergy with
    aeronomy Scout and would provide valuable
    feed-forward to MSR
  • 2016 is favored launch opportunity both to
    minimize gap in atmospheric monitoring and to
    provide needed telecom support for other future
    missions
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