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TO URBAN PLANNING

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Planning is what links technical knowledge and actions in the public domain. WHAT IS PLANNING? ... Emphasizes the application of scientific knowledge to social issues ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TO URBAN PLANNING


1
INTRODUCTION TO URBAN PLANNING THEORY
2
TOPICS
I WHAT IS A THEORY? II PLANNING SCIENCE
III KEY ISSUES IN URBAN PLANNING IV WHAT IS
PLANNING? V PLANNING TRADITIONS
3
WHAT IS A THEORY?
  • A logical explanation that is accepted until
    proven wrong or refuted by another one.
  • The above explanation comes from the
    falsificationism of Karl Popper, who stated that
    the objective of science is not to prove but to
    disprove theories

4
PLANNING SCIENCE
  • Thomas Kuhn and the structure of the scientific
    revolutions points out that scientific inquiry is
    a process
  • Pre-paradigmatic ( searching for a theory)
  • Normal science (developed a theory method)
  • Anomalies emerge
  • Paradigm shift
  • Return to normal science

5
KEY ISSUES IN URBAN PLANNING
  • Is planning a normal science or pre-paradigmatic
    scientific discipline?
  • What is the difference between theory of planning
    (process) and planning theory (substance)?
  • Should planning emphasize a positive
    (cause-effect) or normative (value judgment)
    analysis?
  • What is the subject/object of analysis of urban
    planning?

6
WHAT IS PLANNING?
  • Friedmann states that "..all planning must
    confront the meta-theoretical problem of how to
    make technical knowledge in planning effective in
    informing public actions"
  • In sum, Friedmann defines planning as the
    component that links knowledge action.
  • KNOWLEDGE ACTION
  • Planning is what links technical knowledge and
    actions in the public domain.

7
WHAT IS PLANNING?
  • Campbell Fainstein (19971) state that What
    role can planning play in developing the city and
    region within the constraints of a capitalist
    political economy and a democratic political
    system
  • Planning cannot be isolated from the political
    context of the city or region because the policy
    decisions affect local interests. Thus, planning
    becomes a practice of what is feasible
    politically instead of what is technically
    efficient and effective.
  • The question of power becomes relevant in the
    planning process.

8
WHAT IS PLANNING?
  • K A (Rational Planning)
  • K A (Incremental Planning)
  • K A (Transactive Planning)
  • K P (Activist Planning)
  • P A (Radical Planning)

9
WHAT IS PLANNING?
  • Friedmann identifies five important aspects
    where planning plays a role
  • Every planning activity involves a
    territorial/spatial component
  • Planning activities respond to a social
    rationality
  • Planning facilitates market activities while
    restricting noxious ones or even substituting the
    market
  • Planning in the public domain is political and
    therefore conflictive
  • Planning requires massive support and ability to
    mobilize society in order to be successful

10
PLANNING TRADITIONS
11
PLANNING TRADITIONS
  • POLICY ANALYSIS
  • The fields of policy analysis are system
    analysis, welfare social choice, and policy
    science
  • Emphasizes the application of scientific
    knowledge to social issues
  • Searches for correct solutions to social
    problems becoming social physics
  • The planner becomes a technocrat whose role is to
    serve the existing centers of power

12
PLANNING TRADITIONS
  • SOCIAL REFORM
  • This tradition draws from the fields of
    sociology, institutional economics and
    pragmatism.
  • Social reform is concerned with how to reform
    government to behave in a rational way
    (efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency).
  • It is concerned with what is the proper
    relationship between planning and politics and
    whose ultimate goal is to institutionalize
    planning as a governmental function.
  • The key goal is what government can do to achieve
    its goals of economic growth and prosperity.
  • It coincides with public policy in the idea of
    making planning a scientific endeavor applied to
    solve social problems.

13
PLANNING TRADITIONS
  • SOCIAL LEARNING
  • It is draws from the organization development
    theory
  • How society learns to solve its problems
  • Learning comes through an iterative process of
    trial and error
  • The planner becomes a community facilitator,
    instead of the scientist, whose role is to
    promote community participation in the search for
    solutions
  • Emphasizes a bottom-up approach and attempts to
    empower communities to solve their own problems.
    Plannings gravity center is moved from
    government and City Hall to the community.

14
PLANNING TRADITIONS
  • SOCIAL MOBILIZATION
  • Traces its roots to utopian socialists, radical
    anarchists, historical materialism, and
    Neo-marxism
  • Planning appears as a form of politics,
    conducted without the mediation of science
  • Planning also moves away from the notion that
    the state is neutral and attempting to mediate
    competing interests.
  • Perceives the state as an instrument of a social
    class whose sole purpose is to facilitate capital
    accumulation against the interest of labor.
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