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Knowledge Structures: Review I

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Module II - Knowledge Domains and Communities of Practice ... most modernist of the knowledge domains, least concerned with critical perspective ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Knowledge Structures: Review I


1
Knowledge Structures Review I

2
Knowledge Structures Review
  • Module I - Knowledge Structures and Moral Order
  • critical theory theoretical tradition (the
    Frankfurt school Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse
    ludic and resistance postmodernist theory)
  • developed method of generating dangerous
    knowledge, the kind of information and insight
    that upsets institutions and threatens to
    overturn regimes of truth
  • notion of hegemony, contradictions of class
    societies, epistemes, analysis of consciousness,
    revolutionary action
  • goal of critical analysis to critically analyze
    modes of thinking (epistemes, Orientalism) to
    open channels for experience of everyday life,
    practice informing theoretical thought, as
    shapers of knowledge systems to counter
    oppression of thought by creating critical
    consciousness
  • librarianship is revolutionary in how it meets
    the needs of the public (upholding institutions
    and facilitating social change, universal
    access to information)

3
Knowledge Structures Review
  • Module II - Knowledge Domains and Communities of
    Practice
  • critique of modernist science and
    post-Enlightenment thought (critical feminist
    studies, critique of technoscience, cultural
    studies movement)
  • thought is mediated by power relations that are
    social and historically constituted and therefore
    facts can never be isolated from the domain of
    values or removed from ideological inscription
    (relationship bw concept and object are mediated
    through language / discourse and therefore in
    existing power relations in society)
  • mainstream research practices are implicated in
    the reproduction of systems of class, race, and
    gender oppression
  • postmodern science and theory reject assumptions
    of Enlightenment rationality, traditional Western
    epistemology, and supposedly secure
    representation of reality that exists outside of
    discourse itself (knowledge is mediated in
    communities of practice)

4
Knowledge Structures Review
Module I - Knowledge Structures and Moral
Order 1. Knowledge and Experience (deCerteau)
2. Knowledge and Practice (Lave, Bowker
Star) 3. Multicultural Perspectives
Deconstructing Orientalism (Said) 4. Historical
Perspectives Deconstructing the Enlightenment
(Foucault, Said)

5
Module I Knowledge Structures and Moral Order
  • Knowledge and Experience
  • Knowledge and Practice
  • Multicultural Perspectives Deconstructing
    Orientalism
  • Historical Perspectives Deconstructing the
    Enlightenment
  • multiple perspectives of the processes that shape
    the production of knowledge (and
    representations), and its circulation how
    knowledge creates epistemes (schemas for
    processing of information) and how epistemes can
    be critiqued

6
Module I Knowledge Structures and Moral Order
  • experience knowledge built through community
    memory and immediate reality, localization of
    experience in contrast to hyperreality of
    mediated experience communities seek autonomy
    and self-reflection
  • practice formal knowledge systems (education)
    vs. informal knowledge (situational)
    legitimation of knowledge through traditional
    modernist science regulates what can be said
    under the flag of scientific authority practical
    knowledge is excluded from this discourse yet it
    is the practical knowledge accumulated through
    work / practice that may influence the creation
    of knowledge and innovation practitioner
    research vs. expert research (practitioners
    closer to purposes, cares, everyday concerns, and
    interests of work) need to acknowledge the
    progressive impact of practical knowledge

7
Module I Knowledge Structures and Moral Order
  • multiculturalism the position of the knower that
    is related to institutional authority, reflects
    power relations and ruptures of East / West,
    South / North knowledge is a system shaping
    reality but it is perspectival knowing styles
    are localized but in the postmodern condition the
    perception of the world is fragmented
  • historical epistemes are shaped by communities
    of practice and institutional discourse
    knowledge trails knowledge is cumulative and
    shaped by antecedents institutions maintain
    privileged knowledge systems

8
Knowledge and Practice Lave
  • JPF mathematics in action vs. story problems and
    the classroom context
  • Cases bowling, Weight Watchers, abandoning
    problems (supermarket calculations of prices)

9
Knowledge and Experience deCerteau
  • The grand narratives from television and
  • advertising stamp out or atomize the small
  • narratives of streets or neighborhoods
  • (deCerteau, pp. 142-3)

10
Multicultural Perspectives Said
  • Is knowledge self-replicating, fatalistic, a text
    that does not have the ability of reflecting
    experiences or perspectives of the Other?

11
Historical Perspectives Said, Foucault
  • Student response to readings / presentations

12
Knowledge Structures Review
Module II - Knowledge Domains and Communities of
Practice 1. Science Technology (Bijker,
Haraway, Johns) 2. Social Sciences (Budd,
Borgman) 3. Arts Humanities (Panofsky) 4.
Popular Culture (Freccero, Poole)

13
Module II Knowledge Domains and Communities of
Practice
  • Science Technology
  • Social Sciences
  • Arts Humanities
  • Popular Culture
  • scholarly communication is shaped by the
    communities of practice which impose their own
    views on the nature of truth (formal knowledge
    systems in various disciplinary domains science,
    technology, social sciences, arts humanities)

14
Module II Knowledge Domains and Communities of
Practice
  • traditional modernist research focused on rigor
    while neglecting the dynamics of the lived world
    and the pursuit of justice in the lived world
    post-Enlightenment science focused research on
    the how and the form of inquiry to the neglect of
    the what and the substance of inquiry
    traditional research argues that the only way to
    produce valid information is through the
    application of a rigorous research methodology
    (strictly following a set of objective procedures
    that separate researchers from those researchers
  • critical postmodern research respects the
    complexity of the social world (research humility
    implies a sense of unpredictability of the
    sociopolitical microcosm loss of faith in the
    privileged frame of reference claims to truth
    are relative to social context of knowledge
    creation they are also dependent on the
    conditions of production

15
Module II Knowledge Domains and Communities of
Practice
  • cultural studies (popular culture) critically
    examine mediated representations and knowledge
  • humanities acknowledge the subjective nature of
    knowledge as interpretation
  • social inquiry needs to be social critique, not
    only technology that focuses on reducing human
    beings to taken-for-granted social outcomes
    (scientific research works with hypotheses about
    reality and then collects data to support them
    thus theory is used to validate existing power
    relationships)
  • science and applied science (technology) are the
    most modernist of the knowledge domains, least
    concerned with critical perspective

16
Science Technology Bijker, Haraway
  • Progress, science, reason, nature …how far do we
    go? The promises and limitations of
    post-Enlightenment thought

17
Knowledge Circulated Johns
  • The realities of production, and circulation of
    knowledge artefacts is part of the power dynamics
    in society. The notions of authorship and
    authority are related to trust and
    trustworthiness of certain knowledge claims.
    Standardization / fixity of text forms is another
    key issue in the knowledge production and
    circulation in the form of artefacts.

18
Social Science Budd, Borgman
  • Social science as method of understanding with
    high internal validity and hope for
    generalizability (external validity across
    contexts) but how does it accommodate the
    unpredictable character of sociopolitical
    realities?
  • What happens to scholarly communication in the
    electronic publishing scenario? (continuous /
    discontinuous future paradigms hybridity)

19
Arts Humanities Panofsky
  • The strength and the frailty of humanistic
    study?

20
Popular Culture Freccero
  • Whose knowledge is it really (knowledge
    representations created by the media and the
    processes of capitalist society or authentic
    expression of social groups)?
  • Why important to study cultural forms as critical
    study and analysis of power relations?
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