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Knowledge Management

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Title: Knowledge Management


1
Knowledge Management
GROUP 5
Dave Owens T.J. Vogt Chatchawan Wongwattanakit
OT Yueping Wang
2
What is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge Management is a waste of money.
Organizations spend billions of dollars in their
efforts to cut a corner or two resulting in just
a fraction of savings Richard Sapio

CEO, Mutual Capital
Alliance
(8)
3
Agenda
Questions/ Discussion
What is KM?
Summary
Key Concepts
Knowledge Management
KM in the Army
Implementation Maintenance
Other KM Cases PwC, LRC
KM in China
4
What is Knowledge Management?
  • Common Knowledge Management Definitions (just
    a few of the many)
  • Discipline within an organization that ensures
    that the intellectual capabilities of that
    organization are shared, maintained and
    institutionalized
  • The process of systematically and actively
    managing and leveraging the stores of knowledge
    in an organization
  • The way a company stores, organizes and accesses
    internal and external information.
  • Refers to an entire integrated system for
    accumulation, integration, manipulation, and
    access of data across multiple organizations

(9),(10)
5
What is Knowledge Management?
  • Knowledge Management is the explicit
  • and systematic management of vital
  • knowledge - and its associated processes
  • of creation, organization, diffusion, use and
  • exploitation.

(9),(10)
6
Knowledge Hierarchy
  • Explicit
  • This type of knowledge can be
  • Processed by information systems
  • Codified and recorded
  • Archived and protected
  • Tacit
  • This type of knowledge exists in peoples heads,
    not articulated or documented

7
KM Significance
  • Knowledge assets have often become more
    important to companies than financial and
    physical assets and are often the only way for a
    company to distinguish itself from its competitor
    gain competitive advantage
  • Lost knowledge given the enormous of baby boomers
    that will be changing jobs or retiring in next
    few years cause productivity cost of an employee
    leaving 85 of their base salary due to their
    replacements mistakes, lost knowledge and lost
    skill( Beazley et al, 2002)
  • Relate to the concept of knowledge half-life,
    from which it is found that knowledge reaches
    obsolescence, on average, in 500 days, but can be
    much quicker in some areas
  • - Lost knowledge obviously has a cost, estimated
    that 115 billion sits idle in
  • lost knowledge affiliated with production
    technologies
  • - An astounding example of this is the loss of
    the original computer source
  • code, written in the 1950s, that spawned the
    Y2K software crisis, has cost
  • businesses worldwide an estimated 1 trillion
    (Petch, 1998)

(25)
7
8
People and Systems
  • People
  • Knowledge Teams - multi-disciplinary,
    cross-functional
  • Learning Organization - personal/team/org
    development
  • Corporate Initiatives Chief Knowledge Officer
  • Systems
  • Knowledge Data-bases - experts, best practice
  • Knowledge Centers - hubs of knowledge
  • Technology Infrastructure - Intranets, Domino
    Document Management

(9),(12)
9
Two Key Thrusts
Sharing existing knowledge Knowing what you know
Knowledge for Innovation Creating and Converting
(9)
10
Knowledge Cycle
Innovation Cycle KM Cycle
Collect
Codify
Identify
Classify
Embed
Organize/ Store
Product/ Process
Knowledge Repository
Create
Share/ Disseminate
Use/Exploit
Diffuse
Access
11
Seven Levers
  • Customer Knowledge - the most vital knowledge
  • Knowledge in Products - smarts add value
  • Knowledge in People - but people walk
  • Knowledge in Processes - know-how when needed
  • Organizational Memory - do we know what we know?
  • Knowledge in Relationships - richness and depth
  • Knowledge Assets - intellectual capital

(9)
12
Implementing and Maintaining KM
Maintaining KMS
KM
Why Implement KM?
Strategy for Implementing
Whos Responsible?
ITs Role in Implementing
12
13
Why Implement KMS?
  • IBM, Oracle, Cisco
  • Measure intranet value at over 1 billion
  • BT, UK telecommunications company
  • Employee ideas have saved 100 million
  • Sodexhos SuperSleuth
  • Cash reward for employees submitting sales leads
  • Led to over 90 million in sales volume

(20)
13
14
Smaller companies, who often claim that they
cant afford to undertake KM activities, are
wrong on two counts!
Common Misconceptions
  • 1.Knowledge is just as important, if not more so,
    to a smaller company
  • trying to compete in the rapidly changing
    global marketplace. Smaller
  • companies must capture, assimilate, and
    capitalize on every
  • advantage they can find, including KNOWLEDGE
  • 2.Smaller firms have the advantages from Culture
    and Organizational
  • structure in place that is much more conducive
    to implementing
  • knowledge management effort such as type of
    environment, which is
  • predicated more on social relationship,
    familiarity and trust between
  • employees


A little Knowledge that acts is worth more than
much knowledge that is idle.(Kahlil Gibran)
(25)
14
15
Whos Responsible?
  • Everyone
  • Managers/Supervisors
  • Leaders as knowledge champions
  • The Knowledgeable
  • Not a problem of knowing, but of access
  • End Users
  • Feedback
  • Psychological barriers

(13), (14)
15
16
Role of IT in Implementation
  • The biggest contributor to this brilliant growth
    of the knowledge management system is information
    technology.
  • Lee et al. also say, ...there are negative
    perspectives about information technology.
  • According to a managing partner at a KM
    consultancy firm based in New York, The biggest
    misconception that IT leaders make is that
    knowledge management is about technology...Usually
    people begin a KM project by focusing on the
    technology...But the key is people...

(15),(16)
16
17
Strategy for Implementing KM The MeCTIP model
(19)
17
18
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Macro-environment
  • External Factors
  • Globalization
  • Technology
  • E-companies

(19)
18
19
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Organizational Climate
  • Structure
  • Formal Structures
  • Cross-functional project groups
  • Cross-discipline learning groups
  • Informal Structures
  • Grapevine/Underground
  • Cliques
  • Strategy/Goals
  • Culture

The difference between, ...what is formally
agreed and what actually takes place.
(19)
19
20
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Technical Climate
  • Infrastructure
  • Response to change
  • Resistance to change/Conflict
  • Listen to negative feedback
  • Conflict leads to improved ideas

(13),(19)
20
21
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Technical
  • System Standardization
  • Compatibility
  • Usability

(13),(19)
21
22
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Informational
  • Info fatigue
  • Infofamine
  • Infoglut
  • According to Lee et al, ...users do not know how
    to utilize effectively the vast pool of
    information.

(16),(19)
22
23
Strategy for Implementing KM
  • Personal
  • Knowledge roles
  • Motivation
  • Learning networks

(19)
23
24
Maintaining KM Systems
  • Provide Adequate Access
  • Intranets
  • Classes
  • Psychological Barriers
  • Ook Lee study
  • 103 questionnaires from Korean KMS users
  • 93 respondents were reluctant to say that a
    knowledge management piece was not valid

(17)
24
25
Maintaining KM Systems
  • Use it or lose it
  • Cook compares KMS to draining battery
  • Share knowledge
  • Knowledge is individual power, not group power
  • Removing knowledge constipation
  • Crowded closet

(13)
25
26
Maintaining KM Systems
  • Incentives
  • Financial
  • Big Idea
  • Pub Money
  • Organizational Sociology
  • Know your audience
  • Be flexible
  • No single recipe for success

(13)
26
27
The Difference of Knowledge Management in US and
CHINA
27
28
Cultural Factors Impacting knowledge Management
  • Internationalization creates a need to know how
    peoples in different countries to apply knowledge
    management.
  • People from the United States and China have a
    distinctive prevailing decision style that
    reflects differences in cultural values

(4)
28
29
Why they express happiness differently
29
30
The difference of American and Chinese in
personal character
(2), (3)
30
31
The different ways in deal with gift
Presents are usually opened in front of the giver
Presents are usually opened in private
31
32
The difference of U.S. and CHINA in Knowledge
management
(5)
32
33
guanxi in China
  • Social ties -- interaction frequency, degree of
    intimacy and trust
  • Its not what you know, its who you know.
  • Business guanxi (personal relationships in
    Chinese market)
  • Government guanxi (personal relationships with
    government officials in different levels and
    bureaus).

(5)
33
34
  • Could we combine two styles of knowledge into an
    integral whole

34
35
  • In the international work group, people need to
    know how to combine different knowledge into an
    integral whole. To achieve this goal we should
    understand the knowledge creation process

(5)
35
36
The knowledge creation process
(1)
36
37
Knowledge Management in Practice
37
38
PricewaterhouseCoopers
  • PwC The PricewaterhouseCoopers Law Firm Law
    Department Service Group
  • The Worlds largest professional service
    organization
  • Service and Help general counsel and law firm
    executive management solve
  • complex business problems
  • Measurably enhance their ability to build
    sustainable shareholder value
  • Manage Risk
  • Improve quality and performance by providing
    services based on quality and
  • integrity
  • PwC includes the member firms of
    PricewaterhouseCoopers International Ltd.,

(21)
38
39
LRC Legal Research Center
  • Helping corporate law departments and their
    outside counsel reduce their research costs and
    efficiently manage their legal knowledge for
    nearly 25 years
  • Remain the nations premier provider of
    outsourced legal research, KM, and compliance
    e-training services
  • Culturally committed to operational excellence
  • Customer intimacy and product/service innovation

(21),(22)
39
40
The Study
  • In 2003, Florida Legal Technology Institute Study
  • Reviewed the marriage between PwC and LRC,
    catalog the advantages of KM in PwC law firms and
    departments
  • KM Study with 348 legal professionals around the
    world (law departments and outside law firms)



40
41
PwC and LRC KM Study Results Announced
  • 70 of law firm respondents and 63 of Law Dept.
    respondents reported having KMS in place
    indicated that they use KMS either frequently
    or all the time
  • The survey indicated that their KM program either
    meets or exceeds their targeted ROI
  • 85 of the law firms
  • 78 of the law dept.
  • The Avg. budget to support KM initiative was
    reported at 4.7 of the total legal spend.
  • Quality, speed and cost containment are what a
    majority of legal professionals are seeking from
    their KM solution providers.
  • The most common standards to measure the value of
    KM programs are productivity enhancement and cost
    reduction.

(21),(22)
42
PwC and LRC KM Study Results Announced (cont.)
  • Legal professionals are increasingly cognizant of
    the value of KMS that retrieve information from
    multiple sources and locations. 82 said they
    would be more efficient if their KM solution
    could access legal knowledge in multiple formats
    from multiple resources.
  • The majority of legal professionals surveyed
    believe that research redundancy, the reduction
    of which is a key goal of KM, is caused by lack
    of communication inside the firm or law dept.,
    and by the lack of incentives to motivate
    knowledge reuse and eliminate redundant research
  • With the ever increasing volume and types of
    information available, KM is more critical than
    ever. This study provides compelling data on the
    value and important of KMS. KM is an essential
    ingredient for efficient and effective delivery
    and management of legal services. (Jonathan
    Bellis)

(21),(24)
42
43

When Knowledge adds up to nothing
  • Charles Lucier, Chief Knowledge Officer at
    International management and technology
    consulting firm said up to 84 of all KM programs
    fail.
  • A global bank spanning 70 countries abandoned
    their KMS before it was ever rolled out.
  • A European manufacturing company successfully
    implemented a KMS, but it was rarely used.
  • A pharmaceutical company implemented a KMS that
    could not be easily adapted to specific context
    of each work group

(21), (26)
44
Why Knowledge Can add up to nothing --
  • Many companies find that their departments have
    different takes on what the project means or what
    it is trying to achieve
  • Many KM program leaders are ignorant when it
    comes to the complexity of these micro-political
    processes
  • Even though some firms are implementing KM
    programs with support from senior management, it
    can still fail as a result of lack of support
  • Some organizations do not achieve adequate ROI
    from KM as they are failing to measure
    effectively
  • Many companies professed to suffer from
    information overload and a shortage of time
    with which to both share and utilize knowledge
  • Many firms rely too heavily on consultants who
    position themselves in highly influential
    positions within the organization
  • Many initiatives fails as they only enjoy
    superficial support from the top management

(21)
45
Knowledge Management Success
  • Evidence shows that, despite the potential
    pitfalls and seemingly high failure rate,
    companies are still willing to invest in KM. Why?
    Because there are big benefits there for taking.
  • The results of several surveys met
  • 87 of European business directors believe they
    could enhance their companys competitiveness
    with improved KM and 76 believe Building
    Sharing Knowledge is important for their company.
  • Study of 500 firms conducted by KPMG illustrated
    80 of senior executives feel that KM is
    strategic to their organization and 78 feel they
    have missed business opportunities.
  • Hoffmann-Roche, the Swiss pharmaceutical firm,
    has estimated that it saves over 1 million per
    day due to its KM activities
  • BP Amoco attributed 260 million in bottom-line
    savings to a KM program

(23)
45
46
Knowledge Management Success (Cont.)
  • Energy firm Schlumberger Ltd. reported an
    estimated 668 ROI on a 72 million investment in
    KM over a period of six years
  • Chevron Corporation estimates that it saved an
    initial 150 million, plus at least another 20
    million annually by instituting a best practices
    program
  • Teltech Communications, a firm that specializes
    in aiding companies to implement knowledge
    management programs, reports that its clients
    enjoy an average ROI of 121 for their efforts
  • In a survey carried out by Information Week , IT
    executives said they considered KM a strategic
    initiative of high importance, and KM spend is to
    climb at 62 of the IT institutions surveyed
  • Hewlett-Packards knowledge efforts aimed at
    customer service have reduced average call times
    by two-thirds and the cost per call has fallen by
    50 percent

(21),(23),(25)
46
47
Keys to successful KM
  • As is the case with many new practices in
    workplace
  • Getting employees on board from day one and
    making sure they realize exactly how KM program
    is to impact on their routines and bring benefits
    for the organization as a whole is pivotal
  • Make sure KM becomes a fundamental aspect of the
    way you do business
  • Be sure your KM implementation is less about
    reporting and more about sharing knowledge
  • Knowledge is a company asset, hidden, until the
    knowledge worker releases it. The key to
    generating the best returns from your KM Program
    is to implement a well-planned methodology and
    ensure that your organization facilitates this
    release of information.
  • -Mike Bagshaw, Development Director at
    Trans4mation Training Ltd,

(24)
48
Army Knowledge Management
48
49
49
50
Army Knowledge Management
It is the Armys goal to deliver critical
capabilities to the warfighter, and oversee the
development of a knowledge-based
workforce LTC William Nelson

Deputy Director GA CKO
(Governance, Acquisition
and Chief Knowledge Office)
Army Office of CIO/G-6
(7)
50
51
Army Knowledge Management
  • Development of Army IM/IT and KM
  • Coordination between Combatant Commands and Joint
    Staff, components and agencies, etc
  • Serves as the focal point for management and
    integration with IM/IT
  • Oversees the acquisition of IM/IT and KM solutions

(7)
51
52
KM is a Journey, not a destination.
(Warick Holder)
  • Knowledge resides in the users and not in the
    collection.
  • (Y. Maholtra)
  • Successful knowledge transfer involves neither
    computers nor documents but rather interactions
    between people!!
  • (Mason Mitroff
    1973)

53
Summary
  • Key Concepts of KM
  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • Implementation, Maintenance
  • China
  • KM cases, advantages and disadvantages
  • Army KM

53
54
Questions
54
55
Sources
(1) Communications of the ACM ,Volume 48, Number
4 (2005), Pages 73-76 ,Knowledge management in
China, Glen R. Burrows, Damon L. Drummond, Maris
G. Martinsons (2) KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT OF
HIGH-TECH FIRMS Chung-Ming Lau, Yuan Lu and Shige
MakinoThe Chinese University of Hong Kong (3)
Xiaohong Chen State Development Research Center,
PRC Ryh-Song Yeh ,Peking University SOURCE
http//unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/docume
nts/APCITY/UNPAN020318.pdf (4) Inkpen, A.C.
2000. Learning through joint ventures A
framework of knowledge acquisition. Journal of
Management Studies, 37 1019-1043. (5)
Hoskisson, R.E., Eden, L., Lau, C. M., Wright,
M. 2000. Enterprise strategies in emerging
economies. Academy of Management Journal, 43
249-267. (6) Army Regulation 25-1 Army
Information Management (7) LTC William Nelson,
Deputy Director GACKO, Office of Army G6,
interviewed by phone by Dave Owens,
15 October 2007. (8) Richard Sapio, CEO of
Mutual Capital Alliance, interviewed in person by
Dave Owens, 22 September 2007 (9) Skyrme, David
J, Developing a Knowledge Strategy STRATEGY,
January 1998, http//www.skyrme.com/pubs/knwstrat.
htm (10) Corral, Sheila, Are We in the
Knowledge Management Business? ARIADNE, February
1999, http//ariadne.ac.uk/issue18/knowledgemgt/
56
Sources
(11) KNOVA, 10 Principles for Knowledge
Management Success, Gartner INC., April
2003 (12) Ferran-Urdaneta, Carlos,
Organizational Structures for Knowledge
Management, Boston University Systems Research
Center, 1999 (13) Cook, P. (1999). I heard it
through the grapevine making knowledge
management work by learning to share knowledge,
skills and experience. Industrial and Commercial
Training , 31 (3), 101-105. (14) Gottschalk, P.,
Holgersson, S. (2006). Stages of knowledge
management technology in the value shop the case
of police investigation performance. Expert
Systems , 23 (4), 183-193. (15) Kulkarni, U. R.,
Ravindran, S., Freeze, R. (2006). A Knowledge
Management Success Model Theoretical Development
and Empirical Validation. Journal of Management
Information Systems , 23 (3), 309-347. (16) Lee,
H.-S., Chae, Y.-I., Suh, Y.-H. (2004).
Knowledge Conversion and Practical Use with
Information Technology in Korean Companies. Total
Quality Management , 15 (3), 279-294. (17) Lee,
O. (2006). Psychological Barriers to Maintaining
Knowledge Management Systems. CyberPsychology
Behavior , 9 (3), 367-368. (18) Moffett, S.,
McAdam, R. (2006). The Effects of Organizational
Size on Knowledge Management Implementation
Opportunities for Small Firms? Total Quality
Management , 17 (2), 221-241.
57
Sources
(19) Moffett, S., McAdam, R., Parkinson, S.
(2003). Technology and people factors in
knowledge management an empirical analysis.
Total Quality Management , 14 (2),
215-224.  (20) Ward, T. (2007). Does Your
Intranet Pay Its Way? SCM , 11 (2), 10. (21)
When knowledge adds up to nothing Why knowledge
management fails and what you can do about it,
Journal of Development and Learning in
Organizations (2003), Vol. 17 Issue1 Page
32-35   (22) News Legal Editors from Legal
Research Center KM Study (2003) Legal Knowledge
Management Improves Quality and Speed of Service,
Reduces Costs and Delivers High ROI, According to
Landmark PricewaterhouseCoopers, Business Wire,
June 9, 2003.   (23) Braganza, A., Mollenkramer,
G.J. (2002), Anatomy of a failed knowledge
management initiative lessons from PharmaCorps
experience, Knowledge and Process Management
(UK), Vol. 9 No.1,.   (24) Storey, J., Barnett,
E. (2000), Knowledge management initiatives
learning from failure Journal of Knowledge
Management, Vol.4 No.2, . (25) Yeldon, Eugene
F., Synrad INC, Albers, James A., Pacific
Lutheran University, Journal of Knowledge
Management Practice, The Business Case for
Knowledge Management, August 2004 (26) Chua, A.,
Lam, W. (2005). Why KM projects fail a
multi-case analysis . Journal of Knowledge
Management , 9 (3), 6-17.
58
Implementation
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