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Title: Alcohol

What is Alcohol?
  • Alcohol is a compound of carbon, hydrogen and
    oxygen, which is produced when glucose is
    fermented by yeast. The alcohol content of a
    particular drink is controlled by the amount of
    yeast and the duration of fermentation.
  • Fruits are used to make wines and ciders, while
    cereals such as barley and rye form the basis of
    beers and spirits.

  • Alcohol consumed in moderation is thought to be
    beneficial in reducing the risk of coronary heart
    disease. Indeed, alcohol consumption in
    conjunction with high intakes of fruit and
    vegetables, may well explain the so-called
    'French paradox'. The French diet is considered
    to be very high in fat, especially saturated fat,
    yet the death rate from coronary heart disease
    remains relatively low. It is thought this is at
    least partly due to people's consumption of red
  • The key word, though, is moderation. In 1997, the
    World Health Organization concluded that the
    reduced risk from coronary heart disease was
    found at the level of one drink consumed every
    second day.

  • Alcohol has been linked to a wide range of
    illnesses, such as the increased risk of mouth,
    pharyngeal and esophageal cancers (this risk
    being greatly increased if combined with
    smoking). Furthermore, alcohol probably increases
    the risk of colorectal and breast cancer.
  • And the list doesn't stop there high blood
    pressure, gastrointestinal complications, such as
    gastritis, ulcers, and liver disease, and the
    depletion of certain vitamins and minerals can
    all be caused by alcohol consumption.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption can also have
    detrimental social and psychological
  • During pregnancy - the risk of birth defects is
    greater if pregnant women drink, especially in
    the first eight to twelve weeks of pregnancy.
    This is called Fetal Alohol Syndrome

What's a unit?
  • One unit is considered to be 8g of alcohol. Often
    units are quoted as being one small glass of
    wine, half a pint of beer or one pub measure of
  • Some stronger beers and lagers may contain as
    many as 2.5 units of alcohol per half pint.
  • Cans of beer and lager often contain about
    three-quarters of a pint, rather than half, and
    so will contain 1.5 units - more if the product
    is high strength.

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Nutrition of Alcohol
  • Alcohol is a high source of energy, providing 7
    calories per gram of alcohol. Therefore, if
    you're watching your waistline it might be an
    idea to cut down the amount you drink
  • Alcohol is often referred to as a source of
    'empty calories', meaning it has no nutritive
    value other than providing energy. This isn't
    strictly true some alcoholic drinks contain

How it works?
  • Alcohol follows the same path in the body as food
    does…as it travels through the digestive system.
  • About 20 percent of alcohol passes directly into
    the blood from the stomach the rest is absorbed
    by the intestines.
  • Some effects are short term and some are long

Immediate Effects
  • Factors involved
  • Amount consumed
  • Size of person
  • Body fat
  • Body type
  • Body wt
  • Food in stomach
  • Male or female

Amount Consumed
  • Obviously, stronger drinks will result in higher
  • Remember one serving depends on the drink…a
    serving of Wine is not the same size as a serving
    of Beer or spirits.
  • The liver can only oxidize ½ oz/ hr.
  • Changes back to water carbon dioxide and energy.

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Size of Person
  • Body Fat the more body fat a person has the
    higher their blood alcohol level will be
  • Body Type people of the same weight, a well
    muscled individual will be less affected than
    someone with a higher percentage of fat since
    fatty tissue does not contain very much water and
    will not absorb very much alcohol
  • Body Weight In general, the less you weigh the
    more you will be affected by a given amount of

Food in stomach
  • In a fasting individual, it is generally agreed
    that 20 to 25 of a dose of alcohol is absorbed
    from the stomach and 75 to 80 is absorbed from
    the small intestine. Thus, in fasting people,
    peak BACs are achieved in 0.5 to 2.0 hours while
    in non-fasting people, peak alcohol BACs are
    achieved in 1.0 to 6.0 hours.
  • While alcohol will be absorbed from the stomach,
    it is a slower and less efficient transition.
    Because alcohol is absorbed most efficiently in
    the small intestine, the ingestion of food can
    slow down the absorption of alcohol by keeping
    the alcohol in the stomach longer

Male or female
  • Women
  • Lower tolerance
  • A womens blood alcohol level will be a third
    higher than the man's.
  • It will take a third longer for your body to
    eliminate the alcohol from your blood.

Why Does Alcohol Effect Women Differently?  
  • Women have a higher proportion of body fat and
    less water in their bodies than men. This means
    that alcohol is less diluted and will have a
    stronger affect on you. Therefore women will
    generally be affected more quickly than men, even
    if they are the same size as some men, and feel
    the effects longer.
  • The liver is where the body finishes breaking
    down alcohol. Working at full speed, a healthy
    young man's liver takes about an hour to process
    one drink. A healthy young woman's liver will
    generally take longer

How does alcohol work in the body?
  • Immediate effects
  • Brain- depresses brain activity, thought
    processes are disorganized, and memory and
    concentration are dulled.
  • Liver- oxidizes ½ ox./hr. Changes it to water,
    CO2 and energy
  • Blood vessels-causes dilation-makes the skin feel
    warm but body temp actually decreases
  • Stomach- immediately absorbed into the blood from
    stomach food in stomach slows down absorption
    rate-alcohol increases the flow of gastric juices.

How does alcohol work in the body?
  • Long term effects
  • Tolerance-must drink more to produce same effect
  • Withdrawal-jumpiness, sleeplessness, sweating,
    poor appetite, tremors, convulsions and
  • Dependence-body develops need for it
  • Adolescents are more vulnerable than any other
    age group to developing nicotine, alcohol and
    other drug addictions because the regions of the
    brain that govern impulse and motivation are not
    yet fully formed, Yale researchers have found

Long term effects
  • Liver problems
  • Interferes with the livers ability to break down
    fats causes (fatty liver)
  • Interferes with the growth of new liver cells
  • Heavy alcohol use destroys liver tissue and it is
    replaced with scar tissue
  • Cirrhosis
  • High blood pressure
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Jaundice appearance

Brain damage
  • Loss of intellectual abilities
  • Alcohol is a depressant, which means it slows the
    function of the central nervous system. Alcohol
    actually blocks some of the messages trying to
    get to the brain. This alters a person's
    perceptions, emotions, movement, vision, and

  • Because experts now know that the human brain is
    still developing during our teens, scientists are
    researching the effects drinking alcohol can have
    on the teen brain.

Mixing Alcohol with other drugs
  • Synergism or multiplier effect
  • Alcohol is a depressant
  • What is the effect if mixed with ?
  • Depressant
  • Upper
  • Hallucinogen
  • Mixed with Tylenol can cause liver failure and
    even death

Mental and Social Problem
  • Why young people drink?
  • To escape pressures or problems
  • To feel better
  • To relax
  • To gain more self-confidence
  • To get away with something they arent suppose to
  • To fit in

Negative social consequences
  • Can affect not only the drinker but also the
    drinkers family and friends
  • Alienation of friends and family
  • Lets your guard down
  • Poor decision making

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Reasons not to drink
  • I dont need it
  • Hate the taste
  • It is fattening
  • Leads to other problems
  • Dont want to loose control
  • Harmful to health
  • Want to enjoy what is going on around me

Pregnancy and Alcohol
  • Cause
  • Although doctors aren't sure how much alcohol
    you'd have to drink to place your baby at risk,
    they do know the more you drink, the greater the
    chance of problems developing.
  • Treatment
  • There's no cure for fetal alcohol syndrome.
  • Prevention
  • Doctors haven't identified a safe level of
    alcohol that a pregnant woman can consume. But,
    experts do know that FAS is completely
    preventable if women don't consume alcohol during

Fetal Alcohol syndrome
  • Distinctive facial features
  • including small eyes,
  • an exceptionally thin upper lip,
  • a short, upturned nose
  • smooth skin surface between the nose and upper
  • Heart defects
  • Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers
  • Slow physical growth before and after birth
  • Vision difficulties or hearing problems
  • Small head circumference and brain size
  • Mental retardation and delayed development
  • Abnormal behavior such as
  • a short attention span,
  • hyperactivity,
  • poor impulse control,
  • extreme nervousness and anxiety

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Cleft Palate
Advertising Alcohol
  • Advertising does not increase consumption. For
    example, alcohol brand advertising was first
    introduced in New Zealand in 1992. While
    advertising continues to increase, consumption
    continues to fall.
  • Instead of increasing total consumption, the
    objective of advertisers is to encourage
    consumers to switch to their brand and create
    brand loyalty.

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  • In reality, viewers are much more likely to see
    alcohol portrayed during TV programs than during
    commercials. For example, an analysis of prime
    time TV found that alcohol commercials appeared
    at the rate of 0.2 per hour while drinking
    portrayals during programs occured 25 times more
    frequently, at five times per hour. 16

Parents are much more influential than they
generally realize. For example, among six things
that might affect their decisions about drinking
  • Parents (62 percent)
  • Best friends (28 percent)
  • Teachers (9 percent)
  • What they see on television (7 percent)
  • What they see in ads (4 percent)

Drinking and Driving
  • Effects
  • Reduced ability to judge distances, speed and
  • Reduced ability to judge your capabilities and
  • Increases the tendency to take risks
  • Slows reflexes
  • Adds to forgetfulness of taking precautions such
    as using signals when turning
  • Reduced ability to concentrate

Costs of DWI
  • Confiscation of drivers license
  • Arrest
  • Court appearance
  • Fine
  • Possible suspension of drivers license
  • Possible mandatory jail sentence
  • Higher insuance rates
  • Possible law suits

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  • A disease
  • Cannot keep from drinking
  • Cannot manage tension without drinking
  • Cannot stop drinking once they have started
  • Stages
  • Begins with social drinking often makes excuses
    and tries to rationalize behavior
  • Defensive behavior is evident-body has developed
    a tolerance drinking becomes the central event
    in their lives