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... Federal Express Corporation (FX), Hawaiian Airlines (HA) JetBlue Airways Corp. (B6), Midwest Airlines (YX), Northwest Airlines, Inc. (NW), Southwest Airlines Co. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Click to edit Master title style


1
Click to edit Master title style
  • Presentation to
  • Promoting Runway Safety Forum
  • National Transportation Safety Board
  • Mont J. Smith
  • Director, Safety
  • Air Transport Association

2
FAA Definition of Incursion
  • Runway Incursion (U.S.) Any occurrence at an
    airport involving an aircraft, person or object
    on the ground that creates a collision hazard or
    results in loss of separation with an aircraft
    taking off, intending to take off, landing or
    intending to land.
  • This differs from the ICAO definition which
    covers any incursion of a runway or taxiway
    protected area.
  • The ICAO standard for taxi instructions to an
    active runway mandates clearances across every
    runway en route to that active runway for
    takeoff.  In the U.S., a clearance to the active
    runway implies clearance to cross all runways en
    route. 
  • ICAO PansOps publication 4444

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
3
Causes of Incursions
  • Misunderstood clearances
  • Phraseology issues
  • Embedded hold short in a clearance
  • Instructions to follow another aircraft that had
    already crossed the active runway 
  • Communications congestion hear back
  • Taxiway/runway confusion
  • Large paved areas with little distinction
  • Non-standard signage/markings/lighting
  • Loss of situational awareness
  • Following wrong aircraft (type/livery confusion)
  • Low visibility or snow-covered signs/markings

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
4
Phraseology Clearance
  • ICAO Phraseology
  • Amendment 4, 13th Edition, ICAO Procedures for
    Navigation Services Air Traffic Management
    (PANS-ATM Doc 4444) 11-01-01
  • Taxi to the Holding Point
  • Line Up (and wait)
  • vs.
  • U.S. Phraseology
  • FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Controller
    Handbook
  • Hold Short (of Runway)
  • Position and Hold

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
5
Embedded Clearance
Extract from FAA NACO chart
  • Global 695, XYZ Ground, cleared to Gate Foxtrot
    Three via Tango Three, Tango, Uniform, hold short
    of Runway 12, then Quebec, Sierra, over.
  • --- Vs. ---
  • Global 695, XYZ Ground, taxi via Tango Three,
    Uniform, hold short of Runway 12, over.
  • Global 695, XYZ Ground, cleared to cross runway
    12, taxi to Gate Foxtrot Three via Quebec,
    Sierra, over.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
6
Positive Identification of Runways for Landing
  • …Pilots naturally expect the runway to be the
    dominant visual feature when preparing to land.
    The decision process is based on expectations and
    experience that is built up over time and is
    typically done with little analysis. A taxiway,
    instead of the runway can be the dominant visual
    feature when
  • the taxiway pavement appears to be as wide (or
    wider) than the intended runway, and
  • when the visual contrast of the taxiway pavement
    with the surrounding environment exceeds that of
    the runway.
  • Paved shoulders, when added to the width of a
    standard taxiway, can make the taxiway appear
    much wider than it actually is. FAA airport
    design standards permit taxiway with paved
    shoulders to be nearly as wide as a runway that
    does not have paved shoulders. New pavement
    sections are typically the dominant visual
    feature for approaching aircraft. New asphalt
    pavement will appear much darker than older
    asphalt pavement and new concrete pavement…
  • (FAA Engineering Brief No. 72, January 17th,
    2007)

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
7
Airport Physical Features
Extract from FAA NACO chart
Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
8
Daytime View
Non-Standard Precision Approach Path Indicator
Lights
New concrete surrounding intersecting runway and
parallel taxiway
Runway Edge
Blast Fence Obstruction Lights
Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
9
Nighttime View
Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
10
Intersection of Multiple Taxiways/Runways
Extract from FAA NACO chart
  • Taxiways D and E cross 2 runways in close
    succession enroute from terminal to 12R
  • Short taxi to/from terminal (checklist
    compression)

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
11
Large Concrete or Asphalt Areas
Extract from FAA NACO chart
Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
12
Circling Approaches
  • An aircraft may execute a precision approach to
    one runway and be directed to circle to another
  • Visual maneuver
  • Often difficult, especially at night or when
    visibility is reduced (depth perception)
  • Aircraft remains at circling (low) altitude
    different visual cues

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
13
RNAV Transition vs. Circling
  • VFR weather Pilot accepts precision approach
    path to stabilize/configure and maintain traffic
    flow
  • Pilot must remain in visual contact with airport
    environment
  • Pilot receives cues from Flight Management System
    waypoints depicted on the approach procedure to
    sidestep or circle for landing on intersecting
    runway
  • Lateral/vertical course guidance and
    autothrottles maintain precise speed and altitude
    in turn to line-up
  • Building and activating a secondary arrival into
    FMS when circling to land or side-stepping adds
    heads down time by the monitoring pilot during
    critical phase of flight. The RNAV Transition
    avoids this distraction and maintains traffic
    flow with no surprises for the pilot or air
    traffic controller.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
14
RNAV Transition Approach VFR
Extract from FAA NACO chart
Aircraft acquires runway visually… cleared for
RNAV transition RWY 29…maintains obstacle
clearance
Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
15
RNAV Transition Approach VFR
  • On initial contact with ATC, request Runway 29
    Transition
  • Do not descend below 2,500 prior to receiving
    ATC clearance
  • Advise ATC Airport or preceding aircraft in
    sight ASAP
  • A subsequent ATC clearance for a visual
    approach does not relieve crew from compliance
    with this procedure.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
16
Loss of Situational Awareness
photo courtesy of Stephen Cook website Visiting
PHX A Guide to Sky Harbor Airport
  • United 574 Heavy, give way to the US Airways
    Boeing 757 at your 2 oclock. Cleared to taxi
    Runway 8 via Bravo Five, over.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
17
CAST Safety Enhancements
  • The Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)
    conducted an in-depth study of Runway Incursions
    and put forth a number of Safety Enhancements
    dealing with controller terminology training,
    pilot training aids, signage, paint schemes,
    moving map displays, etc.
  • All are complete or adoption in progress.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
18
CAST Safety Enhancements
  • Safety Enhancement 46
  • ATC Training Enhanced Tower Controller Training
    completed September 2003
  • Safety Enhancement 47
  • ATC Training CRM Training - ATO reports that
    plans are in effect (multi-year project)
  • Safety Enhancement 49
  • Template of SOPs for ground operations for use by
    all FAR Part 121 and Part 135 operators in
    generating SOPs for each participant airline.
    (FAA Advisory Circular, FAA Handbook Bulletin for
    Air Transportation (HBAT) - complete
  • Safety Enhancement 50
  • Template of best practices for General Aviation
    single-pilot ground operations. passed to
    Aircraft Owners Pilots Assn.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
19
CAST Safety Enhancements
  • Safety Enhancement 51
  • Template for best practices for mechanics and
    others who tow or otherwise move aircraft within
    the airport movement area.
  • Safety Enhancement 52
  • Template of best practices for vehicle
    operations in aircraft movement to prevent
    runway incursions and surface incidents - AAAE
    has distributed AC, Video, and template to their
    members. Part 139 rule change required training
    at those airports. GA airports are voluntary.
  • Safety Enhancement 53
  • Situational Awareness Technology for ATC
    Enhanced Airport Surveillance Equipment ASDE-3,
    AMASS, ASDE-X
  • Issued broad agency announcement to solicit
    industry ideas
  • Conducted demonstrations to assess industry
    proposal
  • Installed selected technology prototypes at key
    sites for operational evaluation
  • R D in progress for vehicle tracking, runway
    status lights, ground markers, addressable signs

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
20
CAST Safety Enhancements
  • Safety Enhancement 55
  • ATC Procedures SOPs for Controller Situational
    Awareness
  • Issued Notices to Implement Changes to FAA Order
    7210.3S
  • Issued Notices to Implement Phraseology Changes
    to FAA Order 7110.65N
  • Reviewed National Standardized Requirements for
    Tower Positions to Ensure Tower Controllers
    Maintain Situational Awareness
  • Encouraged Facility Teams to Identify and
    Eliminate Potential Distractions in Operating
    Quarters
  • Implemented RI Workgroup Recommendation for
    Standardizing Situational Awareness Practices in
    Towers
  • Safety Enhancement 59
  • ATC Procedures Read Back Requirements
  • Required Read Back for entering specific runway,
    hold short of specific runway and Taxi Into
    Position and Hold (TIPH) Instructions
  • New Policy published in February 2004 Airmans
    Information Manual

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
21
CAST Safety Enhancements
  • Safety Enhancement 60
  • Runway Incursion Pilot Training
  • Re-issued guidance for ground operations in
    Advisory Circular 120-74A
  • Compiled Runway Safety Materials (included Taxi
    Operations)
  • Increased number of tasks on written examinations
    (January 2003)
  • Published guidance for General Aviation and Part
    121 ground operations in Advisory Circulars
    120-35C, 120-51D and 120-74A

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
22
New Technologies
  • Measures to prevent runway incursions
  • Moving maps
  • ASDE-X
  • Runway status lights
  • FAROS
  • Perimeter taxiways
  • Low-cost surface surveillance technology
  • Measures to prevent overruns
  • Engineered Materials Arresting System (EMAS)

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
23
New Technologies
  • No silver bullet to prevent runway incursions
  • Many of the technologies are not mature none are
    foolproof
  • ADS-B appears to be a major technology
    break-through that will likely fill a variety of
    purposes
  • Less costly satellite-based technology
  • Higher navigational accuracy
  • Adaptable for surface movement via
    multi-lateration
  • Most moving map displays are designed for
    situational awareness vs. navigation
  • Ideal display would keep the pilots heads up
  • Need low-cost interface with FMS/FMGC
  • Avoid alerts that compound the aural environment

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
24
About ATA
  • ATA serves as the principal trade and service
    organization of the major scheduled air carriers
    in the United States. ATA members transport more
    than 90 percent of all U.S. airline passenger and
    cargo traffic.
  • ATAs members include ABX Air, Inc. (GB), Alaska
    Airlines, Inc. (AS), Aloha Airlines, Inc. (AQ),
    American Airlines, Inc. (AA), ASTAR Air Cargo,
    Inc. (ER), Atlas Air, Inc. (5Y), Continental
    Airlines, Inc. (CO), Delta Air Lines, Inc. (DL),
    Evergreen International Airlines, Inc. (EZ),
    Federal Express Corporation (FX), Hawaiian
    Airlines (HA) JetBlue Airways Corp. (B6), Midwest
    Airlines (YX), Northwest Airlines, Inc. (NW),
    Southwest Airlines Co. (WN) United Airlines, Inc.
    (UA) UPS Airlines (5X), and US Airways, Inc.
    (US)
  • Associate members include AeroMexico (AM), Air
    Canada (AC), Air Jamaica, Ltd. (JM), and Mexicana
    (MX)
  • ATA has recently welcomed Boeing Commercial
    Airplanes as an industry partner and a growing
    number of airline-related businesses as industry
    members. Visit www.airlines.org for more details.

Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
25
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Air Transport Association of America, Inc.
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