Review of Biological Chemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 23
About This Presentation
Title:

Review of Biological Chemistry

Description:

Attraction between portions of different molecules with partial charges. Water ... Defined on the basis of hydrophobicity -- lipids do not dissolve in water. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:42
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 24
Provided by: katheri49
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Review of Biological Chemistry


1
Review of Biological Chemistry

2
Biologically Important Elements
3
Chemical Bonds
  • Covalent
  • Sharing of electrons
  • Strong bonds
  • Multiple bonds possible (especially with carbon)
  • Single
  • Double
  • Triple
  • Ionic
  • Transfer of electrons and attraction of resulting
    ions
  • Relatively weak tend to dissociate

4
(No Transcript)
5
Hydrogen Bonds
  • Attraction between portions of different
    molecules with partial charges
  • Water molecules
  • Important in the structure of proteins

6
Macromolecules in Cells
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Note Most of the cell is water

7
Carbohydrates
  • Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  • General formula Cx(H2O)y
  • Polymers of simple sugars such as glucose
  • Storage of energy and structural compounds

8
Linkages Between Sugars Alpha
9
Linkages Between Sugars Beta
10
Lipids
  • Chemically diverse group of chemicals
  • Defined on the basis of hydrophobicity -- lipids
    do not dissolve in water.
  • Include fatty acids, fats, and waxes
  • Major structural components of membranes --
    phospholipids

11
Phospholipids and Membranes
  • Lipid with attached phosphate group
  • Hydrophilic head with hydrophobic tail
  • When placed in water orient with lipids on inside
    and phosphates facing the water -- bilayer or
    membrane

12
Proteins
  • Function as enzymes and structural components of
    cells/organisms
  • Polymer of amino acids
  • Multiple levels of molecular organization
  • Primary structure
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary

13
Amino Acids
  • Central carbon atom with attached
  • Amino group
  • Carboxylic acid group
  • R substitution group/side chain
  • Hydrogen

14
Peptide Bonds
  • Two amino acids become linked by a hydrolytic
    reaction between the amino group on one and the
    acid group on the other.
  • Note this leaves a free amino and acid group for
    additional bonds.

15
Levels of Protein Structure
  • Primary structure
  • Linear sequence of amino acids
  • Ultimately this determines all other levels of
    structure
  • Secondary structure
  • Folding of the amino acid chain into repeating
    structures -- alpha helix and pleated sheets

16
Secondary Structure
17
  • Tertiary structure
  • Folding into a globular form due to
    intramolecular interactions
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Ionic interactions
  • Sulfur bridges
  • Hydrophobic interactions

18
(No Transcript)
19
Quaternary Structure
  • Some proteins are made of multiple protein chains
    which associate
  • Example hemoglobin

20
Nucleic Acids
  • DNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Carries all the genetic information of the
    organism
  • RNA
  • Ribonucleic acid
  • Transfer of information from DNA to proteins

21
Components of Nucleic Acids
  • Phosphates
  • Sugar
  • RNA ribose
  • DNA deoxyribose
  • Bases
  • Purines
  • Pyrimidines

22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com