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The Tar Heel Certificate Program in Research Administration

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Title: The Tar Heel Certificate Program in Research Administration


1
The Tar Heel Certificate Program in Research
Administration
The Research Administration Professional
Friday, September 22, 2006
2
Welcome Overview
  • Requirements
  • Five classes
  • The Research Administrative Professional -
    September 22, 2006
  • Pre-Award and Budgeting October 20, 2006
  • Regulatory/Compliance Issues November 17, 2006
  • Post-Award Financial Management January 19,
    2007
  • Closeout Financial Reconciliation February 16,
    2007
  • Participation
  • Class attendance, class discussion, homework
    assignments
  • Elective classes
  • Workshops offered through OSR, OCT or the Finance
    Division
  • Topics from NCURA Video Series (videos available
    for check out through OSR)
  • Classes offered through the Society of Research
    Administrators International (SRA) program SRA DA
    201

3
Research Administration
  • Noble Profession!

4
Research Administration
  • Noble Profession!

5
When did the federal government
become involved in
funding university research?
6
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Before WWII
  • Mainly internal sources

Agriculture
  • Notable exception
  • Morrill Act of 1862 Land-Grant Colleges
  • 30,000 acres of federal land/congressional
    representative to each State

7
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Sold to provide a perpetual endowment fund for
  • at least one college where the leading object
    shall be, without excluding other scientific and
    classical studies and including military
    tactics, to teach such branches of learning as
    are related to agriculture and the mechanic
    arts
  • Kentucky (50/acre) Cornell (5.50/acre)

8
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Second Morrill Act of 1890
  • In order to get , State had to show that race
    was not a criterion for admission to land-grant
    institution or
  • Designate a separate land-grant college for
    blacks
  • 1890 land-grants created all over the
    then- segregated South

9
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11
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Hatch Act of 1887 Agriculture Experiment
    Station
  • Annual appropriation State match required
  • Smith-Lever Act of 1914 Cooperative
    Extension Service
  • Annual appropriation State match required
  • Current federal from various acts 550
    million annually

12
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • During WWII
  • University scientists mobilized to apply
    expertise to war effort
  • National Defense Research Council
  • Formed by FDR in June, 1940
  • Forum for bringing university/industry/
    government scientists together
  • 18 month head-start on Pearl Harbor

13
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Office of Scientific Research and Defense
    (OSRD)
  • May 1941
  • Dr. Vannevar Bush, Director
  • Mission to explore a possible government role
    to encourage future scientific progress.
  • Civilian, not military, control

14
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • OSRD contracted work to other institutions
  • Carnegie Institute of Technology Large Rocket
    Lab
  • MIT Radiation Lab
  • Western Electric and Bell Labs Sound
    Amplification
  • Emphasis on concentrated, massive rapid
    development
  • Production from model to field e.g., Japanese
    torpedo jammer developed in one week

15
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Three critical secret projects pivotal to
    allied victory in WWII
  • Atomic bomb (Manhattan project)
  • Radar
  • 1935 NRL ship radar
  • 1942 MIT high-frequency, narrow-beam,
    high-resolution
  • Manufactured by Sperry, Westinghouse, Philco
    (for aircraft)

16
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Proximity (variable time) fuze
  • Prior to WWII timed fuze or contact fuze
  • Neither effective against highly maneuverable
    airplanes
  • Section T Applied Physics Lab at Johns
    Hopkins University assigned task of developing
    proximity fuze for Navys 5 guns

17
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Theory
  • Fuze contains miniature radio
    transmitter-receiver
  • Sends out signal
  • When signal reflected back from target reaches
    a certain frequency (caused by proximity to
    target) a circuit closes firing a small charge
    which detonates projectile

18
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Problems
  • Components tiny glass vacuum tubes
  • Force of 20,000 gs when fired (2800 ft./sec.
    muzzle velocity)
  • 25,000 revolutions/minute through rifling
    grooves
  • Moisture
  • Self-destruct feature for dudes

19
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Importance to war effort
  • James V. Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy
    said, The proximity fuze has helped me blaze
    the trail to Japan. Without the protection this
    ingenious device has given the surface ships of
    the fleet, our westward push could not have been
    so swift and the cost in men and ships would
    have been immeasurably greater
  • Prime Minister, Winston S. Churchill was
    quoted with These so- called proximity fuzes,
    made in the United States.., proved potent
    against the small unmanned aircraft (V-1) with
    which we were assailed in 1944.
  • And Commanding General of the Third Army,
    George S. Patton said, The funny fuze won the
    Battle of the Bulge for us. I think that when
    all armies get this shell we will have to devise
    some new method of warfare.

20
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • Bushs final report The Endless Frontier
  • Two principles for expanding R D in U.S.
    Universities
  • Federal government as patron of science
  • Government support should ensure a free rein of
    investigation by scientists into topics and
    methods of their choice

21
History External Support for University
Research in U.S.
  • This report lead to the establishment of
    National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1950
  • Independent government agency
  • National Science Board
  • 24 members plus director
  • Appointed by President

22
Excerpts from the State of the Union Address
January 4, 1950
Sound bite Transcript "The value of our natural
resources is constantly being increased by the
progress of science. Research is finding new ways
of using such natural assets as minerals, sea
water, and plant life. In the peaceful
development of atomic energy, particularly, we
stand on the threshold of new wonders. The first
experimental machines for producing useful power
from atomic energy are now under construction. We
have made truly the first beginnings in this
field, but in the perspective of history, they
may loom larger than the first airplane, or even
the first tools that started man on the road to
civilization.
Harry S. Truman
23
Research Trends
  • History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • History of Research Funding at Carolina
  • Present Research Funding at Carolina
  • Future ? ?

24
History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • National RD Funding

25
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26
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27
History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • National RD Funding

Increase in Federal Health Funding
28
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29
History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • National RD Funding
  • Increase in Federal Health Funding

RD at Colleges Increasing
30
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31
History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • National RD Funding
  • Increase in Federal Health Funding
  • RD at Colleges Increasing

Most of Increase is in Life Science
32
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33
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34
History Projections of U.S. Research Funding
  • National RD Funding
  • Increase in Federal Health Funding
  • RD at Colleges Increasing
  • Most of Life Science Increase is NIH

Projected Non-defense RD next 5 years
35
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36
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37
Conclusions
  • Funding increased significantly over last 50
    years
  • Health funding increased
  • NIH tripling
  • Flattening in next 5 years

38
History of Research Funding at Carolina
  • From 1960 to present

39
Awards in Millions at UNC-CH
40
History of Research Funding at Carolina
  • From 1960 to present

A look at 1971 - 72
41
38.8 million in awards
  • Arts Sciences 4.5 million (11.6)
  • Classics department
  • Botany department
  • City Regional Planning department
  • School of Medicine 11.5 million (28.4)
  • Medicine, Biochemistry Psychiatry large
  • Health Sciences 30.1 million (77.5)
  • More than 90 Federal Funding
  • In the top 25
  • Had a total of 5 centers and 4 institutes

42
History of Research Funding at Carolina
  • From 1960 to present
  • A look at 1971 72

Dependence on Federal Funding
43
Trends of Federally Sponsored Awards at UNC-CH
44
History of Research Funding at Carolina
  • From 1960 to present
  • A look at 1971 72
  • Dependence on Federal Funding

Importance of Research vs State Appropriation
45
Sponsored awards vs state appropriations at UNC-CH
46
Present Research Funding at Carolina
  • 593.4 million

47
2006 Funding by School
48
Present Research Funding at Carolina
  • 593.4 million

Federal at 72 of funding
49
2006 Funding by Source
50
Present Research Funding at Carolina
  • 593.4 million
  • Federal at 72 of funding

Centers Institutes 47 Centers 13 Institutes
51
Carolina Centers
  • Dental Research Center
  • Ethnicity, Culture, and Health Outcomes
  • Gene Therapy Center
  • General Clinical Research Center
  • Highway Safety Research Center
  • Injury Prevention Research Center
  • Kenan Center for the Utilization of CO2 in
    Manufacturing
  • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
  • Mutant Mouse Regional Resource Center
  • National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury
    Research
  • National Research Center on Rural Education
    Support
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center
  • Neuroscience Center
  • North Carolina Center for Nanoscale Materials
  • North Carolina Institute for Public Health
  • Parr Center for Ethics
  • Thurston Arthritis Research Center
  • Tissue Culture Facility
  • African Studies Center
  • Ancient World Mapping Center
  • Biostatistics Survey Research Unit
  • Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies
  • Carolina Asia center
  • Carolina Cardiovascular Biology Center
  • Carolina Center for Genome Sciences
  • Carolina Center for Jewish Studies
  • Carolina Center for the Study of Middle East and
    Muslim Civilizations
  • Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology
    Excellence
  • Carolina Environmental Program
  • Carolina Population Center
  • Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services
    Research
  • Center for Aging and Diversity
  • Center for AIDS Research
  • Center for Community Capitalism
  • Center for Developmental Science
  • Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents
    and Processes (NSFSTC)
  • Center for Functional GI Motility Disorders
  • Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease
  • Center for Health Promotion and Disease
    Prevention
  • Center for Health Statistics Research
  • Center for Infectious Diseases
  • Center for Innovation in Health Disparities
    Research
  • Center for International Business Education and
    Research
  • Center for Maternal and Infant Health
  • Center for Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy
  • Center for Research on Chronic Illness
  • Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and East European
    Studies
  • Center for the Study of the American South
  • Center for Urban and Regional Studies
  • Center for Womens Health Research
  • Clinical Center for the Study of Development and
    Learning
  • Clinical Nutrition Research Center
  • Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center
  • Comprehensive Center for Inflammatory Disorders

52
Carolina Institutes
  • FPG Child Development Institute
  • Howard W. Odum Institute for Research in Social
    Science (IRSS)
  • Institute for Disaster Studies
  • Institute for the Arts and Humanities
  • Institute of African-American Research
  • Instituted of Latin American Studies
  • Institute of Marine Sciences
  • Institute of Outdoor Drama
  • Institute on Aging
  • Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise
  • North Carolina Institute for Public Health
  • Triangle Institute for Security Studies
  • UNC Roadmap

53
Present Research Funding at Carolina
  • 593.4 million
  • Federal at 72 of funding
  • Centers Institutes
  • 47 Centers
  • 13 Institutes

Top 10 Centers Departments
54
Top 10 Centers Departments in 2006 at UNC-CH
  • Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center
    51,458,768
  • Carolina Population Center 42,277,501
  • FPG Child Development Institute 21,362,444
  • Pathology Lab Medicine 20,575,469
  • Epidemiology 20,540,728
  • Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services
    Research 14,943,015
  • Chemistry 13,357,457
  • Medicine 12,923,229
  • Center for AIDS Research 12,684,055
  • Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease
    12,617,799

55
Conclusions
  • Funding increased significantly over last 50
    years
  • Health funding increased
  • NIH tripling
  • Flattening in next 5 years ?

56
Future ? ?
  • Is history predictive of the future?
  • Funding leveling off
  • Carolina becomes even more decentralized
  • Are there things on the Horizon?
  • New Cancer Center
  • Genetic Medicine
  • Different Funding Sources
  • Chancellors Goal 1 Billion in 2015
  • Different Funding Sources
  • Larger Grants
  • More Faculty

57
Research Dollars vs Staffing at UNC-CH
58
Future ? ?
  • Do we need each other?
  • Even more than in the past
  • A true partnership to keep Carolina moving
    forward

59
Research Administration
  • Management
  • Resource Allocation
  • Compliance
  • Supervision
  • Negotiation
  • Faculty Support

60
Keys To Success In Management
  • Pride In Ones Organization
  • Enthusiasm For Its Work

Tom Peters A Passion For Excellence
61
Classic Management Challenge
How To Make Ordinary People Do Extraordinary
Things
62
Peter Drucker In HBR Likens Managers To
Conductors Of Symphony Orchestras
A Great Orchestra Is Not Composed Of Great
Musicians But Of Adequate Ones Who Produce At
Their Peak
63
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64
The Great Leaders Are Like The Best Conductors
They Reach Beyond The Notes To Reach The Magic In
The Players. Blaine Lee The Power Principle
65
Drucker Says
The Key To Greatness Is To Look For Peoples
Potential And Spend Time Developing It
66
So How Are You Doing As A Manager?
or
67
  • In the real world, Research Administrators
    strive to provide quality support to the research
    enterprise while following all of the applicable
    policies and rules. Its not always as easy as
    it sounds!

Department Chair
Purchasing Office
Sponsored Programs Office
Funding Agencies
Students
Deans Office
68
What is the number one reason why people leave
jobs?
Bad Bosses!
69
  • People accept jobs for many reasons
  • Salary
  • Benefits
  • Reputation of Organization
  • Work opportunity
  • Challenge

These things attract people to a job
/organization!
70
But the analysis of hundreds of thousands of exit
interviews/questionnaires shows the singular
importance of the immediate supervisor in
determining employee morale, productivity and
longevity!
Bottom line People may come for the job
(package), but how long they stay is directly
correlated with the quality of the relationship
with their immediate supervisor.
71
Common Complaints
  • Hes always looking over my shoulder and
    micromanaging everything I do.
  • She never listens to me.
  • He loves to play games always trying to show
    who is the boss.
  • She is always taking credit for my work.
  • Hes not a bad person. He just isnt a
    manager.
  • I just dont think she likes me.

72
The Role of Supervision
Catalyst an agent that speeds up the reaction
between two substances to create the desired
end product.
Catalyst
73
Catalyst a useful metaphor to understand the
primary role of the supervisor.
A supervisor is an agent that speeds up the
reaction between people, resources and ideas to
create the desired end product.
74
Good supervisors cause things to happen that
wouldnt happen if they werent there!
But what do they do?
75
Three Basic Tasks of Supervision
  • Set clear performance expectations
  • Motivate performance
  • Evaluate performance

76
Three Basic Tasks of Supervision
  • Set clear performance expectations
  • Common complaint I didnt know she wanted me
    to do that.
  • Focus on outcomes
  • Define metrics

77
Three Basic Tasks of Supervision
  • Set clear performance expectations
  • Motivate Performance
  • Be positive, focus on strengths but
  • Provide input - suggestions
  • Expect progress reports
  • Redirect when necessary
  • Help employees to know you want them to succeed!

78
Three Basic Tasks of Supervision
  • Set clear performance expectations
  • Motivate Performance
  • Evaluate Performance
  • Honest - Fair
  • No surprises
  • No changes in measurement
  • Dont sugar-coat

79
Three Basic Tasks of Supervision
  • Set clear performance expectations
  • Motivate performance
  • Evaluate performance

What else can we learn from successful managers?
80
Characteristics of Successful Managers
1. Recognize that people are unique
We are a blend of skills, knowledge, experience
and talents!
Evaluating an applicant/employees skill,
knowledge and experience is relatively
straight-forward. Evaluating for talent is much
more challenging!
81
What Do We Mean By Talent?
Conventional wisdom rare ability pertaining to
sports or the arts!
82
What Do We Mean By Talent?
Myth with enough hard work, we can accomplish
anything!
83
What We Have Learned From Neuro-Science
  • Born with 100 billion neurons
  • synaptic connections form by age 3
  • strong ones grow/weak ones wither away
  • may be genetics or Darwinian pruning
  • by mid-teens unique set of synapses (about half
    the number as at age 3)
  • these synapses define our talents!

84
Talents Can Be Defined As
A Recurring Pattern Of Thought, Feeling Or
Behavior That Can Be Productively
Applied. Marcus Buckingham Curt Coffman First,
Break All The Rules
Simply put the behaviors you find yourself
doing most often are your talents.
85
No Matter How You Total Success In The Coaching
Profession, It All Comes Down To A Single Factor
Talent Although Not Every Coach Can Win
Consistently With Talent, No Coach Can Win
Without It. John Wooden, UCLA Coach
86
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Every role, performed at excellence, requires
    talent
  • Determine what talents are associated with
    excellence in every role
  • Key find match between persons talents and
    their role But how?

87
Characteristics of Successful Managers
Study your best
  • Conventional wisdom good is opposite of bad, so
    if you want excellence, investigate failure and
    invert it.
  • Good health absence of disease
  • Successful drug program reduce number of kids
    on drugs
  • Excellence in manufacturing zero defects

88
Characteristics of Successful Managers
Study your best
  • Excellence and failure are often surprisingly
    similar
  • Low performing nurses empathy with patients
  • High performing nurses same
  • Low performing salesman call reluctance
  • High performing salesman same

89
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently

Break The Golden Rule Dont Treat People As You
Would Like To Be Treated. This Presupposes That
Everyone Breathes The Same Psychological Oxygen
As You Buckingham Coffman First, Break All The
Rules
Figure out what motivates each person and devise
a system of appropriate rewards
90
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on desired outcomes, not process

91
Characteristics of Successful Managers
DANGER One Best Way Approach
  • Frederic Taylor time-and-motion studies
  • Madelaine Hunter seven basic components of an
    effective lesson plan
  • Expert Systems

92
Remember, unique people with different
combinations of knowledge, skill, experience and
talent will determine their own way to achieve
the desired outcomes!
Danger Some lab or experimental work requires
closely following certain rules to insure safety,
human subject protection, or research integrity.
93
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on desired outcomes, not process
  • Foster an environment that allows people to fail
    intelligently

94
FailureTolerant Organizations
  • Encourage Intelligent Risk Taking
  • View Failure As A Pre-Requisite For Invention
  • View Failures As Outcomes To Be Examined,
    Understood, And Built Upon
  • Focus On Increasing Their Organizations
    Intellectual Capital
  • Create A Culture Of Collaboration Rather Than
    Competition.

Richard Farson and Ralph Keyes The
Failure-Tolerant Leader
95
  • Spencer Silvers Failure Imperfect Adhesive
    resulted In 3Ms Post-It Notes
  • Jack Welch, Former Head Of GE
  • We Reward Failure.
  • Thomas Watson, Sr., Former Head Of IBM
  • The Fastest Way To Succeed Is To Double Your
    Failure Rate.
  • Peter Doherty, 1996 Nobel Prize Winner
  • A Good Researcher Failed Every Time But The Last
    One.

96
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on the desired outcomes, not the process
  • Foster an environment that allows people to fail
    intelligently
  • Encourage development of effective teams

97
Individual Commitment To A Group Effort That
Is What Makes A Team Work, A
Company Work, A Society
Work, A Civilization Work.
Vince Lombardi
98
  • Teamwork A Worthy Goal!
  • But Not All Groups Become Teams
  • What Makes A Group Become A Team?

99
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
100
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
101
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
102
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
103
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
104
A Team Is A Small Number Of People With
Complementary Skills Who Are Committed To A
Common Purpose, Set Of Performance Goals, And
Approach For Which They Hold Themselves Mutually
Accountable. Jon R. Katzenbach And Douglas K.
Smith The Discipline Of Teams
105
Reward People For Solving Problems Without Coming
To See You First!
Harvard Business Review Case Study MacGregor
  • Unconventional Weekly Staff Meetings
  • Agenda The Problems You Faced And The
    Decisions You Made And, If You Got Help, Who
    Helped You.
  • Builds A Team That Works Together!

106
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on desired outcomes, not process
  • Foster an environment that allows people to fail
    intelligently
  • Encourage development of effective teams
  • Manage around a weakness

107
  • Remember the 3 basic tasks of supervision?
  • Set expectations
  • Motivate performance
  • Evaluate performance
  • If you have an otherwise good employee who
    consistently performs below expectations in one
    aspect of his job, what should you do?
  • Are expectations clear?
  • Does she need certain tools?
  • Am I using the right motivation technique?
  • Is the problem a lack of education/skill?
  • If none of these, then the problem may be a lack
    of talent?

108
  • If the problem is a lack of talent
  • Accept that you cant teach talent
  • and
  • Try to find a way to make the non-talent become
    irrelevant by managing around it!

109
Ways to Manage Around a Lack of Talent
  • Devise a support system
  • 150 million Americans need eye glasses
  • Poor speller get spellchecker
  • Forget appointments computer reminders
  • Story of mentally handicapped worker
  • Cooking chicken at fast food restaurant
  • Goal cook 6 at a time
  • Problem couldnt count
  • Package chicken 6 per container
  • GOAL Make the non-talent irrelevant!

110
Ways to Manage Around a Lack of Talent
  • Devise a support system
  • Find a complementary partner
  • Most people are good at some things and bad at
    others
  • Most jobs require unrealistic combinations of
    talents
  • Goal find a partnership that is well-rounded
    when the individuals arent
  • Teams are based upon individual excellence
    There is an I in team.

111
Ways to Manage Around a Lack of Talent
  • Devise a support system
  • Find a complementary partner
  • Find an alternative role
  • Sometimes a person just isnt right for the job
    but
  • Sometimes you can move tasks around to better
    align job assignments with individual talents.

112
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on desired outcomes, not process
  • Foster an environment that allows people to fail
    intelligently
  • Encourage development of effective teams
  • Manage around a weakness
  • Understand components of human motivation

113
  • Employee Motivation is Based Upon
  • MOTIVATION

114
Characteristics of Successful Managers
  • Recognize that people are unique
  • Identify talent and reposition for success
  • Treat people differently
  • Focus on desired outcomes, not process
  • Foster an environment that allows people to fail
    intelligently
  • Encourage development of effective teams
  • Manage around a weakness
  • Understand components of human motivation
  • Have a clear sense of organizational mission

115
Harvard Parking Story
Understanding Mission
  • 1950s 2 UNC Grads To Harvard
    One in Wheel Chair
  • Arrived In Boston One Evening
  • No Parking By Dorm
  • Parked By Front Door To Unload
  • Campus Police Came
  • Returned With Workman Painted Yellow Line

116
As Long As You And Your Roommate Are Students In
Good-Standing At Harvard, This Parking Place Is
For You!
117
Efficiency - EffectivenessA Balancing Act!
  • Efficiency Producing The Greatest Quantity Of
    Work For Each Unit Of Resource Expended (Or
    Producing A Unit Of Work For The Smallest
    Possible Expenditure Of Resources)

Effectiveness Successfully Accomplishing The
Goals/Objectives Of The Organization.
Fulfilling Its Mission!
118
Efficiency Is Important
  • Resources Are Limited We Must Use Them
    Intelligently

119
Dangers of Over-Emphasizing Efficiency
  • Belief That Efficiency Interests Are Paramount
  • Faulty Assumptions
  • Efficiency Leads To Effectiveness
  • Sub-Unit Optimization - When Every Sub-Unit In An
    Organization Operates As Efficiently As Possible,
    The Overall Organization Operates As Efficiently
    As Possible!

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Sub-Unit Optimization
  • When Sub-Units Strive To Develop Efficient
    Approaches To Accomplishing Their Work, They
    Often Ask The Following Questions
  • How Can We Organize Ourselves To Get Our Work
    Done Most Efficiently?
  • What Policies/Procedures Do We Need To Put Into
    Place To Help Us Get Our Work Done?
  • Whats Wrong With These Questions?

121
Sub-Unit Optimization
  • Focus Inward On Getting My Work Done Rather Than
    Focusing On How To Accomplish The Goals Of The
    Organization.

Example UNC Survey Due May 15
122
  • Better Question
  • How Can We Best Organize Ourselves To Accomplish
    The Work That We Are Assigned In A Manner That
    Best Supports The Goals Of The Enterprise?

123
Paradoxical Question
  • Should We Intentionally Create Sub-Unit
    Inefficiencies In Order To Best Support The
    Goals/Mission Of The Enterprise?

124
Tims Definition of Management
  • The Process of Intentionally Guiding An
    Organization Toward The Successful Fulfillment Of
    Its Mission, Within A Given Set Of Environmental
    Constraints,By Setting And Achieving Specific
    Goals.

125
Management
  • The Process of Intentionally Guiding An
    Organization Toward The Successful Fulfillment Of
    Its Mission, Within A Given Set Of Environmental
    Constraints, By Setting And Achieving Specific
    Goals.

126
Environmental Constraints Resources
  • Money

The thing I lose patience with the most is the
clock. Its hands move too fast. Time is really
the only capital that any human being has, and
the one thing that he cant afford to
lose. Thomas Edison
127
Environmental Constraints Rules
128
  • Environment Constraints
  • Resources
  • Rules
  • Organizational Culture

129
Management
  • The Process of Intentionally Guiding An
    Organization Toward The Successful Fulfillment Of
    Its Mission, Within A Given Set Of Environmental
    Constraints,By Setting And Achieving Specific
    Goals.

130
Alice In Wonderland
  • Cheshire Cat Asked Alice, Where Are You Going?
  • Alice Replied, I Dont Know.
  • Cheshire Cat, Then Any Road Will Get You There.

131
Management
  • The Process of Intentionally Guiding An
    Organization Toward The Successful Fulfillment Of
    Its Mission, Within A Given Set Of Environmental
    Constraints,By Setting And Achieving Specific
    Goals.

132
Rules For Effective Goal Setting
  • Set Goals That Are Important/Challenging
  • Related To Mission
  • Significant
  • Push You To Achieve
  • Highly Motivated

133
  • State Your Goals In Positive, Not Negative, Terms!
  • Focus On What You Want Not What You Dont Want

134
  • State Your Goals In Positive, Not Negative, Terms!
  • Focus On What You Want Not What You Dont Want
  • Keep A Mental Image of Success

Imagination Is More Important Than
Knowledge. Albert Einstein
135
  • State Your Goals In Positive, Not Negative, Terms!
  • Focus On What You Want Not What
    You Dont Want
  • Keep A Mental Image of Success
  • Stay Away From Negative Thinking

Obstacles Are Those Frightful Things You See
When You take Your Eyes Off The Goal. Henry Ford
136
Dreams Are Just Thoughts. They Become Tangible
Goals When We Write Them Down.
  • Write Your Goals Down.
  • Helps To Crystallize Thinking
  • Be Precise
  • Helps Spot Contradictory Goals
  • Increases Commitment

137
Goals Are Just Dreams With Deadlines.
  • Diana Scharf Hunt
  • Make Your Goals Time Specific

Creating Deadlines Is A Powerful Management
Technique
138
  • Review Your Goals Regularly!
  • My Approach Plastic-Covered Sheet In Telephone
    Book Drawer
  • Reviewing Keeps You
    Focused
  • Be Willing To
    Modify/Clarify When
    Appropriate

139
  • Dont Give Up. Continue Until You Achieve Your
    Goals!

140
Remember Our Definition of Management
  • The Process of Intentionally Guiding An
    Organization Toward The Successful Fulfillment Of
    Its Mission, Within A Given Set Of Environmental
    Constraints,By Setting And Achieving Specific
    Goals.

141
What Is Your Approach To Management?
142
Intentionality in Management
  • Management By Wandering Around
  • Total Quality Management
  • Responsible Delegation Techniques
  • Effective Negotiation Techniques

143
Management By Wandering Around
144
Management By Wandering Around
  • Get Out From Behind Your Desk
  • Spend Time In The Labs/Classrooms/Building
  • Walk The Halls
  • Be A Keen Observer
  • Ask People Questions

145
Management By Wandering Around
Be Accessible
  • If Possible, Arrange Your Office So
  • You Dont Sit Behind Your Desk
  • When Meeting People
  • On Occasion Go To Other Peoples Office For
    Meetings (Dont Always Have Them Come To You)

146
TQM Whats Worth Remembering
  • W. Edwards Deming (Management Consultant -Ideas
    Were Rejected In The US Promoted a Quality
    Approach In Japanese Manufacturing)
  • Pre-Quality (Poor Quality, Cheap Knock-Offs)
  • Post-Quality (Finest Electronics and Cars In The
    World)

147
TQM Core Principles
  • Commitment To Continuous Improvement
  • Excellence Is A Game Of Inches.
    Tom Peters
  • What Can We Do To Get Better?
  • Banish Complacency
  • Set Heroic Goals Raise The Bar
  • Treat Mistakes Like Diamonds
  • Rare/Opportunities To Learn
  • H-P (Cant Get Raise If You Havent Made Mistakes
    If No Mistakes, You Arent Doing Anything)

148
Responsible Delegation
  • A Manager Must Learn To Delegate Responsibility
    And Authority In Order To Build An Effective Team!

Payoffs
  • Time To Look At Big Picture/Plan
  • Greater Staff Involvement Higher
    Morale/Investment
  • More Gets Done When Manager Isnt Funnel
  • Creativity

149
Responsible Delegation
Risks/Problems
  • Inconsistent Application of Policy
  • Strain When Manager Feels That An Employee Is
    Doing Something Wrong And Has To Confront Him/Her
  • Accountable For Decisions You Dont Make
  • Asking Employees To Do Too Much They May Be
    Resistant (Dont Dump on Me)
  • I Could Have Done It Myself Faster
  • Loose Touch With Operations

150
Effective Negotiation Techniques
  • We are all negotiators
  • Traditional approaches (hardsoft)
  • Hard
  • Contest of wills-desire to win
  • Take extreme positions hold out longer
  • Other party responds in kind
  • Harms relationships
  • Exhausting
  • Soft
  • Desire to avoid conflict maintain relationship
  • Makes concessions readily
  • Often feels exploited, bitter
  • Harms relationships

151
Problems with Traditional Negotiations
  • Arguing over positions produces unwise agreements
  • Bargaining over positions causes us to defend
    against attack
  • The more you defend, the harder to change
  • Ego gets involved
  • Example JFK and Soviets
  • Ban on nuclear testing
  • Roadblock number of inspections
  • Problem hadnt defined an inspection

152
Problems with Traditional Negotiations
  • Arguing over positions is inefficient
  • Taking extreme positions
  • Holding on stubbornly
  • Making small concessions
  • Deceiving the other party as to your true views
  • Takes time, effort and interferes with reaching
    agreement
  • Dragging ones feet, threatening to walk-out
    increases time and cost and
  • Increases risk of no agreement being reached!

153
Problems with Traditional Negotiations
  • Arguing over positions endangers an ongoing
    relationship
  • When there are winners and losers relationships
    suffer
  • Anger and resentment are side-effects
  • Simply being nice is no answer
  • Can leave you vulnerable
  • May not produce a wise agreement
  • O. Henrys Gift of the Magi

154
Alternative Principled Negotiation
  • Technique developed by Roger Fisher and William
    Ury, Harvard Negotiation Project
  • Four key points
  • Separate the people from the problem
  • Focus on interests, not positions
  • Invent options for mutual gain
  • Insist that the result be based on some objective
    standard

155
1. Separate the people from the problem
  • When egos get involved, you often fail to address
    the problem
  • Stay away from taking positions
  • Goal parties should see themselves working
    side-by-side, attacking the problem, not each
    other

156
2. Focus on interests, not positions
  • A negotiating position often obscures what you
    really want
  • Compromising between positions can produce an
    unsatisfactory agreement
  • Discuss what you want in an agreement (including
    relationship issues)

157
3. Invent options for mutual gain
  • Pressure of negotiations can make it difficult to
    see optimal solutions
  • Set aside time outside of negotiations to
    brainstorm for possible solutions
  • Separate
  • With other party
  • With third party

158
4. Insist that the result be based on some
objective standard
  • Seek agreement on a fair, independent standard
  • Market value
  • Expert opinion
  • Trusted 3rd party
  • Prevents either party from having to give-in to
    the other

159
Other key issues
  • If there are any non-negotiable issues, make them
    clear up front
  • Consider the impact of the negotiation process on
    both
  • Relationship with other party
  • Next negotiation

160
Key To Success in Management
  • Recognize you are a unique person who has
    management responsibilities
  • Understand your talents
  • Integrate these insights/approaches into your own
    style
  • There is no one size fits all model of
    management
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