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Psyched for Success Motivational Techniques For Advising Exploratory Students


Humanistic Psychology ... Self Discipline. Self Motivation. Positive Thinking (Waitley, 2004) 4. Write Goals Down ... Self discipline will help you do it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psyched for Success Motivational Techniques For Advising Exploratory Students

Psyched for SuccessMotivational Techniques
ForAdvising Exploratory Students
  • NACADA National Conference
  • Indianapolis, IN
  • 10/19/2006

Contact Information
  • Dr. Joan S. Pedersen
  • Career Development Specialist/UC Faculty
  • University College Academic/Career Advising
  • 815 West Michigan Street
  • IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46202
  • 317-274-4679

Session Overview
  • Role of Advisors with Exploratory Students
  • Role of Motivation in Student Success
  • Motivational Techniques Seven Habits of Highly
    Effective Advisors

  • A. Role of Advisors with Exploratory Students
  • Individual Advising
  • Learning Communities

Developmental Advising
  • a systematic process through which students set
    and achieve their academic, personal goals with
    the support of their academic advisors.
  • Crookston in Gordon, 2006

Academic Advising
  • Through the academic advising process, students
    learn to take responsibility for setting goals as
    well as planning the steps to implement them. It
    recognizes that the choice of major is not
    necessarily an isolated decision but merely one
    facet in preparing for a career that may have an
    impact on thelifestyle they wish to achieve.
  • Virginia Gordon,2006

Career Advising
  • Career advising helps students understand how
    their personal interests, abilities and values
    might predict success in the academic and career
    fields they are considering and how to form their
    academic and career goals accordingly.
  • Virginia Gordon, 2006

Student Learning Outcomes (from IUPUIs UC
Advising Centers Self Evaluation, 2006)
  • To what extent do students
  • Accept responsibility for their college success
  • Set goals for achievement in college
  • Set short/long term goals for academic planning
  • Assess success oriented and non-success oriented
  • Alter behavior to lead to a greater level of
  • Identify other issues affecting college success

What Students Want from Advisors
  • Build trust
  • Provide motivation
  • Help to meet their goals
  • Student Survey of Academic Advising, University
    College, IUPUI, 2006

Self Efficacy Theory (Bandura, 1989)
  • Self confidence in ones ability to perform
    behaviors required to produce certain outcomes
    and manage prospective situations. It influences
    our choices, efforts, persistence, and feelings.

Career Decision Self- Efficacy Scale(Taylor
Betz, 1983)
  • Measures an individuals degree of belief that
    he/she can successfully complete tasks necessary
    to making career decisions.
  • Given pre/post in 2 IUPUI Exploratory Learning
    Communities in Spring 06. Both courses had
    significant positive impacts on students levels
    of perceived Career Decision Self-Efficacy.

5 Career Choice Competencies
  • Accurate Self Appraisal
  • Gathering Occupational Information
  • Goal Selection
  • Making Plans for Future
  • Problem Solving
  • Career Decision Self Efficacy Scale
  • Taylor Betz, 1983

  • B. Motivation and Student Success
    Psychological Theories and Research

Healthy Personality Humanistic Psychology
  • Developing a healthy personality (beyond
    normality) is considered important for
    happiness, peace of mind, personal adjustment and
    success in living.
  • If you deliberately plan to be less than you are
    capable of being, then I warn you that youll be
    unhappy for the rest of your life.
  • Maslow, 1967

Components of Healthy Personality(Schultz, 1977,
found most theorists agreed on)
  • Consciously and rationally directing ones own
  • Being in charge of ones own destiny
  • Knowing who and what one is accepting ones
    strengths and weaknesses
  • Being firmly anchored in the present
  • Pursuing challenge through new goals and new

Authentic Happiness Positive Psychology
  • Positive Emotions can be used to develop
    resilience, optimism, a sense of identity, and
    goal orientation.
  • We want to identify and nurture strengths which
    allows us to see into our soul and mold our
    life around it, including finding the niche where
    we can live to our fullest.
  • Martin Seligman

5 Factors Common to Happiness or Subjective
Well Being (SWB)
  • Has positive temperament
  • Avoids excessive rumination over negative events
  • Lives in an economically developed society
  • Has social confidants
  • Has resources to progress towards valued goals
  • Continuing Psychology Education, 2002

Subjective Well Being
  • People can accomplish their goals in a variety
    of ways, but those with high SWB have developed
    effective strategies for meeting their needs
    within the constraints of cultural and life
  • Cantor, 1994

Motivating Force of Long Range Goals
  • The intentional nature of the individual striving
    towards the future unifies the personality by
    integrating all its components towards the
    achieving of goals and intentions.
  • The possession of long range goals, regarded as
    central to ones personal existence,
    distinguishes the human from the animal, the
    adult from the child, and in many cases the
    healthy personality from the sick.
  • Allport, 1955

Strengths-based Focus- Three Perspectives
  • Center for Dependable Strengths
  • http//
  • 24 Signature Strengths Martin Seligman
  • 34 Talents and top 5 Signature Themes - Clifton
    Anderson, StrengthsQuest, 2002
  • http//

4 Factors Determining Achievement ( from
  • Your beliefs about your strengths to achieve
  • Your understanding and appreciation for the
    strengths you already have.
  • Your efforts to develop and apply your strengths
    (design your education/career around your
  • Your motivations, desires, and goal setting

A Cry to Develop Human Potential
  • The greatest tragedy in America is not the
    destruction of our natural resources, though that
    tragedy is great. The truly great tragedy is the
    destruction of our human resources by our failure
    to fully utilize our abilities, which means that
    most men and women go to their graves with their
    music still in them.
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes

Identity vs. Role Confusion Erik Erikson
  • The stage in which adolescents are attempting to
    develop unique identities and striving to find
    their suitable place in society.
  • Those who do not resolve conflicts in this stage
    are confused about who they are.

Identity Crisis vs. Commitment James Marcia
  • Crisis a struggle or decision making process
    in which one is actively searching for an
  • Commitment a decision to keep a certain
    identity ( or values, career, or mate)

Identity Achievement
  • Involves experiencing a crisis and actively
    resolving it until purposeful commitments are
    made. (Marcia)
  • Many first year college students are still
    actively searching for what to accomplish in
    terms of college/career and will most likely
    reach achievement of a desired identity if they
    are willing to engage in critical thinking and
    self reflection.

Self Concept and Ideal Self Carl Rogers
  • A well adjusted person experiences much overlap
    between self concept and ideal self
  • If incongruence exists between the two, we
    experience anxiety and depression.

  • C. Motivational Advising Techniques for
    Exploratory Students

1. Ask Strengthsbased Questions
  • Incorporating Appreciative Inquiry into Academic
    Advising Jennifer Bloom, 2002
  • The Mentor An Academic Advising Journal
  • The uniqueness and power of an Appreciative
    Inquiry interview stems from its fundamentally
    affirmative focus.It is a cooperative search for
    the best in people.
  • Copperrider Whitney in Bloom

Appreciative Inquiry
  • Appreciative Inquiry involves the art and
    practice of asking questions that strengthen the
    capacity to heighten positive potential.
    Copperrider Whitney in Bloom
  • Four Phases
  • Discovery Draw out strengths
  • Dream Envision career and life options
  • Design Devise goals to reach vision
  • Destiny Provide support while student
    accomplishes goals

2. Develop Multiple Motives
  • Numerous studies identify motivation as the
    single most important factor in academic
    achievement and graduation from college.
  • Students must have multiple motives for achieving
    and persisting.
  • These motives must be personally important to the
  • (Clifton Anderson,

Motives and Goals
  • Performance goals involve measuring up to a
    standard and winning the approval of others.
  • Learning goals involve building new skills,
    understanding new things, and finding new ways of
    dealing with problems.
  • Both can motivate us, but focusing on performance
    can result in avoiding challenges for fear of

All Goals are not Equal
  • Intrinsic goals reflect inherent growth
    tendancies and satisfy inherent psychological
  • Extrinsic goals are imposed on the individual by
    society and are sought for the approval of others
    or some other end.
  • Research shows that working towards intrinsic
    goals is more beneficial to SWB. (Kasser Ryan,

Intrinsic Goals (vs. Extrinsic) Provide Long
Lasting Satisfaction
  • Although extrinsic goals are not wrong or
    bad, most people with a strong drive for
    money, fame, or a glamourous image live in fear
    that those desires will never be fulfilled
  • Even people who do attain these goals often
    suffer negative symptoms such as anxiety or
    depression. No matter how much they have it
    never seems like enough. (Waitley, 2004)

3. Define Success Uncover Purpose
  • Success is a lifetime of personal fulfillment
    .(which) comes from creating a sense of meaning
    in your work and life.
  • Waitley, 2004
  • Examine your career perspectives which lenses
    influence your definition of success
  • Cultural? Personal? Psychological?

  • Purpose enable us to face difficult times and
    tragedies. Purpose influences inner drives and
  • Having purpose (or not) explained why people
    react in different ways to the same challenging
  • (based on the concentration camp observations
    of Victor Frankl in Search for Meaning)

Ingredients of Lifelong Success
  • Dreams give your life purpose knowing your
    dreams is part of being self aware.
  • Self Awareness
  • Self Direction
  • Self Esteem
  • Self Discipline
  • Self Motivation
  • Positive Thinking
  • (Waitley, 2004)

4. Write Goals Down
  • Experts advise putting goals down in writing
  • Goals are tools for translating dreams into
    reality and directing your abilities in the
    service of what you want most.
  • (Waitley, 2004)

IUPUI Eport Preflection Questions
  • What are your important goals for your life after
    college? ((Think about your goals in areas like
    career, citizenship, relationships, personal
    life, and spiritual development).
  • Thinking of one or two of these goals, what do
    you need to do and learn between now and
    graduation to get there?
  • Which Principles of Undergraduate Learning seem
    most important for you to improve upon to reach
    your goals and why?

Goal Setting Theory
  • Research shows (Locke and Latham, 1990)
  • that goals enhance work motivation by
  • Attention to the task at hand
  • Effort expended on it
  • Persistence
  • Once goals have been clearly established there is
    less temptation to quit.

Goals that motivate are
  • Highly specific and measurable
  • Attainable (achievable and realistic)
  • Challenging (requiring effort)
  • Able to elicit commitment (individuals must
    commit self to achieve goals)
  • Locke and Latham, 1990

Commitment to Cause
  • Interviews with some of the worlds most
    successful people revealed that these people all
    believed their success was tied to being
    committed to something bigger than themselves.
    They aligned their actions to what had true
    meaning for them.
  • Emery, Porras, Thompson in Success Built to
    Last (2006)

Visualizing Success
  • Visualization allows you to create detailed
    mental images of behaviors you want to carry out.
  • When you see yourself accomplishing your goals,
    step by step, you become more motivated to take
    action and gain confidence in your ability to
  • Covey, 1998

5. Reward Effort and Performance
  • Once we achieve a goal or build a skill we are
    rewarded with the good feeling of knowing we can
    accomplish new goals and build new skills.
    (Maslows esteem needs)
  • Competence, or the ability to reach our goals and
    cope with challenges of life is key to self
    esteem. Our self esteem continues to grow as we
    set new goals and strive to attain them.

Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964)
  • Motivation to engage in any activity is a
    function of
  • Expectancy belief that effort will result in
    improved performance
  • Instrumentality belief that good performance
    will be recognized and rewarded
  • Valance the perceived value of the rewards

Accountability and Follow-up Systems in
Learning Communities and STAR
  • Personal Development Plan
  • Meeting 1 with Mentor
  • Setting and Getting your Goals
  • Meeting 2 with Advisor
  • Weekly Goal Commitment Form (STAR)
  • Midterm Status Report
  • Students Taking Academic Responsibility for
    more information contact Chris Maroldo

6. Identify and Remove Obstacles
  • Common Obstacles to Reaching Goals
  • Trying to please someone else
  • Not really wanting it
  • Being a perfectionist
  • Going it alone
  • Resisting change
  • Giving in to stress and anger
  • Waitley, 2004

Overcoming Common Obstacles
  • Low self expectancy and lack of commitment can
    severely limit your ability to achieve your
  • Success depends on desire, focus, and
  • Desire energy and will to succeed
  • Self discipline will help you do it
  • (Waitley, 2004)

Self Discipline is the...
  • .process of teaching ourselves to do what is
    necessary to achieve our goals. It allows us to
  • Control our destiny
  • Persist in face of setbacks
  • Weigh the long term consequences of our actions
  • Make positive change
  • Break bad habits
  • Think critically
  • Make effective decisions (Waitley,

Common Denominator of Success
  • All successful people have the habit of doing
    the things failures dont like to do. They dont
    like doing them either necessarily. But their
    disliking is subordinated to the strength of
    their purpose.
  • Based on the research of Albert E. Gray
  • as described in Covey,1998

7. Evaluate Layout Next Steps
  • Remember
  • You are the driver, not the passenger.
  • Decide where you want to go and draw up a map to
    get there.
  • Get there! Dont let the road blocks knock you
    off course.
  • Covey, 1998

Use Human Potential Power Tools
  • Self Awareness observe my own thoughts and
  • Conscience listen to my inner voice to know
    right from wrong.
  • Imagination envision new possibilities
  • Willpower power to choose
  • Animals dont have these tools only humans have
    the freedom to decide how to respond to
    situations. Covey, 1998

Tools for Evaluation and Planning
  • Personal Career Plan (revisited)
  • Setting and Getting your Goals (reviewed)
  • Goal Flow Chart
  • Academic Performance Self Assessment

  • Clifton, D. Anderson, E. (2002) StrengthsQuest
    discover and develop your strengths in academics,
    career, and beyond.
  • Covey, S.(1998) The seven habits of highly
    effective teens.
  • Gordon, V.(2006) Career advisingan academic
    advisors guide
  • Seligman,M. ( ) Authentic happinessusing the new
    positive psychology to realize your potential for
    lasting fulfillment.
  • Waitley, D. (2004) Psychology of success finding
    meaning in work and life. (4th ed.)

  • Continuing Psychology Education (2002) Subjective
    well being (happiness) Healthy personality.
    Refers to Allport, Cantor, Frankl, Kasser,
    Maslow, Schultz.
  • Hansen, M.J.(2005) Psyched for success! This U110
    class handout included references to the
    following researchers Bandura, Erickson, Locke
    Latham, Marcia, Rogers, Taylor Betz, Vroom.