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Successful Safety Management A Short Course for Managers


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Title: Successful Safety Management A Short Course for Managers

Successful Safety Management A Short Course for
Managers Supervisors Safety is Good Business
  • Recent Legislation HSA Guidance
  • Strategic Aspects of Successful Safety Management
  • Manager/Supervisor Role in Safety Leadership
  • Objective
  • Raise awareness of Management and Supervisors
    vital role in safety leadership and management
  • Develop a culture of safety thinking

Successful Safety Management A Short Course for
Managers Supervisors Recent Legislation
HSA Guidance
HSA Guidance
  • Guidance for Directors and Senior Managers on
    their Responsibilities for Workplace Safety and
    Health 2007

Why manage safety and health at work?
  • The liabilities of directors and officers of
  • Protecting your undertakings reputation and

Why manage safety and health at work? The
liabilities of directors and officers of
  • Responsibility for safety and health is placed
    directly on those in charge in the workplace.
    Directors and managers who control the work being
    done must take on this responsibility - Section
    80 of the SHWW Act 2005.
  • Directors may be prosecuted under the 2005 Act
    for failing to manage safety and health in the
  • Section 80 of the 2005 Act provides that a
    director, manager or other similar officer of the
    undertaking may be deemed to be guilty of the
    same offence as the undertaking if the doing of
    the acts that constituted the offence has been
    authorised, or consented to by, or is
    attributable to connivance or neglect on the part
    of the director. In such instances, for example,
    ignoring a safety and health issue could
    constitute neglect.
  • Section 80(2) states that if a person is
    proceeded against under that section then it is
    presumed, until the contrary is proved, that the
    breach or neglect was authorised by him/her.
  • It is for the director or the manager to show
    that he/she did all that could be reasonably
    expected under the 2005 Act and was not
  • Anyone convicted of a serious breach of safety
    and health law could be fined up to 3m or face
    going to prison for up to two years.

Why manage safety and health at work? The
liabilities of directors and officers of
  • Case studies when leadership falls short
  • Competent advice, training and supervision
  • Following the fatal injury of an employee
    maintaining machinery at a recycling firm
    employing approximately 30 people, a company
    director received a 12-month custodial sentence
    for manslaughter. The machinery was not properly
    isolated and started up unexpectedly.
  • An HSE and police investigation revealed there
    was no safe system of work for maintenance
    instruction, training and supervision were
    inadequate. HSEs investigating principal
    inspector said 'Evidence showed that the
    director chose not to follow the advice of his
    health and safety advisor and instead adopted a
    complacent attitude, allowing the standards in
    his business to fall.'
  • Monitoring
  • The managing director of a manufacturing company
    with around 100 workers was sentenced to 12
    months' imprisonment for manslaughter following
    the death of an employee who became caught in
    unguarded machinery. The investigation revealed
    that, had the company adequately maintained
    guarding around a conveyor, the death would have
    been avoided.
  • The judge made clear that whether the managing
    director was aware of the situation was not the
    issue he should have known as this was a
    long-standing problem. An area manager also
    received a custodial sentence. The company
    received a substantial fine and had to pay the
    prosecution's costs.
  • Risk assessment
  • A company and its officers were fined a total of
    245,000 and ordered to pay costs of 75,500 at
    Crown Court in relation to the removal of
    asbestos. The company employed ten, mostly young,
    temporary workers they were not trained or
    equipped to safely remove the asbestos, nor
    warned of its risk. The directors were also
    disqualified from holding any company
    directorship for two years and one year

Why manage safety and health at work? Protecting
your undertakings reputation and assets
  • Adverse Publicity from serious accident
  • Safety and health management strategy is a
    central component of an organisations corporate
    social responsibilities
  • Financial incentives of effective safety
  • Increased productivity when using safe operating
  • Reduced insurance premiums
  • Less sickness-related absences and training costs
    for replacement staff
  • Better staff retention and morale

HSA Guidance
  • The employees commitment to safety and health is
    influenced by their perception of your
    commitment to safety and health.
  • Visible and active support, strong leadership and
    commitment from all directors and senior managers
    are essential for successful safety and health

HSA Guidance Setting the Best Standard
  • Key questions the board must ask its senior
    management when setting the best standards
  • Does this organisation have the right levels of
    safety and health expertise and competence?
  • Is safety and health always considered before any
    new work is started or new work equipment is
    brought into use?
  • Do you carry out risk assessments for all new
    work and for existing operations?
  • Do you involve the safety committee and the
    safety representative(s) in these assessments?
  • Have you identified what work needs to be
  • Have we reviewed our safety critical processes?
  • How do you know our safety and health protection
    is good enough?
  • Have you facilitated the selection of safety
  • Do our safety consultation programmes and safety
    committee work effectively?
  • Are our employees properly trained and do they
    attend the safety and health training provided by
    us? Do we evaluate the effectiveness of our
  • Do we have adequate emergency plans for dealing
    with serious or imminent danger, for example for
    fires, process deviations, accidents? Do we have
    adequate safety and health procedures in place?
  • Do we review/audit our safety and health
    management systems on a periodic basis?

HSA Guidance Assessing safety and health
  • The following list of questions will help the
    management team to judge the level of safety and
    health monitoring and auditing being carried out
  • Do we reward excellence in safety and health?
  • When did we last review our safety statement and
    our safety and health policy?
  • Are we committed to continuously improving our
    safety and health performance?
  • Do we monitor the performance, maintenance and
    integrity of safety critical plant, equipment and
  • Do we know how well we perform on safety and
    health issues?
  • Are we as directors kept informed by our senior
    management team of our safety and health
  • Do we comment on safety and health performance in
    our annual report, where relevant?

HSA Guidance Assessing safety and health
  • How do we know if we are meeting our own
    objectives and standards for safety and health?
  • Are our risk controls good enough?
  • Do we have an active monitoring system in place
    for safety and health critical issues?
  • How do we know we are complying with the safety
    and health legislation that applies to our
  • Do our accident or incident investigations
    uncover all the underlying causes or do they
    stop when we find the first person that has made
    a mistake?
  • Do we have accurate records of injuries, ill
    health, bullying complaints, accidental loss
  • Do we as directors get reports on our safety and
    health failures?
  • How do we learn from our mistakes and our
  • Do we carry out safety and health audits
    regularly, as necessary? If we do, what action do
    we take on audit findings?
  • Do these audits involve staff at all levels? Do
    we involve our safety representative and safety
    committee, where it exists, in the audits?

Successful Safety Management A Short Course for
Managers Supervisors Strategic Aspects of
Successful Safety Management
Safety - Changing Approach
  • Traditional approach to safety
  • Improve safety performance by focusing on
    operator error
  • Modern approach to safety
  • Improve safety performance by focusing on the
    cultural and management system that influence
    safety behavior
  • Use the position of leadership to empower
    employees at all levels to take responsibility
    for safety

  • All accidents are preventable.
  • No job is worth getting hurt for.
  • Every job will be done safely.
  • Incidents can be managed.
  • Safety is everyones responsibility.
  • Continuous improvement.
  • Safety as a way of life for 24 hours/day
  • All individuals have the responsibility and
    accountability to identify eliminate or manage
    risks associated with their workplace
  • Legal obligations will be the minimum
    requirements fro our health safety standards
  • Individual will be trained and equipped to have
    the skills and facilities to ensure an accident
    free workplace
  • Whats your company approach to safety?

Safety is Good Business
  • Successful Companies have
  • Consistent leadership whereby the whole
    management structure proactively and visibly
    demonstrates its commitment to safety on a daily
  • Walk the talk on safety deal with safety issues
    on the spot
  • Assigned responsibility and accountability for
    safety safety a condition of employment, part of
    performance evaluation
  • Focus on success not failure positive
    performance measures (no. of safety
    talks/inspections/risk assessments/training)
  • Good two-way communication lines on safety
  • Periodic Safety Audits
  • Does your safety system exhibit these

The Culture Iceberg
  • Iceberg has 90 of its weight below the surface,
    out of sight. This huge lump below the surface
    carries far more weight than the 110 you see
  • Culture is below the waterline, its simply how we
    do things around here !

Successful Safety Management
Safety Culture
Psychological Aspects How people feel
Behavioural Aspects What people do
Situational Aspects What the organisation has
  • The safety culture of an organisation is the
    product of individual and group values,
    attitudes, perceptions, competencies, and
    patterns of behaviour that determine the
    commitment to, and the style and proficiency of,
    an organisations health and safety management
    (HSC, 1993).
  • Organisations with a positive safety culture are
    characterised by communications founded on mutual
    trust, by shared perceptions of the importance
    of safety and by confidence in the efficacy of
    preventive measures (HSC, 1993).

Safety Culture
  • Good Safety is more than just slogans, safety
    boots, ear plugs and posters
  • The extent to which they are taken seriously
    depends on the Health Safety culture in the
  • Establish accountability for safety
  • Define safety responsibilities

The Four Cs of a Health Safety Culture
  • CONTROL through commitment of all employees to
    clear health safety responsibilities and
  • CO-OPERATION through encouraging participation
    and involvement of employees and their
    representatives in planning, writing procedures,
    solving problems and reviewing performance
  • COMMUNICATION - of information about health
    safety to employees verbal, written, visible
  • COMPETENCE of all employees through
    recruitment, training and support to make sure
    that they make the maximum contribution to health

Successful Safety Management
HSE Performance over time
  • Behaviour
  • Visible leadership / personal accountability
  • Shared purpose belief
  • Aligned performance commitment external view
  • HSE delivers business value
  • Engineering improvements
  • Hardware improvements
  • Safety emphasis
  • EH Compliance

Incident rate
  • Integrated HSE-MS
  • Reporting
  • Assurance
  • Competence
  • Risk Management

Successful Safety Management
GENERATIVE HSE is how we do business round here
Culture Ladder
PROACTIVE we work on the problems that we still
Increasingly informed
CALCULATIVE we have systems in place to manage
all hazards
REACTIVE Safety is important, we do a lot every
time we have an accident
Increasing Trust/Accountability
PATHOLOGICAL who cares as long as were not caught
Management Commitment
Employee Involvement
Safety and Health Site Leadership
Ways to involve employees
  • Regular communication with employees on the
    subject of safety, risk, and hazards
  • Provide access to information
  • Provide ways to participate in the program
  • e.g., worksite self inspections, safety and
    health annual evaluation process, incident
  • Provide ways to report hazards, injuries and make
    recommendations to control hazards

Benefits of a positive health safety culture
  • Greater co-operation between departments
    individuals and levels within the organisation on
    what is perceived as an issue of common concern
    and mutual interest
  • Empowerment of all staff that raises morale
    motivation and commitment to the organisation as
    people feel encouraged to contribute to their own
    and their colleagues success
  • Enhanced communication systems and outcomes with
    everyone feeling more able to speak up and
    listen, fewer accidents near misses and incidents
    and reduced levels of occupational ill health,
    saving costs and enhancing the constructive
    climate in the workplace
  • More problems being solved quickly, quietly and
    without a lot of fuss as the ownership of the
    issue spreads

Giving H S due priority
  • Give overall co-ordinating responsibility to
    someone senior whose other management role is at
    the heart of corporate planning someone in the
    management team for example
  • Put in place a structure for planning,
    implementing and reviewing and auditing the
    health safety policy
  • Introduce a policy for turning policy into
    strategic plans
  • Put in place a strategy for developing and
    reviewing heath and safety targets
  • Encourage senior managers to take individual
    responsibility for health safety use a carrot
    not a stick
  • Build it into the accountabilities in managers
    job descriptions so it turns up each year as a
    measurable activity during appraisals
  • Make it number one agenda item at all safety
    meetings and not part of AOB or the last item
  • Fund adequate publicity for heath safety

Successful Safety Management Proactive Vs
Reactive Safety Culture
Monitoring Health Safety Performance
Successful Safety Management A Short Course for
Managers Supervisors Manager/Supervisor Role
in Safety Leadership
Major Disaster Leadership Role
  • Many major disaster inquiries such as Three Mile
    Island, Chernobyl, the Clapham Junction rail
    crash, the sinking of the Herald of Free
    Enterprise, Piper Alpha, the Kings Cross fire and
    the Esso Longford gas plant explosion have found
    that that failures at managerial levels were at
    least as important as technical failure and human
    error, in causing the accidents.
  • In the report of the Public Inquiry into the
    Piper Alpha disaster, Lord Cullen stated I am
    convinced from the evidence…that the quality of
    safety management by operators is fundamental to
    offshore safety. No amount of detailed
    regulations for safety improvements could make up
    for deficiencies in the way that safety is
    managed by operators
  • Similarly, Mr. Justice Sheen investigating the
    sinking of the Herald of Free Enterprise
    concluded, ..a full investigation into the
    circumstances of the disaster leads inexorably to
    the conclusion that the underlying or cardinal
    faults lay higher up in the company…From top to
    bottom the body corporate was infected with the
    disease of sloppiness

Safety Studies -Leadership Role
  • Found that management involvement in a number of
    safety activities was associated with good safety
    performance. Such activities included
  • Personal inspections of work areas
  • Open and informal communications between
    management and workers
  • Frequent contacts between workers, management and
  • They concluded that the active involvement of
    management acts as a motivational force for both
    management and for employees.
  • The highest level of performance a
    manager/supervisor can expect from the people
    he/she supervises is determined largely by
    his/her minimum acceptable standards.

Safety Leadership
  • The people are fashioned according to the
    example of their king and edicts are less
    powerful than the life (example) of the king
  • Claudian, c. 365, Egyptian epic poet

Manager/Supervisor Role in Successful Safety
The supervisor or foreman is the key man in
industrial accident prevention. His application
of the art of supervision to the control of
worker performance is the factor of greatest
influence in successful accident prevention.
Heinrich (1959 )
Managerial Factors for Successful Safety
  • Commitment to Safety resources given to safety,
    safety program, policies and procedures
  • Involvement in Safety visibility at the
    worksite, informal communications with workers,
    retaining personal responsibility for safety
  • Priority of Safety work planning and scheduling,
    safety practices intrinsic to production
  • Leadership Style decentralisation of power,
    decisiveness, transformational leadership
  • Interactions co-operation between workers and
    management, informal contact between workers and
    management, multiple communication vehicles
  • Communication open door policy by management,
    feedback to employees
  • Humanistic Management Practices appreciating
    employees, demonstrating concern for employees,
    health promotion policies and practices

Supervisory Factors for Successful Safety
  • Supportive Supervision openness on safety
    issues, initiating safety discussions, providing
    feedback, fairness
  • Supervisor Involvement regular safety meetings
    with workers, involvement in safety programs and
    training, involvement in inspections and
  • Supervisor Autonomy supervisory influence in
    decision making, supervisory control
  • Participative Supervision participative style,
    emphasis on the importance of teamwork, valuing
    the workgroup, recognition of safety as a major
    part of the job, trust in subordinates

Accidents and Supervision Failures
  • The following accidents have been identified
    where supervision may have had an influence
  • Explosion and Fire at Texaco Refinery, Milford
    Haven 1994 - During the major plant upset that
    preceded the explosion, personnel with
    supervisory roles became too involved in helping
    the operating team to deal with the symptoms of
    the problem. They failed to develop a strategic
    overview of what was happening, the causes of the
    observed problems were not analysed and the
    response was poorly co-ordinated (HSE 1997).
  • Fire at Hickson and Welch, Castleford 1992 -
    Removal of supervisory roles in the organisation
    meant that work planning was spread across a
    number of personnel. There was insufficient
    experience of the task and inadequate checks. The
    result was that an unsuitable work method was
    developed, which concentrated on avoiding delays
    not ensuring safety (HSE 1994).
  • Piper Alpha Disaster 1988 - The operating company
    failed to ensure the contract companys
    supervisor was sufficiently competent in the
    operation of the permit-to-work system, and did
    not do enough to maintain sufficient knowledge of
    the status of work being carried out on the
    platform. This lack of co-ordination and
    communication meant that the operating teams did
    not know which equipment was in a safe state to
    start (Cullen 1990).
  • Explosion at Nobels, Penrhyndeudraeth 1988 -
    Individuals had been known to be violating
    procedures on a regular basis. Failure to control
    and discipline meant that two people were killed
    because they were somewhere they should not have
    been when the explosion occurred (Harris 2003).

Whenever I am managing or supervising others
  • Safety of everyone is my responsibility
  • Provide leadership by example and set a high
    standard to those I manage or supervise by
    demonstrating safe behaviors
  • Abiding by all rules and procedures
  • Actively promoting safety and health
  • Acting with integrity when dealing with others
  • Communicating clearly the required expectation
    for safety performance and the need to always
    work safely
  • Ensure that all standards rules and procedures
    are followed
  • Ensure that personnel are adequately trained for
    their work and are provided with safe plant and
    equipment and information which might impact
    their health safety
  • Acknowledge and act upon reported events
  • Ensure that all incidents and hazards are
    reported promptly thoroughly investigated and
    preventative actions implemented in a timely
  • Recognise good performance
  • Participate actively in all health safety
    activities associated with my position
  • Continually challenge myself by asking have I
    done enough to ensure the safety and health of my

Safety Leadership
  • Lead By Example and Be Consistent
  • Always intervene when you see unsafe behaviours
  • Provide constructive feedback on un-safe
  • Demonstrate you are able to positively receive an
    intervention yourself
  • Take the time to actively listen and learn
  • Never turn a blind eye your silence is your
  • Make the right decisions, not the easy decisions
  • Dont let others compromise your safety
  • Make the effort to know and always follow
    policies and procedures
  • Have the courage to do the right thing
  • Do not tolerate unsafe behaviours from anyone
  • Take The Time to Interact On Safety Matters
  • A leader takes people where they want to go. A
    great leader takes people where they don't
    necessarily want to go, but ought to be.

Rosalynn Carter (Wife of Jimmy Carter former US
Safety Leadership Principles
  • Accidents are preventable
  • Up-front planning is essential to success
  • Leadership must promote active participation,
    communication, and coaching
  • Roles and responsibilities must be clear
  • All personnel are held accountable for actions
  • No miracle solutions exist
  • Safety is a key component of business success
  • Leaders walk the talk

"The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil
is for good men to do nothing." Edmund Burke,
British politician (1729-1797)
Remember There is no work so important or so
urgent that it cannot be done safely You
will achieve the level of Safety
Excellence… that YOU demonstrate you want to
We must be the change we wish to see in the
world. Gandhi