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Language in higher education and European collaboration

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Title: Language in higher education and European collaboration


1
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Language in higher education and European
    collaboration
  • Wolfgang Mackiewicz
  • Conseil Européen pour les Langues / European
    Language Council
  • (CEL/ELC)
  • Jyväskylän yliopisto, 15 April 2005

2
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • The starting point of my presentation
  • this morning
  • __________________
  • European co-operation in policy, curriculum, and
    materials development and in
  • research is a key to innovations and improvements
    in the area of languages in
  • HE and beyond.
  • Berlin Declaration June
    2001
  • The University will participate in European …
    collabotation to promote
  • language policy and language programmes in the
    area of higher education.
  • Jyväskylä University
    Language Policy, October 2004

3
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Structure of my presentation
  • ______________________
  • the European dimension in language education
  • the history of HE-level collaboration in the area
    of languages from SIGMA to DYLAN
  • university language policy
  • languages in a European knowledge-based society

4
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • I European dimension in language
  • education
  • ______________
  • traditionally, language education gt mother
    tongue literacy
  • - foreign languages part of general education
    not aimed at developing specific skills (cf. the
    primacy of Latin)
  • - practical foreign language skills gt
    specific professions (cf. diplomats, people in
    foreign trade etc.)

5
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • foreign-language (FL) learning and teaching,
    especially the learning of European languages,
    assumed a new role through the drive towards
    European collaboration and integration
  • Council of Europe
  • European Economic Community gt European Union
  • considerable overlap different political aims

6
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Council of Europe (CoE)
  • _______________
  • Milestone European Cultural Convention, Paris,
    19.XII.1954
  • - each CoE member state to encourage the study
    of the languages, history and civilisation of the
    other CoE member states
  • - each CoE member state to promote the study of
    its language or languages, history and
    civilisation in the territory of the other member
    states

7
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • WHAT?
  • overarching aim to achieve plurilingual
    communicative competence in a number of languages
    on a lifelong basis FOR ALL
  • WHY?
  • gt better personal mobility
  • gt improved opportunities for education and
    employment
  • gt access to information in a multilingual and
    multicultural Europe
  • gt promote intercultural understanding and
    international co-operation

8
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • HOW?
  • gt facilitate the pooling of international
    experience and expertise in regard to
  • - reforms / innovation in language teaching and
    teacher training
  • - developing and promoting a coherent, learner-
  • centred methodology, integrating aims, content,
    teaching, learning and assessment
  • Two European instruments CEF ELP

9
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Council of Europe
  • Summary
  • _____________
  • language education policy part of a general
    policy aimed at mutual understanding and the
    protection of European heritage
  • languages are learnt for use gt plurilingual
    communicative competence in a number of Ls

10
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Common European Framework of Reference and
    European Language Portfolio designed
  • gt to provide a common European approach to
  • language learning, teaching, and
    assessment
  • gt to be valid for all languages
  • gt to facilitate the development, and the
    recording of
  • individual multilingual profiles
    relevant to life and
  • work in Europe

11
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • EU language policy and language education policy
  • ________________________
  • Unlike the U.S., the EU is being created as a
  • multilingual society. (Mackiewicz)
  • point of departure languages in the public
    sphere

12
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • official languages of the Member States
    official EU languages
  • notion of a lingua franca rejected
  • multilingual regime in external communication of
    EU institutions
  • languages in the educational sphere
  • promotion of the learning of EU languages

13
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Maastricht Treaty (1992) developing the European
    dimension in education, particularly through the
    teaching and dissemination of the languages of
    the Member States
  • WHAT?
  • COMs White Paper on Teaching and Learning
    everyone gt 1gt2
  • WHY?
  • - economic considerations the Internal
  • Market

14
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • - humanistic considerations
  • access to other cultures
  • development of a European identity
  • in sum multilingualism part of EU citizenship
  • HOW?
  • - secondary legislation and action
    programmes
  • problem education responsibility of the Member
    States

15
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • II The history of HE-level collaboration in
  • the area of Languges
  • ______________________
  • Points of departure
  • EU language policy
  • 149 of the Treaty
  • 1. The Community shall contribute to the
    development of quality education …
  • 2. Community action shall be aimed at …
    cooperation between educational establishments.

16
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
Council ofCCCouncil of Europe
17
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • SIGMA Scientific Committee on
  • Languages (1994-95)
  • _________________
  • pilot project (precursor of TNs)
  • one expert each from EU-15, NO and CH plus reps
    of C.I.U.T.I., ESSE, Lingua Unit SCIC
  • driven by conviction that purilingual and
    multi-cultural competence and linguistic and
    cultural diversity are of crucial importance for
    EU

18
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • crucial responsibility of universities
  • definition of the HE area of languages
    programmes and portions of programmes devoted to
    transmission of linguistic and cultural knowledge
    and skills and to language mediation
  • hence
  • - modern language degree programmes, area
    studies programmes, programmes combining language
    study with study of other area(s)

19
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • - teacher education
  • - training of translators and interpreters and
    the training of trainers
  • - applied linguistics
  • - delivery of (portions of) courses in (more
    than) one other language
  • - language provision for students of all
    disci-plines, incl. linguistic preparation and
    support for mobility

20
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • new methodology
  • - national reports based on common structure
    (i) description and analysis of status quo (ii)
    needs analysis (iii) recommendations directed at
    various levels
  • - synthesis report
  • a major European conference (Stockholm, June
    1995), generating further recommendations

21
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • SELECTED SIGMA RECOMMENDATIONS
  • __________________________________
  • Language Teacher Training
  • bring education and training into line with
    professional needs
  • compulsory language entrance tests
  • introduction of intensive pre-study language
    modules
  • obligatory study abroad

22
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • agreement on minimum acceptable level of
    linguistic competence to be acquired by end of
    training
  • facilitate teaching of all EU languages
  • courses combining two languages
  • opportunity to learn another language in addition
    to major language(s)
  • EU should help set up projects intended to
    develop recommendations regarding content and
    levels of attainment

23
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • programmes to equip teachers with new
    professional skills gt learner to acquire
    competences needed in working life
  • preparation for bilingual education
  • include new technologies in training curricula
  • EU to support development of joint programmes
    (involving training institutions and schools)

24
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Language provision for students of other
    disciplines
  • all students should be given opportunity to
    acquire good working knowledge in 2 Ls
  • credits for successfully completed language work
  • high-level competence in school languages
    partial skills in LWULT languages

25
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • at EU level agreement on and description of
    recognized levels of linguistic performance gt
    development of a language testing system
    recognized both by employers and academic
    institutions
  • development of self-access facilities gt
    promotion of independent learning
  • European projects for development of language
    modules

26
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • qualitative improvement of provision gt
  • European currciulum development for training of
    university language teachers (a Master?)
  • to promote the learning of major non-European
    languages (gt development of programmes together
    with institutions in target-language countries)

27
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • a host of further recommendations, most of them
    still relevant
  • - training of translators and interpreters
  • - intercultural communication
  • - modern languages degree programmes
  • - postgraduate studies
  • - research (call for European research
  • projects!)

28
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • SUMMARY
  • _________
  • SIGMA was a unique experience because
  • a group of European experts repesenting the whole
    spectrum of what constitutes the area of
    languages articulated at a European level how
    HEIs should respond to the linguistic and
    cultural challenges posed by European integration
    and, yes, globalisation

29
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • it highlighted the fact that universities had to
    adapt their provision to changing needs in the
    non-university enironments gt consultation with
    employers in the widest sense
  • it made the point that people and bodies
    representing different camps in the area of
    languages should collaborate
  • reflecting 149 of the Treaty, it stressed the
    fact that the magnitude of the linguistic
    challenge called for European efforts

30
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • STOCKHOLM, 10 JUNE 1995
  • _________________________
  • SIGMA Committee decided to create a permanent
    European association the European Language
    Council
  • the Commission representatives there and then
    signalled their support for the plan
  • LANGUAGES an area pervading the whole of higher
    education

31
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • to act as an interface between HEIs AND
    international and European governmental and
    non-governmental organisations and Member State
    authorities
  • to promote European integration in the area of
    languages (both in teaching and research)
  • to establish links between HE and schools
  • to establish links between HE and employers
  • to promote co-operation between the EU and third
    countries

32
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Conseil Européen pour les Langues /
  • European Language Council (CEL/ELC)
  • ___________________________
  • founded in Lille in July 1997
  • Membership some 160 HEIs and associations
  • two main areas of activity
  • (i) projects
  • (ii) policy development

33
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council

Council ofCCCouncil of Europe
34
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Thematic Network Project in the Area of
  • Languages (1996-99)
  • _______________________
  • EU co-operation projects under the
    Socrates-Erasmus Programme
  • involve university faculties / departments or
    whole universities from all the partcipating
    countries, prof. and acad. associations more
    recently also other stakeholders

35
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • devoted to a particular theme (discipline,
    interdisciplinary field etc.)
  • address the frequently observed disconnection of
    HE programmes from (i) research developments and
    from (ii) changing needs in the social,
    professional, and economic environments
  • product-oriented think tanks
  • principal aim to work out recommendations for
    innovation and improvements

36
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • principal aim of TNP1 to bring about
    reorientation across Europe
  • 115 universities in EU-15, CH, CZ, HU, IS, NO and
    RO 8 academic and professional associations
  • complex, Brandenburg Gate-like structure
  • 9 subprojects 9 scientific committees
  • Transversal issues
  • Multilingualism and the LWULT languages

37
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Intercultural communication
  • New technologies and language learning
  • Postgraduate studies
  • Issues linked to specific professions
  • Language teacher training
  • Translation and interpreting (incl. the training
    of trainers)

38
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • The all-important issue of
  • Language studies for students of other
    disciplines
  • Issues linked to traditional sub-disciplines
  • Dictionaries
  • Testing
  • Acitivities and outcomes reports and surveys

39
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • a number of European Master-type programmes
  • two major spin-offs
  • the DIALANG project
  • European Master in Conference Interpreting
  • perhaps the principal benefit a large number of
    specialists inside outside the TNP were led to
    reflect on teaching research from the point of
    view of demands in environments

40
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Project for the exploitation and disemination of
  • the results of the TNP (TNP-D) (1999-2000)
  • __________________________________
  • TNP1 remained too much inside academia
  • with laudible exceptions, failed to reach out to
    policy-makers and decision-makers inside and
    outside academia
  • TNP-D
  • involved HEIs from all the participating countr.

41
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • gt established contacts with prof. acad.
    associations
  • gt involved ACA, CRE, EAIE UNICA
  • gt 6 small-size task groups synthesised and
    expanded TNP1 outcomes under the following themes
  • Language, Mobility, Citizenship
  • European Citizenship
  • Mobility and co-operation the needs of

42
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • students and of the labour market
  • New learning environments
  • Language Studies for Professional Life
  • Training in translation and interpreting
  • Education of teachers and trainers for a
    multilingual Europe
  • Language studies at advanced level for
    non-language professionals

43
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • TNP-D Outcomes
  • _______________________
  • Dissemination Conference Brussels 23/9/00
  • gt call for development and implementation of
    policies for insitution-wide language learning
  • gt call for institutional policies for promoting
    mobility
  • Six reports to be published belatedly this
    autumn

44
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Thematic Network Project in the Area of Languages
    II (TNP2) (2000-2003)
  • _______________________
  • Three sub-projects
  • Curriculum innovation
  • New learning environments
  • Quality enhancement in HE language studies

45
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Three transversal themes
  • universities as actors in lifelong learning
  • the relevance of language studies to professional
    life
  • the European dimension

46
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Activities and outcomes
  • Year One national reports gt 3 synthesis reports
  • Year Two 3 workshops a written consultation
    among TNP2 partners
  • Year Three major conference draft major
    document
  • Weaknesses
  • failed to take on board the Bologna Process,

47
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • the Lisbon Stategy, the Objectives Process and
    the outcomes of the Tuning project
  • a new political climate, emphasising diversity
    (different HE agendas in different MSs)
  • With hindsight we should not have defined
    curriculum innovation in relative terms. Rather
    we should have measured innovation against common
    reference points
  • geographical spread of examples of good practice

48
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Une priorité la qualité
  • Chapter III of the draft Major Document
  • ________________________________
  • Towards a framework for Q enhancement in
  • university language education
  • learning outcomes identified six main areas of
    language / language-related competences, ranging
    from generic personal competences to
    profession-specific competences

49
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • teaching and learning procedures emphasis on
    the development of independent learning skills
  • organisation, monitoring and management of
    teaching and learning
  • training and ongoing professional development of
    HE language teachers
  • Major document awaiting further revision
  • Q chapter to be published separately

50
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Thematic Network Project in the Area of
  • Languages III (TNP3) (2003-2006)
  • ____________________________________
  • Three sub-projeects
  • Languages for language-related industries and
    professions
  • Languages for enhanced opportunities on the
    European labour market
  • Languages as an interface between different
    sectors of education

51
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • TNP3 has adopted a radically new approach
  • TNP1, TNP-D and TNP2 driven by official EU
    language policy COM/MSs never said which
    languages to what level, and what skills
  • TNP3 the first attempt to find out which
    languages and what skills are relevant to the
    labour market and the language industry
  • TNP3 the first major attempt to consider HE
    language / language-related programmes within the
    LLL paradigm

52
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • What do we hope to achieve?
  • identification of language-specific and
    job-specific competences
  • recommendations regarding specialist degree
    programmes and provision for all students
  • proposals for consultation between HEIs and
    educational and non-educational stakeholders
  • a new international structure for consultation
    between HEIs and other stakeholders

53
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • How are we going to do this?
  • Year One national reports
  • Year Two
  • - three synthesis reports
  • - Europe-wide consultations (1) graduates
  • (2) employers (3) other sectors of
  • education
  • Year Two Closing Conference Copenhagen Business
    School, 30 Sept.-1 Oct. 2005

54
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
Council ofCCCouncil of Europe
55
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • III University Language Policy
  • ___________________________
  • Two different meanings
  • a comprehensive policy covering teaching,
    research, development, and services
  • a languages-for-all policy designed tomote
    language learning among all students at a given
    HEI
  • the CEL/ELC has contributed to both

56
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • the CEL/ELC has succeeded in stimulating and
    impacting on policy development at institutional,
    national and European level
  • A brief history of CEL/ELC policy development
  • 1999-2001 Task Force on University Language
    Policy -gt Reference document Multilingualism and
    new learning environments
  • 23/9/2000 TNP-D Conference call for ULP

57
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • 30/6/2001 Berlin Declaration
  • Universities are urged to develop and implement
    their own specific and coherent language
    policies, covering the fields of education,
    research, and development. These need to reflect
    the European dimension, the specific needs of the
    non-academic environments, and institutional
    priorities and strengths. Universities should
    give proper weight to the added value to be
    gained from

58
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • co-operation both within the individual
    institution and with other partners, nationally
    and internationally. In addition to
    inter-university co-operation at regional,
    national and European level, universities should
    pursue opportunities offered by co-operation with
    other sectors of education, cultural institutes,
    and other partners in the public, private and
    voluntary sectors.

59
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • European University Language Policy Interest
    Group (2001-2003)
  • CEL/ELC and 9 European universities
    representated by their vice rectors / vice
    presidents responsible for education and / or
    international relations focus on languages in
    the Bologna structure
  • Commission Staff Working Paper Promoting Language
    Learning and Linguistic Diversity Consultation
    13/11/2002

60
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Section 3 Language Learning in Higher Education
    reflects CEL/ELC Berlin Declaration
  • CEL/ELC response, March 2003
  • Commissions Action Plan 2004-2006
  • Berlin Communiqué, 19 September 2003
  • Ministers stress the necessity of … proper
    provision for linguistic diversity and language
    learning, so that students my achieve their full
    potential for European identity, citzenship

61
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • and employability.
  • 3rd EUA Convention of European Higher Education
    Institutions Glasgow, 31 March 2 April 2005
  • Recommendation to HEIs to think seriously about
    language issues and to develop their own
    appropriate policies
  • Impact at institutional and national level as
    well HEI language plans national policies

62
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • ENLU European Network for the Promotion of
  • Language Learning Among all Undergraduates
  • (12/2003 6/2006 ?)
  • ____________________________________
  • launched under a COM Call for Proposals
  • ultimate aim to create a more permament
    structure under CEL/ELC, linked to an action plan
    (HELP)
  • three stages

63
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • (i) ascertaining and evaluating the status quo
  • (ii) preparation of a consultation document and
  • Europe - wide consultation
  • (iii) a major European conference for
    launching
  • the new network (target groups
    specialists,
  • university leaders, other
    stakeholders)
  • purpose of the network
  • (i) offer services
  • (ii) launch projects

64
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • high-level Advisory Board, chaired by EUA
  • Benchmarks for a HE Language Policy
  • The strategic dimension
  • Language teaching vs. a language policy
  • Languages for all?
  • Enabling conditions
  • Consultation and decision-making structures
  • The value of skill-oriented teaching of
    languages

65
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • Teacher training
  • Pedagogical issues
  • Creating a learning continuum
  • Integration of LL into students academic
    programme
  • Beyond the traditional classroom format
  • Towards an integrated model
  • Maintaining the L1
  • Catering for the teaching of the home language
  • Language skills of academic and admin. staff

66
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
Council ofCCCouncil of Europe
67
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • IV Languages in a European knowledge-
  • based society
  • ____________________________
  • Lisbon Strategy aimed at economic progress and
    social cohesion
  • U.S. many cultures one common language
  • general recognition of the importance of HE to
    the pursuit of the Lisbon goals

68
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • linguistic implications of the creation of the
    European Higher Education and of the European
    Research Areas
  • Europes strength many high-quality
    universities -gt critical mass / networking what
    are the linguistic implications?

69
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • EUs new inclusive language policy
  • linguistic implications of increasing
    integration, enlargement, globalisation and
    migration into EU-25
  • advance of English, even in Brussels
  • decline of traditional modern philologies in
    large parts of Europe
  • increasing demand for multilingual communications
    advisors

70
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • These issues must be addressed on three fronts
  • ______________________________
  • curriculum innovation based on changing and
    anticipated future needs, not on enlightened
    speculation needs identified through
    consultation with stakeholders gt TNP3 only a
    first step

71
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • European research FP6, Priority 7
  • 7.3.1.1 Linguistic diversity in a European
    knowledge-based society
  • 13 April 2005 Submission of an Integrated
    Project entitled DYLAN - Linguistic Dynamics and
    Management of Diversity
  • development of a new language policy for the
    Union

72
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • We, the universities, have a duty to
  • become involved in all three otherwise
  • we shall never reach the Lisbon goals
  • Europes linguistic diversity will go down the
    drain
  • HE-level language studies will disappear with all
    that entails

73
Conseil Européen pour les Langues European
Language Council
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR
  • ATTENTION
  • http//www.fu-berlin.de/elc/
  • http//www.fu-berlin.de/tnp3/
  • http//www.fu-berlin.de/enlu/
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