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Ecosystem Management

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Human activities influence ALL ecosystems. Land-use change. Modification of global environment ... Human activities. 12/5/07. Chap. 16. 4. Principles of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecosystem Management


1
Ecosystem Management
  • Part IV Integration
  • Chapin, Matson, Mooney
  • Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

2
Human activities influence ALL ecosystems
  • Land-use change
  • Modification of global environment
  • Therefore, we MUST manage all ecosystems
  • Decisions to do nothing will cause them to change
  • We are the causes of most changes have an
    ethical responsibility to manage

3
Principles of management
  • State factors constrain possible management
    options (cant be managed)
  • Slow variables can be managed
  • Conserve slow variables
  • Soil resources
  • Disturbance regime
  • Functional groups of organisms
  • Human activities

4
Principles of management (short-term goals)
  • 1. Conserve slow variables
  • 2. Maintain and enhance negative feedbacks
  • e.g., population control by predators
  • 3. Maintain natural landscape linkages
  • Land-water interactions

5
Principles of management (long-term goals)
  • 4. Maximize resilience
  • Diversity
  • Opportunities for learning
  • Adaptive capacity
  • Flexibility to adjust to changes

6
Sustainable Forestry
  • Define attributes to be sustained
  • Ecosystem goods
  • Ecosystem services
  • Manage the slow variables
  • Disturbance
  • Soil resources
  • Functional types

7
1. Cut forests to increase water supply to
cities Runoff decreases after forest
harvest Less transpiration More runoff
8
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9
Sustainable Fisheries
  • Define attributes to be sustained
  • Ecosystem goods
  • Ecosystem services
  • Manage the interactive controls
  • Pollutants (resources)
  • Functional types
  • Maintain negative feedbacks
  • Regulate fishing pressure

10
Ecosystem Restoration
  • Develop positive feedbacks that enhance recovery
  • Nitrogen fixers
  • Mycorrhizae
  • SOM accumulation

11
Management for endangered species
  • Conserve slow variables
  • Enhance negative feedbacks
  • Allow for change
  • E.g., room for altitudinal migration

12
Ecosystem Management
  • Management for sustainability
  • Not management for a single product
  • Sustainable flow of ecosystem services
  • Addresses interactions between social and
    biophysical processes
  • Considers people components of regional systems

13
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14
Adaptive Management
  • Treat management as an experiment
  • Manage according to hypotheses
  • Learn from experience
  • Change management based on results
  • Lack of action in face of uncertainty is a
    decision
  • May manage to minimize risk of disaster rather
    than to optimize results

15
Integrated Conservation and Development
Projects (ICDPs)
  • Assumes that conservation will not work unless it
    is socially and economically beneficial
  • Difficult balance to achieve

16
The big issues
  • Many people have inadequate resources for a good
    life
  • The Earth is changing
  • Declining capacity to provide many renewable
    resources
  • There arent enough renewable resources to meet
    everyones needs at the level the U.S. has come
    to expect
  • Due to rising population and consumption
  • This would require several planet earths to
    meet these expectations

17
Earth is experiencing directional changes in many
drivers of social-ecological processes
Steffen et al. 2004
18
Drivers of change
19
We live in a directionally changing world
Mann et al. 1999
20
Global to boreal
Mann et al.
Polar amplification
Chapin et al. 2005
21
Many big issues deal with integrated
social-ecological systems
22
If exogenous controls change substantially,
social-ecological systems will inevitably change
Chapin et al. 2006
23
Sustaining Ecosystem Services The benefits
people obtain from ecosystems
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005
24
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25
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26
Valuation of ecosystem goods and services
  • Way to compare different management options
  • New York City water example

27
Ecological Institutions (Example of a systems
approach)
28
Dynamics of change
  • Equilibrium
  • Steady state
  • Directional change
  • Alternative states

29
Alternative stable states
  • Legacies influence current state
  • Path-dependence influences potential future states

30
Brief review
  • The world is changing rapidly and in a
    directional fashion
  • Many changes are social-ecological in nature
  • Traditional systems framework is limited in
    usefulness
  • Complex adaptive system framework incorporates
    many attributes of social-ecological systems

31
The dynamics of change
  • Fast vs. slow variables
  • Minimize changes in slow variables
  • Adaptive cycles
  • Change is more likely to occur at specific times

32
Many processes exhibit a relatively predictable
pattern of change
33
Adaptive cycle (Hollings pretzel) Description of
common patterns of change
Gunderson and Holling 2002
34
Cross-scale interactions
Gunderson and Holling 2002
35
Steady-state landscape mosaic
Gunderson and Holling 2002
36
Modified from Chapin et al. 2006
37
Policies to reduce vulnerability
  • Reduce exposure to stress
  • Mitigation of climate change
  • Embrace the precautionary principal dont add
    new stresses
  • Minimize sensitivity to changes in controls
    caused by stress
  • Sustain natural and social capital
  • Manage slow variables
  • Maintain components of well-being
  • (Enhance adaptability and resilience)
  • Enhance equality of opportunity among
    stakeholders
  • Issues of social justice
  • i.e., reduce exposure/sensitivity of most
    vulnerable components of system

38
An arctic example of incomplete
feedbacks (therefore difficult to reduce exposure
to this stress)
Chapin et al. 2006
39
Policies to enhance adaptability
  • Foster social, economic, institutional and
    ecological diversity
  • Diversity increases the range of conditions under
    which the ecosystem functions effectively
  • Provides building blocks for adaptation
  • Foster social learning
  • Cope with variability and change
  • Integrate knowledge systems and approaches
  • Integrating natural and social sciences
  • Integrating scientific and traditional knowledge
  • Experimentation and innovation
  • Education and public outreach
  • Management experiments
  • Effective governance
  • Select, communicate and implement appropriate
    solutions

40
Policies to enhance resilience
  • (Enhance adaptability)
  • Sustain legacies that provide seeds for recovery
  • Serves as latent source of diversity
  • e.g., cultural ties to the land
  • Resilience learning (build flexibility)
  • Reduce uncertainty through research, but expect
    surprises
  • Plan for the long term
  • Feedbacks and disturbance
  • Develop and strengthen stabilizing feedbacks
  • Allow small disturbances to occur
  • Adaptive governance
  • Adaptive governance and adaptive management
  • Develop alternative scenarios of future change
    for more informed planning

41
Policies to enhance transformability
  • Enhance adaptability and diversity
  • Enhance capacity to learn from crisis (think
    outside the box)

42
Sustainability What is it?
  • Persistence of desirable features
  • Maintenance of social-ecological interactions
  • Equity across segments of society now and in the
    future

43
Sustaining multiple services
  • Managers often focus on one or a few services
  • e.g., fish, soil fertility, fresh water
  • Tradeoffs among services
  • Single-service focus usually fails to maximize
    public benefits
  • Sustainability requires sustaining multiple
    services

44
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45
Sustaining human well-being
  • Material needs
  • Health
  • Good social relations
  • Security (food, safety, etc.)
  • Freedom

46
Keys to sustainability
  • Reduce vulnerability
  • Ecosystem services
  • Human material and health well-being
  • Enhance adaptive capacity of the coupled system
  • Foster resilience and transformability of the
    coupled system

47
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48
Translating into real-world issues
49
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50
Percent of Families Below the Poverty Level in
1999 2000
U.S. Census, TM-P069.
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