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To Achieve Environmentalfriendly Energy Security The environmental impact of energy security


The development of human society is always accompanied by the improvement and ... the survival is negative, if no action is taken, the result will be disastrous. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: To Achieve Environmentalfriendly Energy Security The environmental impact of energy security

To Achieve Environmental-friendly Energy
Security--------The environmental impact of
energy security
  • ZHENG Yuxin
  • Institute of Quantitative and Technical
    Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,
    Beijing, China

  • The development of human society is always
    accompanied by the improvement and replacement of
    energy. In general speaking, the world's energy
    is able to guarantee human survival and
    development for a long time. The main problem of
    energy security is the scarce of the clean,
    efficient, and economical energy.
  • The establishment of production, circulation and
    consumption system of clean, efficient and
    economical energy is major issue of a national
    energy security, but also the requirements to
    achieve environmental protection.
  • At present, various problems caused by oil
    shortage and global climate change have become
    the major subject facing all of humanity. To get
    fundamentally rid of the crisis of the human
    survival and development from use of traditional
    energy is the global issues which must be solved
    by human being in the next 20 to 40 years.

The environmental problems because of energy use
  • Evidence
  • Global environmental problems caused by
    traditional energy
  • The environmental problems caused by
    deterioration of oil security
  • The environmental problems caused by rapid
    increase in energy demand of developing countries

Global environmental problems caused by
traditional energy
  • There is more conclusive evidence of global
    warming having close relation to human
    activities. The overall impact of global warming
    on the Earth's natural ecosystems and human
    environment for the survival is negative, if no
    action is taken, the result will be disastrous.
  • Example of typical point view Less than 2? will
    be a reasonable baseline to control the global
    warming, which the decision-makers should follow.
  • To achieve this objective, global emissions need
    to be reduced at least below 50 percent of 1990
    levels by 2050. This means that developed
    countries should at least reduce emissions to
    30-35 percent of 1990 levels in 2020, while
    developing economies are allowed to continue to
    grow their emissions before 2010 or 2020
    respectively, then their emissions also must be
    substantially reduced.
  • The 2? restriction means that China's warming
    emissions can no longer increase, which is
    equivalent to demand that China stop further
    economic development.

Global environmental problems caused by
traditional energy (continued)
  • Some Chinese scholars have put forth proposals
    that the warming up would be limited higher than
    the level of before the Industrial Revolution by
    2.8-3.2 ?, and within the framework, the increase
    in greenhouse gas concentrations will be
    controlled to about 550 ppmv.
  • However, as a developing country, despite China
    does not bear the obligations of emission
    reduction, but the international pressure on
    Chinas emission reduction is realistic. China's
    carbon dioxide emissions this year will surpass
    the United States and rank first in the world.
  • Faced with the common challenge, it is necessary
    for mankind to jointly cope with in the overall
    sense, however the practice tell us how difficult
    it is.
  • To resolve the problem of global warming depends
    on the widespread use of low-carbon and clean
    technologies. Regardless of the moral sense, or
    the ability sense, the developed countries, as
    the major contributors of the stock of greenhouse
    gases, should make greater contribution to the
    reduction of greenhouse gas emission and the
    development of low-carbon technologies.

The environmental problems caused by
deterioration of oil security
  • Peak oil and oil prices rising have a greater
    impact on the global economy, especially on
    oil-importing countries, and some countries even
    triggered social unrest.
  • Generally speaking, oil prices increase will be
    conducive to inhibit oil demand and benefit to
    the environmental protection.
  • Many countries have taken measures to encourage
    domestic production of bio-fuels, However there
    are completely different voices in large-scale
    production of ethanol and bio-diesel by planting
    of crops.
  • China facing high oil prices
  • --China should gradually perfect the
    mechanism for the formation of energy prices and
    to relax the oil price control.
  • --The tight world's oil supply will
    adversely affect the environment due to the
    increase in coal use

The environmental problems caused by rapid
increase in energy demand of developing countries
  • When the developing countries welcome their
    historical period of the great development, they
    found themselves not so lucky. They have to face
    the severe challenges to environmental and
    resources issues when they have not got rich yet.
  • --On the one hand, it is difficult for them
    to go beyond the old path of industrialization
    which the developed countries have traversed,
    especially in the situation of the global
    economic integration.
  • --On the other hand, with the arrival of the
    environmental protection age, they have been
    unable to enjoy the environment and resources
    capacity that developed countries had ever

The environmental problems caused by rapid
increase in energy demand of developing countries
  • The continued growth of energy consumption in the
    emerging developing countries is an inevitable
    trend in the world, it is not fair to blame the
    emerging developing countries for skyrocketing of
    energy, resources and international commodity
  • China is currently the world's second largest
    energy producer and consumer country. Some
    environmental problems, which emerged phased in
    developed countries over 100 years of
    industrialization process, focus in China in
    short period because of China's sustained and
    rapid economic growth.
  • It is a urgent task for mankind to solve the
    imminent problem of the ecological environment
    brought about by the use of energy.

Several strategic thinking to cope with the
transformation of energy system
  • Faced with the challenges of uncertainty
  • Bewaring falling into deeper the technical lock
  • Difficult to follow the developed countries
  • Difficult to go beyond the development stage
  • Energy conservation in consumption side should
    be strengthened.
  • China's comparative advantage
  • Strengthening international cooperation in
    northeast Asia

The eve of new energy system
  • The world is the eve of tremendous change in a
    major energy technology and energy structure. Two
    important facts can illustrate this point.
  • One is the world's oil supply going tight. The
    argument (peak oil) that oil production will soon
    peak, is accepted by more and more people. The
    era of oil supply maintaining abundant and
    low-cost is about to become history.
  • Another is that mankind has gradually formed a
    consensus on the authenticity of "global warming"
    and its impact. Climate change increased the
    impact on energy development and the development
    of low-carbon and carbon-free energy become the
    new hot spots.
  • The issue of climate change has become the new
    constraints of world's energy development, and
    the main driving factor to promote energy
    conservation and alternative energy development.

Faced with the challenges of uncertainty
  • In recent years, the pace of new energy
    development are accelerating, but it seems
    difficult to give the exact time of these
    technical breakthroughs in the commercialization.
  • Although there is a lot of uncertainty for the
    world's future energy systems, but at least there
    should be such a judgement, that is, fossil fuel
    energy supply in the near future will be reduced
    and it is little possible to appear new and cheap
    energy in the short term .
  • The right choice should be to transform the
    structure of production and consumption and to
    lower power consumption, according to a
    reasonable environmental goals and objectives of
    the energy consumption, which includes starting
    from strengthening the ability to adapt to the
    new energy system, and transiting to an
    energy-saving society as smooth as possible.
  • Chinas attitude facing the challenge of energy
    and climate change is active.

Bewaring falling into deeper the technical lock
  • Falling into deeper technological lock will not
    only immediately increase emissions, but also
    reduce the future opportunities of converting to
    cleaner energy.
  • The slow spread of clean energy technologies over
    the years can be attributed to "carbon locked to
    great extent.
  • In order to avoid falling into a deeper technical
    lock, we should use renewable energy technologies
    and advanced technologies as far as possible.
  • China also has the problems of market technology
    locked, and there is even more complex features.

Difficult to follow the developed countries
  • At present, the Chinese are making great efforts
    to achieve "energy emission reduction" goals. We
    can see that the reality is that on the one hand,
    people make great efforts to lower energy
    consumption in the production field, even the
    potential is often limited, but on the other
    hand, people follow the developed countries to be
    in pursuit of the life patterns with high energy
  • The developed countries have of higher resources
    efficiency, but their per capita energy
    consumption even much higher. In physical term,
    China's current energy efficiency as a whole is
    about 20 per cent lower than the developed
    countries, but China's per capita energy
    consumption is only 1/8 of the United States, 1/4
    of Japan.
  • The consumption level of developed countries far
    exceeds the share of Earth's environment and
    resources, in the per capita term, that they
    should enjoy, there are a lot of luxury and waste
    consumption and other consumption just for
  • In particular, we note that in order to support
    their high consumption of energy, the developed
    countries have been and are being brought great
    disaster to the world. At present, the world is
    not tranquil, the fundamental reason for that is
    the scarcity of resources to great extent.

Difficult to follow the developed countries
  • Since reform and opening up in particular the
    accession to the WTO, China has increasing
    integrated into the world economic system.
    China's production and consumption patterns
    quickly move closer to the developed countries.
  • So far, catching up western developed countries
    is still the goal of China's economic
    development, while the economic growth mode of
    the developed countries is much more
    energy-intensive in per capita term than China.
  • At present, the most capable consumer groups in
    China is unthinkingly imitating the way of life
    in developed countries. Many people recognize
    that the way of life in developed countries
    should not be the direction of Chinas
    development, but still Integrates this trend in
  • Way of life is the ultimate deciding factor to
    determine the economic system of supply and
    demand. Once entered the way, because of the path
    dependence, it is difficult to restore. China
    should guard against being introduced into this
    road by the dream of Western way of life.

Difficult to go beyond the development stage
  • The potential of energy conservation by change in
    economic structure can not be ignored.
  • China is in the stage of industrialization and
    urbanization. The stage means big development of
    high pollution-intensive and high
    energy-intensive sector.
  • The stage of extensive growth can not be beyond.

Energy conservation in consumption side should be
  • Consumption side management is necessary for
    energy conservation. The non-rational consumption
    should be inhibited, and the waste phenomena
    should be resolutely struggled.
  • Energy saving in consumption side should be put
    in more important position, when China is facing
    the task of turning the export-driven and
    investment-driven growth into "consumption-oriente
    d growth."
  • As a result, the key to building a
    conservation-oriented society lies in to be able
    to form the way of life with Chinese
    characteristics of material life being simple and
    spiritual and cultural life being rich.
  • Building more equalized society. Generally
    speaking, under the same level of economic
    development, people can enjoy more benefits in
    situation of equal distribution of wealth than
    the social polarization. In such a target or in
    such a development mode, the same wealth will
    bring more benefits, or that the same benefits
    only need less wealth, means consuming less
    resources. The positive impact on conservation of
    resources and environmental protection is

China's comparative advantage
  • If China's problem or big dilemma can be summed
    up as "less developed", then the majority of
    opportunities for China is also from here.
  • China has lost the historical opportunity to be
    able to enjoy the world consumption of
    non-renewable energy and environmental capacity
    at low-cost as developed countries ever did.
  • In these circumstances, the rational choice for
    China should be no longer to desperately catch up
    developed countries along with the old path to
  • China still has considerable room for choice of
    technology, China has not achieved much of the
    U.S. consumption patterns, has not completed much
    of the process of urbanization. From a historical
    point of view, this may be the real opportunity
    for China on the "new-type industrialization"
  • It is possible for China to shift to new clean
    low-carbon energy system at lower cost than the
    Western countries, and to adapt to the new era
    with less burden of history. China may be the
    first or the largest user of some new energy, and
    has done so at least in some aspects.
  • However, this historical opportunity is limited,
    China should seize these opportunities!

Strengthening international cooperation in
northeast Asia
  • From international political point of view, it is
    not only necessary but also possible to build the
    multilateral mechanism in energy cooperation for
    northeast Asia countries.
  • The cooperation between Northeast Asian countries
    in the field of energy and environment security
    has a vast space.
  • Many complicated factors struggling together
    become major obstacle of multilateral cooperation
    in Northeast Asia.
  • The cooperation of energy and the environment in
    Northeast Asia has achieved some progress
  • However, the greater development of the Northeast
    Asian energy and environmental cooperation is
    waiting for further improvement of political
    relations between the all countries of
    north-eastern Asia, and for that the leaders of
    all countries of North-eastern Asia are able to
    show more foresight.
  • Sino-Japanese reconciliation will fundamentally
    change the situation of the east Asia region.
    China-Japan relations like as relations between
    France and Germany in Europe. In the late 1970s,
    the improvement of relations between Germany and
    France led to stability of Europe.