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Historical Foundations of Education

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Title: Historical Foundations of Education


1
Historical Foundations of Education
  • Chapter 7

2
Historical Lenses
  • Celebrationist historianssee the brighter side
    of historical events
  • Liberal historiansfocus on conflict, stress,
    inconsistencies
  • Revisionist historianslearn more by studying
    what has been wrong than what has been right
  • Postmodernist historianssee history through the
    unique lenses of social class, race, ethnicity,
    gender, age

3
Learning Outcomes
  • List important early educators in the world
  • Detail major educational accomplishments of the
    early Eastern societies
  • Analyze the life of the colonial school teacher
  • Articulate the roles government played in
    colonial America
  • Analyze how an understanding of early American
    history informs todays teacher

4
The beginnings of Education
  • Informal educationall peoples have cared for
    their children and prepared them for life
  • Hindu and Hebrew educationhow to live a good
    life
  • Chinese educationLao-tszu and Confucius
  • Egyptian educationeducation provided for
    privileged males
  • Eastern civilizations developed education prior
    to Western civilizations, for the most part

5
Western Education
  • The Age of Pericles (455-431bce), city states in
    Greece
  • Sparta, from 8 to 18, boys were wards of the
    Stateeducation to develop courage, patriotism,
    obedience, cunning, and physical strength (little
    intellectual content)
  • Athens, heavily stressed intellectual and
    aesthetic objectives

6
Western worlds first great philosophers
  • Socratesthe Socratic method a way of teaching
    that centers on the use of questions by the
    teacher to lead students to certain
    conclusionsSocrates fundamental principle,
    Knowledge is virtue.
  • PlatoRepublic recommendations for the ideal
    societythree classes of people artisans,
    soldiers, philosophers

7
Greek philosophers
  • Plato A good education is that which gives to
    the body and to the soul all the beauty and all
    the perfection of which they are capable.
  • Aristotlea persons most important purpose in
    life is to serve and improve humankindAristotle
    was scientific, practical, and objectivehad the
    greatest influence on thinking through the Middle
    Ages
  • Females and slaves did not possess the
    intelligence to be educated. (Plato and
    Aristotle)
  • All paid employment absorbs and degrades the
    mind. (Aristotle)

8
Western EducationThe Romans
  • In 146 BCE the Romans conquered Greece, many of
    the advances of the Roman Empire inspired by the
    enslaved Greeks
  • Between 50 BCE and 200 CE, an entire system of
    schools developed
  • Quintilian (35-95 CE) described current practice
    and recommended the type of system needed in
    Romevery humanistic

9
Education in the Middle Ages (476-1300)
  • Roman Catholic Church the greatest power in
    government and education (by 476, the fall of the
    Roman Empire)
  • The Dark Agesearthly life as nothing more than a
    way to a better life hereafter
  • Charlemagne (742-814) valued education, and found
    Alcuin (735-804) and focused on the seven liberal
    arts (trivium and quadrivium)

10
The Revival of Learning
  • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) more than any other
    person helped to change the churchs views on
    learningrooted in the ideas of Aristotle, led
    to the medieval universities, formalized
    scholasticism (the logical and philosophical
    study of the beliefs of the church)
  • The East had no dark ages. Mohammed (569-632)
    led a group of Arabs from northern Africa into
    southern Spainspread slowly throughout Europe,
    significant advances in science and mathematics

11
Education in Transition (1300-1700)
  • Renaissance and Reformation
  • Renaissance represented the protest against the
    dogmatic authority of the church over social and
    intellectual liferevival of classical learning
    called humanism
  • Reformation represented a reaction against
    corruption in the church which kept most people
    in ignorance

12
The Reformation
  • Formal beginning in 1517ninety-five theses of
    Martin Lutherhis disagreements with the Church
  • The Church believed its duty was to pass on the
    correct interpretation of the Bible to the
    laityLuther thought each should interpret for
    self, and thus individual education was
    importantto attain salvation
  • Luthers coworker in education, Philipp
    Melanchthon, stressed universal elementary
    educationeducation should be provided for all
    regardless of class, compulsory for both
    sexesstate controlled and state supported

13
Education in Transition
  • Ignatius Loyola(1491-1556), to combat the
    Reformation, began the Jesuits in
    1540established schools to further the goals of
    the Catholic Church, were involved with teacher
    training from early on
  • Comenius (1592-1670),wrote many texts, first to
    use illustrations, writings based on science
  • John Locke(1632-1704) tabula rasa

14
Modern Period (1700 to present)
  • Descartes(1596-1650), laid the foundations for
    the modern period and rationalism
  • Reason is supreme, the laws of nature are
    invariable, truth can be verified empirically
  • Frederick the Great (1712-1786), leader of
    Prussia, friend of Voltaire, interested in better
    training for teachers

15
Emergence of the Common Man
  • A period during which developed the idea that
    common people should receive at least a basic
    education as a means to a better life
  • Rousseaumost important educational work, Emile
    (1762) about the liberal education of
    youthnaturalism, education must be natural not
    artificial we ascribe too much importance to
    words. With our babbling education we make only
    babblers. Children are born good but corrupted
    by society

16
The Emergence of Common Man
  • Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Swiss educator who put
    Rousseaus theories into practice educators
    from all over the world came to view his
    schoolsunlike most teachers of his time, he felt
    students should be treated with love and kindness
  • Herbart (1776-1841) studied under Pestalozzi,
    organized the educational psychologypreparation,
    presentation, association, generalization,
    application
  • Froebel (1782-1852), kindergarten, social
    development, cultivation of creativity, learning
    by doingwomen best suited to teach young
    children

17
Colonial Education
  • Southern Coloniesin 1619, twelve years after the
    founding of Jamestown, slaves brought to the
    South for cheap labortwo distinct classes of
    people emerged, a few wealthy land owners and
    many poor workers, mostly slaveslandowners hired
    tutors to teach their children

18
Middle Colonies
  • Various national and religious backgrounds, so
    they did not agree on a common school systemeach
    established their own religious schools, many
    received education through apprenticeship

19
Northern Colonies
  • Settled mainly by the Puritans
  • People lived close to one another, shipping ports
    established, industrial economy developed
  • Old Deluder Satan Act(1647)required towns to
    provide for the education of youththe
    Massachusetts laws of 1642 and 1647 became the
    model for other colonies

20
Types of Colonial Schools
  • Dame schools, writing schools, charity schools
  • Colonial colleges Harvard (1636), William and
    Mary (1693), Yale (1701), Princeton(1746), Kings
    College (1754), College of Philadelphia (1755),
    Brown (1764), Dartmouth (1769), Queens College
    (1770)heavy emphasis on theology and the classics

21
Toward Universal Elementary Education
  • Monitorial schools (1805), in New York City,
    economical way to teach the massesone lead
    teacher with lots of helpers among the older and
    better studentsclosed by 1840 because seen as
    not worth the cost
  • Horace Mann (1796-1859), leading proponent of
    common elementary schools, the forefather of the
    contemporary public school
  • Massachusetts in 1852 passed compulsory
    attendance lawsby 1900, 32 other states did
    likewise

22
Secondary Schools
  • Latin Grammar Schoolsstrictly college
    preparatory, must know Latin and Greek for
    college admittance
  • American Academies Benjamin Franklin in
    Philadelphia among the first to prepare young men
    for employment through practical studiesan also
    enrolled women
  • High Schoolsreplaced the academies, were
    financially more in the reach of the masses

23
Federal Involvement in Education
  • Northwest Ordinance (1785 and 1787) encouraged
    the establishment of schools, set aside the
    sixteenth section of each township to be used for
    educational purposes
  • Morrill Land Grant (1862)to provide the
    vocational educated that was needed
  • Smith-Hughes Act (1917)high school vocational
    education

24
Teaching Materials
  • Hornbook
  • New England Primer
  • Blue-Backed Speller
  • Slates
  • McGuffeys Reader
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