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Making Sense of PostColonial Africa, 19602007:

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Title: Making Sense of PostColonial Africa, 19602007:


1
Making Sense of Post-Colonial Africa, 1960-2007
  • John Metzler, PhD
  • African Studies Center
  • Michigan State University

2
Helping Students Understand Independent Africa,
1960-2005
  • Overview
  • Introduction Popular Representations of
    Contemporary Africa
  • What We Need to Take into Account When Teaching
    About Contemporary Africa in the Community
    College Classroom
  • Political, Economic, Social Realities of
    Contemporary/Independent Africa
  • Understanding Independent Africa The Colonial
    Legacy
  • Economic legacy
  • Social Legacy
  • Political Legacy
  • The Cold War in Africa Angola, Congo, Horn of
    Africa, Southern Africa
  • Militarization Small Arms Race in Africa
  • Globalization Africa Promise or Peril?
  • The African Renaissance The Case for Optimism

3
1. Popular Representations of Africa
  • What media informs our students images of
    Africa?
  • Afro-Pessimism
  • Afro-Optimism
  • News Media Hopeless Continent
  • Disney/National Geographic Garden of
    Eden/Celebration of the Exotic
  • Movie industry Despair Exotica

4
Popular Representations of AfricaThe Hopeless
Continent
5
Popular Representations of AfricaThe Hopeless
Continent
6
Popular Representations of AfricaThe Hopeless
Continent
7
Summary of Representation in News Media
  • Africa assessed Four Ds and One C
  • Death
  • Disease
  • Disaster
  • Despair
  • Corruption
  • Charlayne Hunter-Gault, 2006

8
Popular Representations of AfricaGarden of
Eden
9
Popular Representations of AfricaGarden of
Eden
10
Popular Representations of AfricaCelebration of
the Exotic
11
Popular Representations of AfricaMessages from
the Movies
12
Teaching About Contemporary Africa
  • CRITERIA FOR ADDRESSING AFRICAN CRISES IN THE
    CLASSROOM
  • Given the bias and lack of rigor and analysis in
    the reporting of African crises, how should
    educators deal with these crises in their
    classrooms? First, give attention to the
    following criteria
  • Set high standards of objectivity for yourself
    and for your students. Do not be satisfied with
    news stories that continue to use the standard
    explanatory constructs in analyzing a story.
    Use the same standards of objectivity and demand
    the same rigor that you expect from an analysis
    of a current issue in the U.S.
  • Seek trust-worthy information and documentation
    on the issue under consideration prior to
    engaging your students in a serious discussion of
    the issue. Just as you would do for the study of
    a current events issue in the U.S., try to find
    (or have your students seek out) alternative
    perspectives of the story/crisis. The World Wide
    Web provides a rich variety of web sources on
    Africa.

13
Teaching About Contemporary Africa
  • Criteria (continued)
  • When teaching a unit on Africa do not deal with
    crises or severe problems unless you also deal
    with problems/crises when you teach about other
    regions of the worldparticularly when you teach
    U.S. history, civics, or economics. Analysis of
    current events should be normal part of your of
    the social studies classroom, not just when
    teaching about Africa or troubled regions such
    as the Middle East.
  • When addressing a crisis in Africa do not do so
    in isolation from the larger geographic,
    political, economic, and historical context in
    which the crisis is taking place. Crises are not
    natural or systemic to African societies (or
    to any other society in the world), and should
    not be treated as such.

14
2. Contemporary Realities of Africa
  • Dual Realities
  • Political Arena Chaos, Chronic Conflict
    versus Democratization Africas Second
    Liberation
  • Economic Arena Endemic poverty/under-developme
    nt versus African Renaissance
  • Social Arena Irreparable decay of social
    structure (e.g. impact of HIV-AIDS) versus
    Re-birth of Civil Society

15
Political Realities of Contemporary Africa
16
Political Realities of Contemporary Africa
  • Contemporary Conflicts
  • Africas First World War Congo/Great Lakes (4
    million casualties in last 9 years)-cease-fire
    and peace accord elections July and Oct. 2006
  • Burundi
  • Sudan- Darfur
  • Horn of Africa Somalia Ethiopia/Eritrea
  • Cote DIvoire
  • Western Sahara
  • (7-8 million refugees/displaced people in Africa)
  • Refugee Crisis 4.2 million refugees (2000) second
    only to Asia. Many more Internally displaced
    persons

17
Political Realities of Contemporary Africa
  • Resolution of long-standing conflicts
  • Angola
  • Mozambique
  • Sierra Leone
  • Liberia
  • Sudan North-South Conflict
  • Rwanda
  • Congo?

18
Political Realities of the Congo Nigeria
  • Congo
  • Civil War 1997-? Groups Interhamwe (Hutu
    militia), Mai Mai, Congolese Rally for Democracy
    (2 factions supported by Rwanda), Movement for
    the Liberation of the Congo (supported by
    Uganda), government of Joseph Kabila (elections,
    Sept. 2006/ run-off end of Oct. 2006) Jean-Pierre
    Bemba
  • Approximately 4 million have died as result of
    this conflict
  • Preceded by 30 years of autocratic ruleMobutu
    Sese Seko
  • Nigeria
  • Seven military governments 1966-1999 (some very
    brutal)
  • Biafran civil war 1967-1970 ( cf one million
    died)
  • Ethnic conflict in Niger Delta-oil region Ijaw,
    Itsekiri, Ogoni (Ken Saro-Wiwa)
  • Muslim-Christian conflict (recent phenomenon)
  • Stable democracy since 1999
  • What happens after Pres. Olusegun Obasanjo
    (2007)?

19
Political Realities of Contemporary
AfricaRegime Types 1989
20
Political Realities of Contemporary
AfricaRegime Types Today Africas Second
Revolution/Independence
21
Political Realities of Contemporary Africa
  • Commitment of the African Union (2002) to human
    rights, good governance, transparency, democracy,
    and development.
  • NEPAD New Partnership for Africas Development
  • By 2006 26 countries (half of the AUs membership
    had agreed to undergo the Africa Peer Review
    Mechanism to assess progress towards good
    governance goals.

22
Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
  • The Combined Gross Domestic Product for all of
    Sub-Saharan Africa in 2000 was US322.73
    Billionless than the GDP for the Netherlands
    (and considerably smaller than the GDP for the
    state of California)
  • Between 1990 and 2000 GNP per capita declined .7
    per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • However, since 2000 a number of African countries
    have experienced a annual growth rate of around
    5
  • Nearly 40 of Africas GNP is from agriculture,
    less than 15 from manufacturing lowest of any
    region in the world.
  • Africa counts for less than 2 of global trade
  • In 1960 average service debt of an African
    country was 2 of exports in 2000 239 of exports

23
Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
24
Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
NOTE -- T. Total -- Den.
Population Density, in single units -- P.C.
Per Capita Income, in single units -- GDP
Gross Domestic Production -- Total
Population, in Millions -- T. GNI (Gross
National Income) in billions
25
Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on
1 or less a day)
26
Economic Realities of Contemporary Africa
Poverty (Numbers and Percent of People living on
2 or less a day)
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
Economic Realities Congo
  • Congo
  • Mineral Rich Copper, Cobalt, Coltan, Diamonds,
    Tin
  • Agriculture wide variety of food and cash crops
    including coffee, tea, rubber and commercial
    lumber.
  • Industry very little manufacturing, mineral
    processing
  • Yet GDP per Capita is 88 compared to an average
    of 541 in SSAf Per Capita Income 110 per
    capita compared to 600 for SSAf

30
But . . .
AFRICAS GROWTH RATES ARE CATCHING UP TO OTHER
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
31
African per capita income is now increasing in
tandem with other developing countries
Annual Change in Real per capita GDP
Forecast
2008
Source World Bank
32
growth has improved since the 1980s
33
Africas growth experience increasingly diverse
34
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica
  • Severe Social Dislocation
  • Male (productive age) labor migration short term
    and long term
  • Urbanization unplanned, minimal social services
    (health, education, housing, sanitation)
  • Gender/family relations change in social
    relations of production and reproduction (male
    migration, male cash crops,) absence of
    fathers/husbands rural poverty (women children
    most severely impacted) survival strategies
    (prostitution, beer-making).

35
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica
  • Education
  • Colonial Heritage
  • Education for a very few (at independence, no
    colony had more than 60 of the elementary school
    age population in school, most less than 30
    even lower for high school and tertiary education
  • Portuguese had most restrictive educational
    program. In rural Mozambique less than 20 of
    school age cohort had full seven years of
    elementary education at independence in 1975
  • At independence in 1960 the D.R. Congo had an
    extensive primary school system (70 enrollment)
    but less than 10 went to secondary school and
    only 50 university graduates!
  • French followed policy of assimilationtargeted
    10-20 of population with relatively good
    education system, but vast majority little or no
    schooling.
  • British generally most progressive but great
    differences between protectorates (Nigeria,
    Ghana) where in-direct rule was practiced, and
    settler colonies (Rhodesias, Kenya) where
    educational expenditure was very limited.
  • Curriculum heavily biased to humanitieslimited
    opportunities in science, math, technology

36
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica
  • Education and the Imperatives of the
    Post-Colonial Nation-State
  • Nation building and state legitimacy
  • Economic development and productivity
  • Social development health, welfare, education
  • Cultural development (re)production of
    Traditional culture

37
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica
  • Education Post-Independence Example of Zimbabwe
  • 1980 60 of primary school age cohort in school,
    less than 40 finished primary education
  • 1995 100 of primary school age cohort in school,
    over 90 finished seven years of primary school
  • 1980 only 64,000 students in secondary school
    1995 over 800,000 in secondary school
  • Negative Impact of ESAP conditionalities on
    education

38
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica Health
  • Diseases of Poverty
  • Malaria kills over 1 million people in Africa
    each year with an estimated cost to African
    economies of over 2 billion
  • Sleeping sickness (trypanosomasis) threat to 60
    million, infects 300,000 each year
  • River Blindness (onchocerciasis) 17.5 million in
    Africa (99) of world total
  • Biharziasis impacts estimated 80 million in
    Africa

39
Malaria has not received adequate attention and
is a major cause of death of children
40
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica Health
  • The Scourge of HIV-AIDS
  • HIV-AIDS Out of approximately 40 million
    HIV-AIDS victims in the world 29.4 victims reside
    in Sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Nearly three million children under the age of 15
    are HIV positive
  • Four countries in southern Africa have HIV
    infection rates of 25 or higher of adult
    population
  • In the last decade 12 million people died of AIDS
    in Africa
  • Life expectancy in southern Africa increased
    throughout the region to nearly 60 years of age
    in 1990 (from 44 years in 1950) life expectancy
    expected to drop to 40-45 years of age by 2005.
  • Rays of hope decline in infection rate in a
    number of countries, stabilization in South
    Africa reduction in the price of
    antiretrovirals.

41
Social Realities of ContemporaryAfrica
Health/HIV-AIDS
42
LIFE Expectancy And Mortality
43
  • How do we bring understanding to these political,
    economic and social realities of contemporary
    Africa?
  • Contextualize

44
Legacy of Geography, Environment, Climate,
Geology
  • Environmental Determinism
  • Jared DiamondGuns, Germs, and Steel
  • Jeffrey Sachs- The End of Poverty
  • Africa only continent in the World solely in the
    tropics geologically oldest endemic
    debilitating disease poor soils unreliable
    climate, hostile environmentimpedes economic
    development and creates conditions for political
    instability.

45
Legacy of Slavery
  • Destruction of political, economic, and social
    infrastructure
  • Loss of populationdeath and slave trade
  • Immeasurable Human suffering.
  • Other slave trades Trans-Sahara, East Central
    Africa.

46
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Colonial
Legacy
47
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Colonial
Legacy
  • Political Legacy
  • Economic Legacy
  • Social Legacy

48
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy
  • Human rights legacy
  • Authoritarian/anti-democratic legacy
  • Cultural-pluralism/ethnicity
  • State Capacity

49
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy
  • Types of Colonial Political Regimes in Africa
  • Direct Rule Belgium, France, Germany (until
    1918) Portugal (Guinea-Bissau)
  • Indirect Rule British (except for settler
    states)
  • League of Nations High Commission Mandate Trust
    Territories (former German coloniesTanganyika,
    Togo, South West Africa, Cameroon)
  • Settler Colonies (Angola, Kenya, Mozambique,
    Rhodesia South North South Africa)

50
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy
  • Authoritarian/anti-democratic
  • Hegemony (establishment and maintenance of) was
    core political agenda of all colonial
    states/regimes Development of police and local
    armed forces staffed by indigenous African
    personnel
  • Legitimacy (an imperative of most modern
    statecraft) was not important to the colonial
    regime
  • Representation (outside of traditional
    leaders/indirect rule) or elections were largely
    absent in all colonial regimes
  • Taxation (revenue generation)without
    representationwas central to the survival of the
    colonial state (Metropol opposed to financial
    support of their colonies)
  • Forced Laborand at times forced conscription
    into police force/army

51
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy
  • Cultural Pluralism and the Creation of
    Tribalism/Ethnicity
  • Myth of Tribe unique tribal characteristics
  • Issue of Colonial borders separation of
    language/ethnic groups
  • Policy of Divide and Rule.
  • Role of Mission societies

52
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/Cultural Pluralism
53
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/Creation of Ethnicity
  • Case of Nigeria
  • Lugards policy of Indirect Rule ( Divide and
    Rule)
  • Differential policies toward Hausa, Igbo and
    Yoruba
  • Creation of Igbo ethnicity
  • Peripheralization of minor groups

54
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/Creation of Ethnicity
  • Case of Burundi and Rwanda
  • Myth of ancient deeply embedded ethnic (tribal/
    racial) rivalry between Tutsi and Hutu peoples
  • Belgian policy and the creation of ethnicity/
    race in Burundi and Rwanda
  • Burundi
  • Rwanda

55
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/State Capacity
  • Review basic functions of national governments
  • Guarantee sovereignty of the country
  • Guarantee safety and protection of all citizens
  • Guarantee basic human rights for all citizens
  • Guarantee equal protection under the law for all
    citizens
  • (Help) Provide basic infrastructure
    transportation and communication
  • (Help) Provide basic social services for all
    citizens basic education, adequate health care,
    clean potable water, descent shelter
  • Stimulate and support economic productivity and
    growth

56
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/State Capacity
  • Realizing these basic functions of government
    dependent on
  • Constitutional commitment to democracy and basic
    human rights
  • Independent judiciary
  • Specialized institutions of government
    (departments) that carry out specific functions
    of governance defense, public safety, education,
    health care, etc.
  • Skilled and dedicated civil servants/bureaucrats
  • Revenue

57
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/State Capacity
  • Major imperatives of all colonial regimes
    Hegemony (domestic peace) and revenue
    (extraction) all other agenda subservient to
    these imperatives exception of the settler
    colonies
  • Institutional development privileged institutions
    of public safety and control police, army,
    native court system, labor recruitment, and
    taxation
  • Institutions/departments with portfolios in
    finance, economic development, employment,
    transportation, communication, housing, health
    care, educationseverely under-developed

58
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Political
Legacy/State Capacity
  • Paradox of Over-Developed State (Post-colonial)
    with Under-Developed Capacity.
  • Over-Developed in terms of its relationship to
    civil society and the domestic economymonopoly
    of responsibility for development (social,
    economic, political), but. . .
  • Severely under-developed in its capacity
    (institutional and human to meet these
    challenges/responsibilities)
  • Competition over scarce resources

59
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy
  • Economic rationale for colonialism (review)
  • Demand for raw materials to fuel industrial
    revolution in Europe generate profits for
    businesses (nascent Transnationals)
  • Guaranteed markets for industrial goods (crisis
    in capitalism?)
  • Need for safe investment opportunities for
    emerging transnational corporations
  • Three Cs Pressure from humanitarians and
    mission societies Commerce as prime factor in
    promoting Christianity and Civilization in
    Africa

60
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy
  • Central economic imperative of all colonial
    regimes colonies must pay their own wayno
    drain on metropol treasury.
  • Top agenda of colonial regimes raise
    revenuefind promote mode/area of production
    that support colonial regime and concurrently
    generate profits for metropol.
  • Creation of Mono-Economies.

61
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/Colonial modes of production
  • 1.Mineral Africa rich in mineral resources,
    several colonial economies centered on the
    exploitation of minerals e.g. Zambia (Northern
    Rhodesia) and Congo (Belgian)

62
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/Colonial modes of production
  • 2. Large-scale agriculture (plantation)
    agriculture colonial regime identify one or two
    major agricultural products to be developed for
    export. Mainly East and Southern Africa Kenya
    (coffee, tea) Zimbabwe (tobacco, beef),
    Mozambique (cotton/cashews)

63
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/Colonial modes of production
  • 3. Small-Scale Agricultural Production Most
    African colonies did not have large mineral
    deposits nor were they attractive for large scale
    plantation type agriculture. In these countries
    revenue was generated through government
    mandated/encouraged small-scale agricultural
    production for export e.g. cotton (Mali),
    groundnuts (Senegal, Gambia) cocoa (Ghana, Cote
    dIvoire)

64
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/Colonial modes of production
  • 4. Labor providing colonies Some African
    colonies were resource partmore often sections
    of colonies. These colonies became labor
    reservoirs for farms, mines and industries in
    neighboring countries. E.G. Burkina Faso (to
    Cote dIvoire and Ghana) Malawi/Mozambique/Lesotho
    /
  • Swaziland (to South Africa, Zimbabwe,
    Zambia). Colonial regimes earned money through
    taxing recruitment and remissions from laborers.

65
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/Colonial modes of production
  • 5. Mixed/Diversified Economies Colonial regimes
    did little to stimulate real economic growth and
    diversification with the notable exception of
    settler colonies such as Kenya, Southern
    Rhodesia, and South Africa. Economic development
    and diversification central to the settlers
    agenda for their countries.

66
Understanding Contemporary Africa The Economic
Legacy/ Land and Labor
  • Regardless of mode of production colonial
    economies required access and control over
    land/natural resources (most often without
    compensation), and of . . .
  • Labor (often forced or non-voluntary) including
    labor for commercial crops instead of subsistence
    crops in small scale commercial production zones.

67
4. Understanding Contemporary Africa Impact of
the Cold War
  • The 1960s, the decade of Africas independence
    coincided with the height of the Cold War.
  • Newly independent African states/leaders were
    often called upon to take sides between the East
    and West.
  • U.S. and West suspicious of Marxist/nationalist
    rhetoric of many new leaders particularly in
    countries with strategic location and/or
    resources Congo, Angola, Somalia, Ethiopia,
    Rhodesia, South Africa

68
Understanding Contemporary Africa Impact of the
Cold War
  • Impact of Cold War?
  • Instability caused by assassinations, coups, and
    civil strife within and between key African
    client states.
  • Wars directly linked to Cold War machinations
    Angola civil war (invasion by South Africa, Cuban
    troops) Congo (including recent First African
    World War Ethiopia/Somalia Liberia,
    Mozambique Sudan
  • Failed States Congo, Liberia, Somalia, Sudan.
  • Economic devastation Case of Congo rich in
    natural and human resources
  • Human suffering millions killed (over a million
    in Angolan civil war) Angola second largest
    number of land-mine amputees (after Cambodia)
    Africa second largest refugee population in the
    world

69
Results for Africa of aid from U.S. and the West
during the Cold War
  • US gave at least 1.5 bill weapons to Africa
    during Cold War (1950-89)
  • - incl 400 mill to dictator Mobutu in Congo
  • 250 mill to Jonas Savimbis UNITA movement
    Angola
  • Half the US aid went to governments with known
    human rights abuses including Congo, Rwanda,
    Uganda atrocities (perhaps 3 million)

70
Somalia
71
UN US Retreat in Somalia
72
Societal Wreckage of War-Somalia
Baidoa, Som, City of Death - vandalized
statue
73
Children of War-Somalia
Children of WarPhotograph by Joel Frushone, U.S.
Committee for Refugees Theyre preparing to
leave the only home they have ever known. These
children, whose parents are Somali, were born in
the Daror refugee camp in the Ogaden region of
Ethiopia. Their parents had come here in the late
1980s, fleeing northern Somalia after a violent
uprising that led to government bombing of the
regions largest city, Hargeysa. More than a
decade later, with peace and relative stability
in what is now the self-proclaimed state of
Somaliland, refugees are going home. Returning
families receive resettlement supplies, including
330 pounds (150 kilograms) of wheat and about
five quarts (five liters) of cooking oil. Most
sell the supplies.
74
Militarization Across Africa Curse of landmines
  • Angola more than 70,000 amputees and more than
    16,000 killed.
  • Estimates of total number of land mines 10-20
    million
  • Angola is the one most heavily impacted by 1-2
    land mines per person
  • Whatever you want to do, whether it's plant a
    field or rehabilitate a school or open a road,
    you've first got to clear away the mines. The
    threat of mines has paralyzed the country
  • More than 70 types of mines - manufactured in at
    least 22 countries - have been planted in Angola
    during recent decades. Mines were installed by
    the government military, the South Africans, the
    Cubans, the Russians, UNITA, the police, by
    neighboring governments, and several other
    Angolan armed groups.
  • The numbers of mine layers makes demining - which
    includes understanding the strategy and patterns
    of mine laying - even more complicated. Mine
    clearance experts say only the Cubans made
    accurate maps of their mine fields.
  • Tens of thousands of one-legged Angolans hobbling
    around their country on crutches provide graphic
    evidence that most of the mines laid here are
    small anti-personnel mines designed to maim
    rather than kill. Yet the explosives are often
    targeted at civilians, most often women and
    children, rather than soldiers. Planted near
    water sources and under shade trees in the
    savannah, they are designed to terrorize, often
    with the goal of depopulating the countryside.

75
Militarization Across Africa
  • Portuguese soldiers planting and unearthing land
    mines in Angola, 1970s

76
Militarization in AfricaThe Cost
  • An average of 22 billion is being spent each
    year by the nations of Africa, Asia, Middle East,
    and Latin America on arms.
  • If this were redirected, it would be enough to
    reach the UN targets of Universal Primary
    Education
  • And reducing infant and maternal mortality.
  • And Meeting all of the Millennium Development
    Goals

77
Militarization of Africa Arms Sales Out of
Control
  • The U.S., France, Russia, China and the UK
  • together account for 88 of all the worlds
  • conventional arms exports.
  • There are 639 MILLION small arms and light
  • weapons in the world
  • Today, eight million more are produced
  • every year.
  • From 1996-2001, the USA, UK, and France earned
  • more income from arms sales to developing
    countries
  • than they gave in all kinds of emergency,
    disaster,
  • and economic assistance aid.

78
The costs of the new wars to Africas children
Up to 20,000 children are fighting in Africas
conficts today..
79
(No Transcript)
80
Understanding Contemporary Africa Impact of
Globalization
  • Drastic reduction primary price of primary
    resources (agricultural crops and non-strategic
    minerals).
  • Concomitant increase in price of industrial
    goods/services produced in North.
  • Heavy indebtedness impact of petrol dollars
  • Decline in investmentslowing diversification of
    economy
  • Neo-liberal orthodoxywithdrawal of state,
    decline in services, rise in unemployment
    emphasis on comparative advantage.
  • Peripheralization of Africa?

81
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal One Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
  • Share of population below national poverty line
    high-Zambia 72.9 low Benin 29
  • Share of population living on 1 per day
    highZambia 75 low South Africa 10.7
  • Prevalence of child malnutrition, underweight as
    of children under 5 high Ethiopia 47.5 low
    South Africa 10.3
  • Share of population below minimum dietary energy
    consumption high Eritrea 73 low Gabon 5
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

82
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Two Achieve Universal Primary Education
  • Net primary enrollment ratio as a or relevant
    age group high Seychelles 100 Uganda 98,
    Malawi 95 low Djibouti 33
  • Primary Completion rate as a of the relevant
    age group high Seychelles and Mauritius 100
    low Niger 25
  • Youth Literacy Rate (ages 15-24) high Seychelles
    99, South Africa 94 low Mali 24
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

83
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Three Promote Gender Equality and Empower
    Women
  • Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary
    school high Cape Verde, Lesotho, Mauritius,
    Namibia, Rwanda and South Africa all 100 or
    higher low Chad 58
  • Ratio of young literate women to men (ages
    15-24) highBotswana, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya,
    Lesotho, Mauritius, Namibia, South Africa,
    Swaziland all at 100 or higher low Chad 42
  • Women members of national parliament as a of
    total MPs highRwanda 49, Mozambique 35, South
    Africa 33 low Nigeria 6, Kenya 7
  • Share of women employed in non-agricultural
    sector highNamibia 51, Botswana 47--most
    countries did not report
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

84
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Four Significantly Reduce Child Mortality
  • Under five mortality rate (per 1,000)
    highSierra Leone 283, 10 countries with over 200
    compared to 12 countries in 1990 lowSeychelles
    14, Mauritius 15, Cape Verde 60, South Africa 66
  • Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
    highSierra Leone 165, 22 countries with greater
    than 100, compared to 26 countries in 1990
    lowSeychelles 12, Mauritius 14, Namibia 47,
    South Africa 54
  • Child immunization rate/measles highsix
    countries with 90 or higher lowfour countries
    lower than 50 compared to 9 countries with lower
    than 50 in 1990
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

85
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Five Significantly Improve Maternal
    Health
  • Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births
    high Sierra Leone 2,000 with 16 countries with
    rates of 1,000 or above low- Mauritius 24, with
    seven countries with 500 or lower.
  • Births attended by skilled health staff as a of
    total high Mauritius 99 with six countries at
    85 and higher.
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

86
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Six Significantly Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria
    and other Diseases
  • Prevalence of HIV as of 15-49 year age group
    (2005) highSwaziland 33 and five countries
    with 20 or higher (down from 8 countries in
    2002) low 27 countries with 5 or lower.
  • Deaths due to malaria per 100,000 population
    highNiger 469 with nine countries above 200 low
    Kenya 64 (of area in which malaria is endemic)
  • Tuberculosis infect rate per 100,00 population
    highSwaziland with 1,222 with seven countries
    with 500 or above.
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

87
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Seven Ensure Environmental Sustainability
  • Forest area as a of total land highGabon 85,
    Congo (Brazzaville) 66--almost all African
    countries suffered a loss of forest area between
    1990 and 2005
  • Nationally protected areas as a share of total
    land area () high Zambia 31.9, Tanzania
    29.8, with five countries at 15 or above low
    Lesotho with 0.2
  • Population with sustainable access to an improved
    water source () high Mauritius 100, Botswana
    95, with 10 countries over 80 compared to four
    countries in 1990
  • Population with sustainable access to improved
    sanitation () highMauritius 99 with eight
    countries at 50 or higher compared three
    countries in 1990.
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

88
Africa and the Millennium Development Goals at
the Half-Way Point
  • Goal Eight Develop a Global Partnership for
    Development (hard to quantify measure)
  • Between 1990 and 2005 significant reduction in
    debt as per cent of GDP and of export earnings
    thanks to debt restructuring and debt forgiveness
  • Mobile and Fixed line telephone subscribers per
    1,000 people high 842 Seychelles with 10
    countries at 100 or higher compared to one
    country in 1990.
  • Personal Computers per 1,000 persons
    highMauritius 279, Seychelles 179 and Namibia
    109 low 1 in Niger, with 16 countries at 5 or
    under.
  • Source Africa Development Indicators, 2006
    (World Bank)

89
African Renaissance Cause for Optimism?
  • Concrete moves to end wars in Congo/Great Lakes
    Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia/ Eritrea.
  • Democratization Africas Second Independence.
  • Economic growth a number of countries
    registering 5 annual growth-rates, 2000-2005.
  • Birth of the African Union NEPAD (New Economic
    Partnership for Africas Development.)
  • Intelligence, commitment, and vibrancy of
    Africas youth.
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