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Introduction to Development Studies

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Title: Introduction to Development Studies


1
Introduction to Development Studies
  • Jaro Julkunen
  • Mondays Lecture Hall XV at 10-12
  • (except Mo 9.10. Lecture Hall XIV at 14-16)
  • Thursdays Lecture Hall XIV at 12-14

2
Development Studies
  • research field examining problems in the
    developing countries
  • comparative focus on international development of
    human societies
  • multi-discliplinary social science primary
    normative object on social, political and
    economic issues
  • research interest of the post-WWII world (Cold
    War)
  • motivated by underdevelopment in the decolonizing
    Third World
  • knowledge to guide development interventions,
    later problematizing also the intervention itself
  • c.f. research on less developed regions
    (sociology economy)

3
Course Description
  • Basic information is provided on the situation
    of the developing countries in an international
    context, from the perspectives of social and
    political development. Central theories and
    explanatory models referring to the international
    development problem are also presented.
  • No prerequisite studies are presumed.

4
Course Schedule
  • 7.9. Conceptualization of International
    Development
  • 11.9. Geographies and Actors of Development
  • 14.9. Comparative Historical Modernization
  • 18.9. Structural Functionalist Modernization
  • 21.9. Welfare State Reformism
  • 25.9. Dependencia, Marxism and World Systems
  • 28.10. Basic Needs and Alternative Development
  • 2.10. Green and Feminist Development
  • 5.10. Anti-Development
  • 9.10. Conclusion

5
Social Development Postulate
  • We evaluate that certain social, economic and
    political conditions and systems are more
    developed than others.

6
Dimensions of Development
  • 1. indicators and symbols of development
  • 2. causal relationships, rules and methods
    constituting knowledge
  • 3. historical context
  • 4. political agenda-setting

7
Conceptual Surroundings of Development
  • Synonym/hyponym for change
  • - usually considered as a positive change,
    beneficial alteration, achievement of a better
    (material) life
  • - (but also cancer develops)
  • Development derives from the word of uncovering
    or unfolding (old French des-envolupper)
  • Kehitys/utveckling/entwicklung/evolution derive
    from the image of the opening circle

8
The Conceptual Schema
  • goal
    path source

9
Other parallel concepts
  • progress, advancement, growth
  • Progress derives from the idea of moving on,
    advancing (Lat. pro gredi, c.f. advancement)
  • Progress has a connotation of structural changes
    which are based on superindividual factors
  • Development is more consciously accomplished
    change
  • Metaphor of organic growth is a prototype of
    cyclic development (linear growth omits the
    decline)

10
Counterconcepts
  • Opposite of change
  • unchangeability, undevelopment and stagnation
  • Change, but to wrong direction
  • decay, degeneration, atrophy, decline,
    regression, retrogradiation and recession
  • Insufficient degree of change
  • underdevelopment
  • Diachronic distance from the significant center
  • primitiveness
  • Synchronic distance from the significant center
  • backwardness

11
Structure of the Concept
  • a) Source
  • - progress transhistorical, consciously exogene
    (unintentional), 'natural'
  • - development human, consciously endogene
    (intentional), 'cultural'
  • b) Path
  • - directionality linear/cyclic,
    progression/regression
  • - cumulativity knowledge of previous
    generations as a basis of development/ alienation
    as a basis of decline
  • - irreversebility
  • c) Goal
  • - certain social system (homogenisation/pluralisa
    tion)
  • - growth of virtues (happiness, freedom,
    equality, responsibility)
  • - perfection

12
Basis on Comparison
13
Dimensions of Development
  • 1. indicators and symbols of development
  • 2. causal relationships, rules and methods
    constituting knowledge
  • 3. historical context
  • 4. political agenda-setting

14
1. Historical Context
  • Development
  • makes sense only in the realization of history
  • is not, however, reduced to history
  • is more abstract and theoretical than history
    (past, history, development)
  • is manifested in histories (plural)
  • is considered as a reaction to problems

15
Historical context Narratives of Development
16
2. Epistemology of Development
  • Construction of a general theory/ Study of a
    particular case
  • Understanding the integration of facts and values
  • Methodological realism/ relativism
  • Moral realism/ relativism

17
2. Causality of Development
  • Physical Environment
  • Climate
  • Resources
  • Communication
  • Social Environment
  • Social systems and their mechanisms
  • Heredity
  • Intelligence

18
3. Components and Indicators (examples)
  • Health
  • Economic resources
  • Education
  • Social integration
  • Housing
  • Security
  • Recreation
  • Political resources
  • - physical abilites, illnesses,doctor
  • income, wealth, property
  • years of education
  • attachments and contacts
  • space, nr of persons/room
  • exposure of violence/theft
  • leisure pursuits, theatres
  • voting, memberships

19
4. Political Agenda-Setting
  • different definitions and focuses highlight
    different evaluations, which
  • privilege particular political interests or
    cultural preferences and
  • set particular policy implications and future
    projects

20
Making of the Present World of Development
  • Development thinking is a general phenomenon, but
    developmentalism was formed in certain conditions
  • Distinctively Western
  • Western roots?
  • Narratives of decline
  • But, Renaissance, Reformation, Explorations

21
Development theories
  • development theories arise to explain the
    changing Western societies
  • 'unchanging' non-Western societies were used as
    comparative resources in explaining modernity

22
Modernization
  • 1) development is inherent in society
  • - from the dichotomy order/change to
    order-in-change
  • 2) development is dimensional
  • - it tends to proceed towards the modern state
    along a common linear path
  • 3) making of the division traditional/modern
  • 4) development appears as growth and often
    proceeds as necessary stages
  • 5) economic, social and political changes are
    integrated and interdependent
  • 6) the progress od underdeveloped countries can
    be accelerated through contact with developed
    ones

23
Developmentalism
  • The West has the ability and the responsibility
    to promote development in the underdeveloped
    areas
  • Premises for the Western developmentalist thought
  • - technology
  • - socio-economic changes
  • - religious disruptions
  • - rise of individualism
  • - breaking-up of the idea of future
  • Religion of modernity (Rist)
  • - secularisation
  • - social beliefs (human rights, development,
    knowledge)

24
Developmentalist Ideas
  • The Enlightenment
  • rationalization, civilization, liberation,
    freedom, truth
  • Positivism
  • universalism, division of ethics out of knowledge
  • Economic Thought
  • capitalism, industrialism
  • Cultural and Social Evolutionism
  • comparison of one society (internal natural laws)
  • polymorphism, survival of the fittest, general
    history
  • Diffusionism
  • influence analysis (natural laws in the spread of
    winning phenomena)
  • cultural contacts
  • Imperialism

25
Imperialism
  • The enlargement of the international power of the
    government to be as great as possible
  • Imperialism as the reason for colonialist
    policies and practices

26
Motives for Imperialism
  • commercial, economic interests
  • - natural resources, markets, dead end of
    capitalist national space
  • interests of social policy
  • - poor, outcasts and prisoners
  • interests of power politics
  • - European hegemonic struggle, formation of a
    social order
  • sociopsychological interests
  • - preservation of social structure by warrior
    aristocracy
  • (devil and elite theories)
  • ideological interests
  • - evangelization, civilization philantrophy,
    solidarity, matter of duty

27
Critiques of Imperialism
  • Liberalist critique
  • bias and malfunction in a capitalist system,
  • protectionist operation against free trade,
  • cause of huge warfare and administrative costs,
  • cause of monopolization
  • Marxist critique
  • interest of capitalists (allow extra time for
    capitalist phase)
  • Nationalist critique
  • political focus on wrong direction
  • Cultural critique
  • change of justified social conditions, cultural
    and political integrity

28
The Idea of Imperial/International Control
  • trusteeship property to be placed in the hands
    of trustees who would be chosen on the basis of
    their capacity to decide where and how societys
    resources should be invested
  • education civilization
  • social system primary health care

29
International Economic Development
  • starting-point global economic imbalance
  • moral interest responsibilities and rights
    of both the rich and the poor
  • focus problem-solving quarters and
    mechanisms, availability of growth
    factors and access to them

30
Postwar Global System
  • Realization of the international underdevelopment
    problem
  • focus change civilization gt economic growth
  • hegemonic change in the international politics
  • Ideological outlinings of the world system
  • Western Liberal Democracy Doctrine
  • Socialist Revolutionary Doctrine
  • Non-alignment Doctrine

31
Postwar Developmentalist Actors
  • States
  • International Economic Communities
  • Bretton Woods Institutions
  • Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Multi-National Corporations

32
Bretton Woods Institutions
  • World Bank
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • International Trade Organization (ITO)/ General
    Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/ World
    Trade Organization (WTO)
  • United Nations (UN)

33
Western Liberal Democracy Doctrine
  • reconstruction of distroyed economies and
    formation of new ones (Marshall Plan, UN, Bretton
    Woods)
  • abstaining of totalitarism (communism, national
    socialism)
  • building of better life standards to
    underdeveloped countries with technical and
    economic knowledge
  • adapting social development assistance from
    closed colonial system to open international
    context
  • New active US foreign policy (Truman doctrine)
  • End of Ideology

34
Third World
  • bringing off of the bipolar world from the
    perspective of global power structure
  • forming of a political coalition between
    underdeveloped countries in order to gain
    self-sufficiency
  • ending condemnation of (neo-)colonialism, growing
    interest on issues of global economy
  • introduction of the term Third World as a symbol
    of these common objectives
  • Bandung Conference 1955
  • Non-Aligned Movement/Beograd 1961
  • no unifying elements (political, economic,
    religious)

35
Categorization of the World
  • Encapsulating the world in categories is the only
    way for understanding it
  • Every framework is an abstraction which
  • serves the accessibility of the complex reality
  • is partial and not fair for the complex reality

36
Groupings of the World (part I)
  • 1) One World
  • one global system
  • harmonious
  • under tension
  • 2) Two Worlds
  • global system as bivaricate
  • center/periphery, North/South, developed/developin
    g, East/West, episteme/techne, modern/traditional,
    rich/poor, Orient/Occident, Jihad/McWorld
  • geographically locatable or structurally divising
  • 3) Three Worlds
  • Cold War political division with two superpowers
    and the non-aligned
  • center/semiperiphery/periphery
  • planned (undeveloped) economy / transition
    economy / free (developed) market

37
Groupings of the World (part II)
  • 4) Civilizations (over 5, under 10)
  • culturally segmented world system
  • 5) About 180 States
  • states the only important actors in world affairs
  • 6) Chaos
  • breakdown of governmental rule, anarchy,
    disrupting and failing states, undemocratic power
    systems

38
Visualization of Global Space
  • Developmental structuring of the globe according
    to the paradigm
  • Recycling of imagination to new theoretical
    contexts
  • time into space
  • civilizational geopolitics
  • search for cultural origins (source-path-goal)
  • Development discourse in maps

39
Modernization Theories
  • base on theories of development economics
  • ideal of studying societal phenomena according to
    methodologies similar to natural sciences
  • Comparative historical modernization theories
  • Functionalist and macrobehaviorist modernization
    theories

40
Comparative historical modernization theories
  • identification of universal developmental phases
  • generality in particular processes of change
  • aim at combining versatile factors of explanation
    (economic, psychological, political etc.)
  • criticized of the speculativity theoretical
    basis not convincing empiricists
  • Cyril E. Black, S.N. Eisenstadt, Seymor Martin
    Lipset, Barrington Moore jr.
  • Example Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic
    Growth (1960)

41
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • macroeconomic theory to direct investment in
    order to increase per capita income
  • problem of relating economic to social and
    political forces
  • how the West had become advanced while other
    areas of the world had not
  • a non-communist manifesto idealist theory to
    challenge Marx

42
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • First Stage Traditional society
  • static society
  • fatalist worldview (life, environment)
  • person-depended power structures (kinship
    relations)
  • societal resources in agriculture
  • undeveloped sciences and technologies (Newton as
    a symbol)
  • no directional changes in life standards

43
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Second Stage Preconditions for take-off
  • a) freeborn model
  • - internal stimuli
  • - cultural heterogeneity
  • - no restricting feudal/imperial system
  • - no threat from outside
  • - created mainly out of Britain
  • - natural, rapid climb to modernity because of
    the set of ideas of individualism, democracy and
    economic opportuniyty
  • b) basic model
  • - threat of expansion of more developed countries
  • - traditional order under challenging pressure

44
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Second Stage Preconditions for take-off
  • social understanding for the need of continuous
    growth and actualisation of scientific
    innovations
  • rise of new virtues and aims
  • national prestige
  • higher economic gains
  • general welfare
  • better life standards for new generations
  • rise of capable entrepreneurship
  • rise of investments, especially on transport and
    means of conveyance

45
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Second Stage Preconditions for take-off
  • social framework still limited
  • importance of the state sector (nation-state
    cooperatives contra traditional rule)
  • continuous economic growth not a normal state yet
    (promoters still a minority)
  • industry not wide enough to satisfy the needs of
    balanced foreign trade
  • demonstrational effect promotion of
    modernisation with professional and political
    coalitions

46
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Third Stage Take-Off
  • dividing line (decade or two) forming a modern
    society
  • usually a clear stimulus in which the society
    responds by turning into ideas of modernisation
  • political power to forces that promote continuous
    economic growth
  • economic growth becomes a normal state and there
    are no obstacles for it even though the
    industrial base still narrow

47
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Third Stage Take-Off
  • industry based on natural resources takes the
    lead (harpoon)
  • new branches of industry are expanding rapidly
  • profits are used to establish new production
    plants
  • demand for industrial working power gt
    urbanization and commercialization of agriculture
  • birth rates begin to decline

48
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fourth Stage Maturing
  • 40-60 years period of growth expanding to every
    economic sector
  • profits rise faster than population grows
  • 10-20 of national product can be invested
  • mechanism of production developes with new
    branches of industry that overtake the old ones
    which are losing their importance

49
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fourth Stage Maturing
  • production of commodities that were imported
    earlier, new import needs and export products
  • technical processes more sophisticated (rise of
    degree of processing)
  • national economy capable of capitalizing modern
    technology in most of its investments
  • dependence on foreign trade links is dictated by
    economic calculations and political priorities,
    not by technical and institutional necessities

50
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fifth Stage Mass Consumption Society
  • sectors of consumer durables and service take the
    lead
  • real income rises so that most of the people are
    able to consume also other products than the
    necessary
  • official employees to a central part in the
    structure of working power

51
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fifth Stage Mass Consumption Society
  • technical development starts to lose the prima
    facie value
  • continuous growth of state institutions
    investments on social welfare and security
    purposes
  • crystallizing in a welfare society

52
Structural Modernization
  • Structural Functionalism
  • research focus functions of (parts of) social
    structures from the viewpoint of compound system
    functionality meaningful and non-meaningful
    structures
  • naturally and unobstructed functioning society is
    a stabile totality where different sectors
    dependend from each other
  • counterpoint for evolutionist economics

53
Structural Modernization
  • needs met by structures that are
    institutionalizations of natural functions
  • adequacy of methods of dealing with environment
  • societys adaptive capacity (internal/external)
  • differentiation, specialization, division to
    better performance of societys primary function

54
Structural Modernization
  • Structural Functionalism
  • combination of naturalism and rationalism
  • both primitive and developed social systems were
    seen as functional (organizations)
  • change is an effort to eliminate social
    dysfunctions
  • Talcott Parsons, Marion Levy, Gabriel Almond,
    David Apter, Fred Riggs

55
Structural Moderniztion
  • Modernization spread effects
  • sociospatial organization social mobility,
    flexibility, urbanization, education
  • political organization democracy, weakening of
    traditional power structures
  • cultural organization secularization,
    differentiation (cultural/value systems)
  • psychological organization innovative
    personalities, need for achievement

56
Structural Modernization
  • Psychocultural theories (macro-behaviorism)
  • research focus behavioral grounds for a dynamic
    state (variable relations), social and political
    processes
  • correlations and causal explanations
  • universality of modernization
  • Everett Hagen, Daniel Lerner, Alex Inkeles

57
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • objective 1 developing of methodologies for
    studies on phenomena of social psychology in
    modernization process
  • objective 2 presenting of primary
    characteristics of modern state and the
    processual nature of modernization

58
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Characteristics of a modern state
  • urbanisation (population living in gt50000 towns
    percentage of total population)
  • literacy (percentage of literates of total
    population)
  • voting (voter percentage of total population in
    national elections)
  • media participation (percentage of tot.pop. of
    those buying newspapers, owning radios, going to
    movies)

59
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Correlations for example literacy/media
    participation
  • Causal explanation the literacy rate rocketed
    after urbanisation rate exceeded 10 ? media
    participation ? other participatory institutions
    (especially voting)

60
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Modernization process
  • modern society is dynamic and participatory
  • the process towards modernization is unilinear,
    stages follow each other with autonomic
    historical logic of same mechanisms
  • the moving forces of modernization process are
    urbanization and new information (orbit of desire
    and horizons of expectations)
  • modernizing individuals and institutions are in a
    strong system relationship of dependency

61
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Modernization process
  • life style non-participation ? participatory
  • personality static ? mobile
  • emotional identification unability ? empathy
  • identity structure static ? dynamic

62
Karl W. Deutsch (1961) Social Mobilization and
Political Development
  • Modern nationality is constructed from a double
    process of social mobilization and cultural
    assimilation
  • Nation building is a balancing of these
    processes

63
Karl W. Deutsch (1961) Social Mobilization and
Political Development
  • Social mobilization
  • social, economic and technological development
    makes people leave their traditional agrarian
    environments to be mobilized for more intensive
    communication
  • process by which old commitments are eroded or
    broken and people become available for new
    patterns of behaviour

64
Karl W. Deutsch (1961) Social Mobilization and
Political Development
  • Cultural assimilation
  • information given in the modernization process is
    accepted and thus orientation towards change
    prevails over traditional group affliations
  • melting pot to modernity (not cultural mosaic)

65
Reasons for failings of modernization
  • Lerner (1958)
  • when an occational sector (for example
    urbanisation) grows without mutual growth of
    other sectors, the result is unfavourable
    imbalance of modernization
  • modernization is both technical process but
    especially a change of ideology and a way of life
    (the mental change spreads over a long period)
  • Deutsch (1961)
  • imbalance of the double process (lack of cultural
    assimilation ? reactive ethnic nationalism)

66
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • research questions
  • what makes the collapse of social/political
    development?
  • why changes tend not to go like modernization
    theories predict?
  • where revolutions come from and why?

67
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • Comparative study of revolutions
  • Starting-point
  • the poorest countries were relatively stable, but
    those a countries having bit of affluence were
    explosive
  • Argument
  • ? the reason for revolutions was not on poverty
    but on the imbalanced modernization process

68
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • Reasoning (causality)
  • - social mobilization brings on activity and
    horizons of expectations
  • - incapable government can not take advantage of
    the increased activity
  • - activity and expectations turn into a
    radicalizing opposition
  • - the relatively strong inequality of economic
    growth that is connected the first stages of
    modernization amplifies the reactions (atmosphere
    of instability)

69
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • Political circumstances after social mobilization
    depends on the rate of institutionalization
    closely institutionalized politics connects the
    new citizens to existing sectors of activity ?
    strong civil society
  • Civil society can be democratic or totalitarian
  • Revolutions rise from frustrated alienation of
    middle-class (most expectations, knowledge-based
    opposition towards status quo)

70
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • social mobilization
  • 1. social frustration
  • economic development
  • social frustration
  • 2. political participation
  • mobility possibitilies
  • political participation
  • 3. political instability
  • political institutionalization

71
Growing Inequality
  • Liberalist Modernization
  • in the first stages of modernization, the
    forerunners get rich
  • then the wealth starts to trickle down to the
    whole society
  • Critique
  • what if the increase of inequalities is
    cumulative, not a phase?

72
Cumulative Causation
  • economic development is a process of circular and
    cumulative causation which tends to award its
    favours to those who are already well endowed and
    even to thwart the efforts of those who happen to
    live in regions that are lagging behind (Myrdal)
  • variables interlocked
  • the secondary changes support the first change
  • once triggered by a change the growth process is
    cumulative

73
Cumulativity of growth
74
Cumulative causation
  • Spread effect growth in one region promotes
    growth in another region
  • Backwash effect one region expands at the
    expense of another region
  • movement of capital is negative and the region
    becomes poorer (backwash effect is stronger than
    spread or trickle down effect)

75
Backwash Analysis
  • A new dynamic branch of industry absorbs
    resources from other sectors of production and
    from geographic peripheries (cf. Rostows harpoon
    effect)
  • This dynamic branch makes money, but the wealth
    spills abroad (to industrialised countries)

76
Backwash Analysis
  • Universal direction of capital stream
    (inferior?dominant, periphery?centre,
    underprivileged?privileged, poor?rich)
  • The trading instruments of a poor country become
    all along more unfavourable

77
The Vicious Circle of Poverty
78
Welfare State Reformism
  • Welfare state as a response to modernization
  • Causes of underdevelopment in evil social
    environment (not in evil individuals)
  • Welfare policies motivated by altruism and
    solidarity
  • Belief in social engineering, democratic social
    reform and state interventionism
  • Development as social insurance
  • Folkhemmet Sverige

79
Keynesian causality
  • Unemployment makes people passive
  • Poverty is caused by economic passivity and
    failings of production (cf. Liberalism heavy and
    inflexible government machinery)
  • Markets fail ? active economic policy by state

80
Tools to eradicate poverty
  • Public assistance as an activity injection
  • Social policy a national tool, development aid an
    international tool
  • Public assistance enables consumption (the main
    method to eradicate poverty)
  • Mobilization of the poor to promote economic
    growth with state intervention
  • Economic and social equalization by
    redistribution "the richest 90 support the
    poorest 90"

81
International social policy
  • global security
  • economic efficiency
  • equality
  • solidarity
  • human rights in form of basic needs

82
International social policy
  • Development cooperation, technical aid
  • International agreement system, guidelines and
    organisations of surveillance (ILO, WHO, FAO, UN
    et al.)
  • Objectives protection of labour force, promotion
    of peace and mutual understanding, removal of
    biases in international economy

83
Dependency
  • UN Economic Commission for Latin America
    (ECLA/CEPAL)
  • promoting economic growth
  • ECLA manifesto 1950 explanation for
    underdevelopment
  • a) laissez faire economic policies
  • biased export orientation
  • underdeveloped internal market network
  • weak governmental control of economy
  • b) structure of the world trade system
  • factors of economic problems beyond the reach of
    local governments
  • no local instruments for preventing economic
    threats (depression)
  • preconditions for economic growth are not
    universal
  • realization of the separate economic regularities
    of the industrialized countries and the
    underdeveloped countries
  • realization of the geography of poverty

84
Global Structures
  • Economic development of a state in terms of the
    external influences
  • Subjection of a certain economy by the expansion
    of another economy
  • External forces are determining the economic
    activities within a dependent state
  • Global inequality becomes deeper, because the
    international interaction intensifies the
    existing patterns
  • ? Global division of labour poverty and
    underdevelopment to the global proletariat
  • Division has become fixed

85
Constructed Underdevelopment
  • Underdevelopment (decline)
  • not an original condition, but a product of
    Capitalism and economic imperialism
    (underdeveloped ? behind)
  • was brought about by external reasons, namely the
    mechanisms of Capitalism
  • is another side of the coin development of the
    industrialized countries is made of the
    underdevelopment of the rest
  • Andre Gunder Frank
  • Europe did not discover the underdeveloped
    countries, it created them
  • the more natural resources for exploitation a
    region had when the capitalist system unrolled,
    the poorer and more underdeveloped it is today

86
Centre and Periphery
  • Capitalism produces inevitably a divided class
    society, which expands to global scale
  • Vulgar dependecia global geographic centre and
    periphery
  • Structural dependecia centre has its foothold on
    regionally peripheric areas
  • Common characters of the periphery (Samir Amin)
  • domination of agrarian capitalism
  • local merchant bourgoisie controlling foreign
    capital
  • bureucratic social system controlled by urban
    bourgoisie
  • a vast proletarian class of poor peasants,
    marginally empowered workers, and unemployed
    urban dwellers

87
Indicators of Poverty Eradication
  • The tools that were used in the centre can not be
    used in the periphery
  • Emphasis on the economic activity that benefits
    the whole population
  • 1. Moderate social indicators education, life
    expectancy, health care, infant mortality etc.
  • 2. Marxist/Maoist indicators GDP, money flows

88
1. Moderate Dependencia Keynesian Reforms
  • state control to economy
  • allowing of protectionist instruments for
    periphery and demolition of those of
    industrialised countries
  • creating needs for Latin American, African and
    Asian internal markets for gaining self-reliancy
  • emphasis on broadly-based industrialization,
    regulation and dismantling of traditional
    landowning conditions
  • ending of imitation of Western models (economy,
    sciences, arts)
  • Raúl Prebisch (ECLA), Gunnar Myrdal

89
2. Radical Dependencia Marxist Solutions
  • Marxist stages of development
  • Imperialism as the last phase of Capitalism
  • Governments take whatever steps are necessary to
    protect their/private economic interests
  • Lenin Imperialist exploitation allows affluence
    for developed world workers (peace at home)
  • Solutions
  • International commitment to communism by the
    truly immiserated proletariat of the
    underdeveloped countries
  • Revolution of the world trade structure

90
Maoist Dependency
  • Peasants become more important for the world
    revolution than the intellectuals or urban
    workers
  • The concept of class as an attribute of nations
    capitalist Finland, proletarian China
  • Power is taken from the capitalist countries by
    cutting off the supply of cheap labour and
    resources ? de-linking (Amin)

91
Application of the dependency argument Case of
Tanzania
  • independency and establishing of a federal sate
    of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, Tanzania (early
    1960s)
  • Arusha Declaration 1967 self-reliance and
    African socialism
  • cutting off of the economic dependency by
    accession to the Third World (especially China)
  • socialization of banks and important companies
  • cultural revolution 1969 outlawing imitations of
    the European culture
  • shrinking confidence on economic and political
    collaboration (growing apart from Pan-African,
    East African and finally Third World linkages) ?
    isolation
  • change of politics 1985 acceptance of the WB/IMF
    structural adjustment demands, abandonment of the
    orthodox African socialism

92
World-System Theory (WST)
  • a macrosociological theory of international
    dependence (Marxist theories, Annales school of
    historical research, emphasis on economy)
  • developing unit world as an organism
  • research interest origins and dynamics of the
    capitalist world economy as a total social
    system, ongoing transition to socialism
  • model of explanation historical stages of
    development, but different than those of
    modernization theory
  • criticism to modernization theory nation-state
    level, single path evolution, ahistorical
    research,
  • Immanuel Wallerstein

93
World Systems
  • 1. Mini Systems
  • in hunter and gathering or extremely simple
    agricultural societies
  • complete division of labor
  • single, uniform cultural framework
  • kinship as a structuring factor
  • exchange economy (barter)

94
World Systems
  • 2. World Empires
  • universal homogenization of division of labor
  • payment of tribute as protection cost (mini
    system ? part of world empire)
  • politically united systems
  • examples Rome, Egypt, China

95
World Systems
  • 3. World Economies
  • the present capitalist system is the first world
    economy
  • plurality of political systems support the world
    economy
  • production mainly for markets

96
Core/ Semiperiphery /Periphery
  • World economy develops a flourishing core
  • For its economic expansion the core needs surplus
    from the peripheries
  • Semiperiphery
  • a buffer zone that deflects the revolutionary
    activity of peripheries
  • although world class struggle do not operate
    within state boundaries, semiperipheries are
    states
  • Class interests are clearer in the peripheries ?
    revolution has to come from the peripheries
  • Semiperipheral state is the area where a
    conscious state activity can produce world
    revolutionary elements

97
Indicators of Development/Exploitation
  • Division of labor
  • transition from intrasocietal and intra-empire to
    international/global
  • classes indicating transition to capitalist world
    economy
  • Technology
  • as hegemony factor (c.f. Habermas Technik als
    Ideologie)
  • Expansion of production
  • expansion, overproduction, redistribution of
    surplus, recovery (40-60 years)
  • crisis of overproduction

98
World Hegemony Cycles
  • Hegemony a period in which one core power can
    simultaneuosly manifest productive, commercial,
    financial, and military superiority over all
    other core powers
  • Period of hegemonic decline hegemonic power has
    lost its superiority in one realm while retaining
    it in others

99
World System Hegemony Cycles
  • European expansion
  • Portugal late 15th c. 1600
  • - pugnacity, military technology (naval
    matters), population hardened to variety of
    diseases
  • 2. Holland c. 1600 late 17th
  • - Protestantism, capable fluyt focused on trade,
    stock exchange
  • Commercial England late 17th late 18th
  • - internal social stability, mobile labor power
  • Industrial Britain late 18th early 20th
  • - industrialization, coal
  • 5. United States early 20th
  • - adoption of new technologies (electricity,
    petroleum)

100
Present World System
  • USA hegemon after the WW II, now (1980s)
    declining
  • Resemblances with two previous (capitalist)
    hegemons
  • from agro-industry to commerce then finance
  • liberal trade policy
  • hegemony based on sea or sea/air power
  • extended wars for securing hegemony
  • assumptions of world responsibilities of
    protecting and preserving the liberal order
  • liberal trade arrangements allows technology to
    spread ? new technology to non-hegemon states
  • rise of income for the hegemon state working
    class ? competitive advantage to non-hegemon
    states

101
Present Hegemonic Rivalry Period
  • USA loss of competitive edge of productivity,
    maintaining and presenting competitive edge on
    military power
  • Emergence of new loci of power on the margins of
    the declining hegemons radius of action (East
    Asia, Europe?)
  • the possible rise of a new region causes a
    relative decline of another (not only the present
    hegemon)

102
Critique of WST
  • Eurocentrism
  • A.G.Frank capitalist system 5000 years old few
    centuries ago Europe a periphery of world trade,
    hegemony in South and East Asia
  • Reversed causality
  • no proof on process of economic underdevelopment
    (case of Poland)
  • No sensibility for cultural factors
  • materialist approach limits the explanative force
  • Methodological problems of macrosociology
  • no systematic line in choosing of data, base on
    disconnected secondary sources

103
Alternative Development
  • Inadequacy of developmentalist thought
  • modernization and dependency based on economism
  • grand narratives of world-system theories
  • failures of modernizationist practices (Green
    revolution)
  • Stagnation of the international structure
  • distrust on linear democratization and economic
    growth
  • vanishing global control
  • Awakening to ecological limits
  • environmental tolerance is incompatible with
    limitless economic growth
  • Club of Rome (1972)

104
Basic Needs
  • Sturcturing the core values of development with
    the hierarchy of needs ?
  • basic goods and services necessary for a minimum
    standard of living
  • primacy, sufficient conditions satisfaction of
    basic individual needs for everybody
  • secondary aim, necessary conditions global
    economic equality, rising per capita incomes
  • WB 1972 redistribution of growth and meeting
    basic needs
  • - development cooperation and money distribution
    to small projects
  • International Labor Organisation (1976)
    Employment, Growth and Basic Needs

105
Demodernization
  • Renunciation of blinkered growth and
    dismantlement of ecologically destructing
    industry
  • Relocation of power
  • distrust towards the state
  • Protectionism revisited
  • away with CocaColonialism, McDonaldization and
    Disneyfication
  • emphasis on plurality and diversity
  • Subsidiarity
  • development decision-making as close to
    recipients as possible
  • state-level too remote

106
Sustainable Development
  • Promotion of commodity exports has led to overuse
    of natural resource base ?
  • Development which meets the present day needs
    without compromising the abilities of future
    generations to meet their needs
  • Primacy of environmental awareness in development
    thought (especially including to values of trade)
  • damage limitation and sustainability maximation
  • Integration of economic growth to social equity
    and environmental management
  • UN World Commission on Environment and
    Development (Brundtland Commission) 1987 Our
    Common Future
  • Earth Summit - the United Nations Conference on
    Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de
    Janeiro 1992

107
New Indicators for Development
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) numb for human
    development
  • nature and distribution of income ignored
  • Indicators centered in humans and ecology
  • from standards of living to quality of life
  • Human Development Index (HDI) GDP plus life
    expectancy and education ratios
  • Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) GDP plus
    informal economic contributions minus costs
    (crime, pollution, family breakdown etc.)
  • Green GDP GDP minus direct costs of
    environmental degradation
  • Ecological Footprint (EF) land/capita needed to
    support consumption of resources
  • Living Planet Index (LPI) abundance measured out
    of the global natural forest cover and
    populations of water species

108
Emphasis on Culture
  • protection of local culture and indigenous
    knowledge from the cultural homogenization
  • capacitation of communities
  • emphasis on studying endogeneous characteristics
    and influence of characteristics coming from
    outside
  • new (paradigmatic) interests
  • religion and language structuring culture
  • gender in development practices
  • power, knowledge and empowerment
  • otherness

109
Development from Below
  • Empowerment
  • capacitation
  • participation
  • Indeginous knowledge
  • populism
  • critique of science and theory
  • aversion of systematization
  • Trickle-up
  • grass-root development agency
  • distrust of experts

110
Development from Below
  • Voluntarism
  • creativist idea of individuals (contra
    consumerism of passive recipients)
  • Avoidance of bureaucracy
  • Self-reliance as objective (contra as means for
    modernization)
  • aims and values from within
  • no forerunners to follow
  • Modenization from outside causes decay of
    natural societies

111
Development project to NGOs
  • Non-profit non-governmental (NGO) organizations
    based on voluntary system
  • At least part of the funding from private sources
  • Purpose to promote certain political, social,
    ideological, religious etc. goals by conducting
    developmental projects and lobbying
  • Ideals of partnership and mutual obligation in
    development projects

112
From the Third World
  • bringing off of the bipolar world from the
    perspective of global power structure
  • forming of a political coalition between
    underdeveloped countries in order to gain
    self-sufficiency
  • ending condemnation of (neo-)colonialism, growing
    interest on issues of global economy
  • introduction of the term Third World as a symbol
    of these common objectives
  • Bandung Conference 1955
  • Non-Aligned Movement/Beograd 1961
  • no unifying elements (political, economic,
    religious)

113
To the Fourth and Fifth Worlds
  • a poor and depriving development unit without
    sovereign statehood
  • a negative product of development project that
    has immisered and marginalized others
  • the immiserising is both geographical and
    structural, but not based on class structures so
    much as power/knowledge privileges
  • the new poor (end of national solidarity)
  • least advanced countries (end of international
    solidarity)
  • native indogenous cultural minorities lacking
    voice e.g. in the UN
  • women, margins of information society

114
Critique Alternative but development
  • Steps towards anti-development
  • a challenge to Western development model
  • a challenge to universalist development theories
  • distrust on state as a development coordinator
  • new definitions (poverty, development etc.) and
    policy implications from local perspectives
  • But still promoting developmental interventions
  • demodernization becomes modernization anyway
    (from within, of tradition)
  • alternative in relation to state and market, but
    not in relation to developmentalism

115
Conflicting Agendas
  • Universalism contra particularism
  • Green contra Brown Agenda
  • Global empowerment of the subjugated aggregates
    (women, political dissidents etc.) contra
    empowerment of different, endogenous cultural
    formations
  • Union of the peripheral traditionalism, the
    middle level marginalized and the postmaterialism
    of affluence is loose

116
Feminist approach
  • Criticism to development theories
  • gender-blindness in dimensions of development
    (noiseless intrahousehold)
  • Development interventions not only marginalize
    women, but also harm them
  • Women are half of the world's people, who perform
    two-thirds of the world's working hours, receive
    one-tenth of the world's income, and own
    one-hundredth of the world's property
  • Gynocentric empowerment project

117
Western Liberal Feminism
  • Women in Development (WID)
  • Restructuring of development programs
  • Integration of women to production increases
    economic growth and efficiency
  • Belief in the universal maximization of
    individual utilities
  • Promotion of women's access to power, technology,
    credit and services (affirmative action)
  • Promotion of technologies empowering womens
    participation on social development
  • WID programmes Equity, Anti-poverty, Efficiency,
    Welfare, Income generation, Skills training

118
Neo-Marxist Feminism
  • Women and Development (WAD)
  • Capitalist modernization has impoverished women
    (patriarchal domination secondary, critique of
    gynocentricism)
  • Intensification of patriarchy with the spread of
    capitalism
  • Focus on relations between men and women in the
    framework of global dependency
  • Women not only productive, but also reproductive
  • WAD programmes Empowerment

119
Radical Feminism
  • Gender and Development (GAD)
  • Focus on social meanings given to sex differences
    within the subordinating structures
    (neo-colonialism)
  • Gender identity a dynamic social construct
  • Complexity and heterogeneity of oppressing
    processes
  • Allocation of labour tasks should be changed
  • Gender resources contextual, linked with other
    social factors
  • GAD programmes Gender ideology change,
    Integration, Emancipation, Gender mainstreaming

120
Environmental Feminism
  • Women, Environment and Development (WED)
  • Feminist political ecology
  • Male control over nature parallel with male
    control over women
  • Developing unit is not a machine, but a living
    organism
  • Resistance of development to protect nature
  • WED programmes sustainable development, gendered
    knowledge

121
Culturalist Feminism
  • Women, Culture and Development (WCD)
  • holism sharp dichotomies (public/private,
    production/reproduction, modern/traditional,
    cultural/economic)
  • womens initiatives diverse forms of meaningful
    agency
  • lead to bias in development analysis
  • rejection of linear development process
  • ethnicity, religion, age, sexuality, livelihood
    as variables of development
  • no victimization, no heroism, but emancipation of
    women

122
Feminist Post-Development
  • Neo-colonialism Feminism unconsciously echoes
    the masculine will to power (the non-Western
    other exploited by the ideology of a White,
    Western middle-class woman)
  • Neo-trusteeship discourse of Western women as
    liberated, forerunners, experts
  • In developmentalist worldviews, women continued
    to be constituted as sovereign subjects with the
    capacity to realize development through
    transformations in partiarchal social relations
  • emancipation is a catching-up strategy

123
Anti-Development
  • Development discourse is a political endeavor of
    those willing to speak for others
  • - development intervention based on deceptive
    fictional ideology
  • Means of development incorrect
  • - trusteeship intervention obstructs free growth
  • - state is an authoritarian actor
  • - Neo-Liberalism
  • Means and goals of development incorrect
  • - rejection of growth
  • - Post-Development

124
Neo-Classical Economics
  • underdevelopment explained by differences in
    policies (not in initial conditions)
  • emphasising equilibrium on the laws of supply and
    demand
  • efficiency required (best met by perfect
    competition in free markets)
  • focus on disaggregeted microstudies (away with
    grand theories)
  • agrument free markets underpin human freedom in
    general, states should avoid interventions

125
Neoliberalism
  • starting-point Liberalism and neo-classical
    economics
  • reason of underdevelopment exploitative state
    evil government
  • development idea free markets and international
    trade allow the best context for general welfare
  • objective establishment of a global market-based
    system
  • elimination of state interventions to the minimum
  • with open and outaward-looking economy
  • with privatization of state-owned enterprises

126
Rise of the Neoliberalist Doctrine
  • End of Bretton Woods system 1973
  • New Right governments of USA, Britain and Germany
    1980s
  • Structural adjustment programs of IMF and WB
  • Washington Consensus

127
Post-Development
  • cultural codes the primary constituents of social
    life (c.f. forces of material production)
  • emphasis on local knowledge
  • from criticism of capitalism to criticism of
    modernity
  • focus on discontinuities and complexities
  • Development as a strategy of modern power (c.f.
    potential for human emancipation)

128
Action against development
  • form of Western modernism and scientific
    distortion (Westernization)
  • new religion of the West
  • antidemocratic programme
  • authoritarian, privileging discourse
  • empowerment of the Western knowledge system
  • universalistic presupposition
  • ethnocentric model of society
  • exploitation of endogenous cultures
  • normalization, homogenization

129
Reactionary post-development
  • Anti-modernization
  • Organic society
  • Non-interventionism
  • Simplicity
  • Reappraising non-capitalist societies
  • Personal authorities
  • Traditional knowledge

130
Anti-managerialism
  • anti-authoritarian sensibility
  • disgust to external control mechanisms
    international financial institutions and state
    (control system is one version of the Panopticon)
  • suspicion of new managerialisms of the NGOs
    (alternative development)
  • new clothes (sustainable, human, local, social)
    for development
  • unclear and managerial aims self-sufficiency,
    basic needs, participation etc.
  • post-development as present-day anarchism
  • anti-political tendency (cf. other post-isms)

131
Critique of Science
  • Present hegemony of science is based on the
    privileged position of Western middle-aged man
  • - one knowledge system hegemony gives support to
    one political programme (for example economics)
  • - prohibition of the knowledge systems of
    non-Western societies
  • - properly educated elites a poisonous gift
  • - forming of laboratory states of the Third
    World
  • - unethical intentions, worldview and mindset
    (aim at mastery over nature)
  • ? need for new endogenous truths

132
Post Cold War Changes
  • Change of structural process
  • modernization ? globalization
  • Change in the level of objectives
  • modernization ? poverty alleviation
  • Change in the level of objects
  • Third World ? micro-level economies
  • Change in the level of actors
  • state ? NGO

133
Poverty
  • mainstream understanding income and ability to
    consumption, synonymous with underdevelopment
  • Post-developmentalist critique
  • political concept has displaced modernization as
    the motive for development policies of both
    international financial organizations and
    governments (focus change)
  • extension health, social services, political
    rights etc.
  • relativization culture/poverty, meaning of
    poverty lines
  • deculturation sacred poverty

134
Development discourse (Escobar)
  • Power relations (institutions)?
  • Representation (discourses) ?
  • Enframing (imaginaries identities) ?
  • Deployment (incorporation, professionalization,
    institutionalization) ?
  • Social construction of reality

135
Development Theories
136
Development Theories
137
Narratives of development History from Past to
Present
138
Holistic Visions of Development
  • holism (voluntarist/determinist,
    endogenous/exogenous, facts/values, green/brown)
  • character of the object ? the focus of the
    research problem is already fundamental
  • reflexive development
  • reaction to preceding development theories
  • interests of those concerned
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