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The Role of the Czech Public Higher Education in an Innovation Era: From Academic Socialism to the E

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Title: The Role of the Czech Public Higher Education in an Innovation Era: From Academic Socialism to the E


1
The Role of the Czech Public Higher Education in
an Innovation Era From Academic Socialism to
the Entrepreneurial University
  • Anna Vitásková, Ph.D.
  • Institute of Sociology
  • Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
  • Anglo-American College in Prague
  • September 24, 2004

2
Knowledge-Based Societies
  • Innovation the ability to manage knowledge
    creatively in response to market-articulated
    demands and other social needs.
  • Note Czech Republics Overall Competitiveness
    Ranking
  • 31 in 2000 to
  • 37 in 2003
  • (World Economic Forum, 2003)

3
Investments in Two Forms of Human Capital
  • Embodied (formal education)
  • only 27 of students of relevant age group
    continue at Us
  • 83 in Finland, 77 in the US
  • Disembodied (research)
  • 1.35 of its GDP to R D (i.e., GERD)
  • 2.76 in the U.S., 2.93 in Japan, 3.31 in
    Finland
  • (2004 World Development Indicators, 2004)

4
WHY?
  • Large Public Research Universities are the main
    source of power in the knowledge economy.
  • Two basic products
  • 1. KNOWLEDGE AND
  • 2. TALENTS
  • Capitalization of knowledge when anything,
    tangible or intangible is used with the intention
    of creating economic value, it becomes an item of
    capital rather than consumption (Etzkowitz,
    1997, p.143).

5
Objective
  • The goal of my presentation is to examine the
    most desirable (i.e., effective) future
    directions for the Czech public university in an
    innovation-based society, primarily in the arenas
    of knowledge production, professionalization, and
    diffusion.

6
Conceptual Definitions
  • Knowledge Production research
  • the generation of new knowledge or enlargement
    of the existing pool of knowledge (i.e., basic
    and applied research)
  • Knowledge Professionalization knowledge workers
  • the process of education and training the human
    capital of the nation (i.e., human resource
    development) and
  • Knowledge Diffusion the process of
    dissemination of new knowledge into a larger
    society.

7
Conceptual Questions
  • Knowledge Production
  • i. What type of knowledge produced in the public
    university is the major determinant of
    socioeconomic growth in an IB society?
  • ii. What are the major models of knowledge
    production in an IB society?
  • iii. What type of cooperation exists between
    the Czech government, industry public
    universities in terms of knowledge production in
    an IB society?

8
Conceptual Questions Cont
  • Knowledge Professionalization
  • i. What are the preferred pedagogical methods
    of teaching and learning in higher education
    conducive to the development of knowledge-based
    innovation workers in an IB society?
  • ii. What particular skills and competencies for
    knowledge-based innovation workers are the most
    needed in an IB society?

9
Conceptual Questions Cont
  • Knowledge Diffusion
  • i. What are the major modes of dissemination of
    knowledge into a larger society in an IB
    society?
  • ii. What type of cooperation exists between the
    Czech government, industry public universities
    in terms of knowledge diffusion in an IB
    society?

10
  • In accordance with the overall world trend, in
    an innovation-based society, the Czech public
    universities will have to become entrepreneurial
    universities characterized by direct market
    activity, and entrepreneurial ethos and behavior.

11
WHY?
  • New Socio-Economic Context
  • A rightward shift in political thinking (market
    thinking)
  • An intensification of competition as brought up
    by globalization
  • Knowledge as a commodity (prerequisite for
    innovation)
  • (Gibbons, 2004)

12
A Proposed Model of the Entrepreneurial
University in an Innovation-Based Society
13
Knowledge Production From Purposeful Networking,
Contextuality of Knowledge to Institutional
Transformation
  • 1) the importance of government-industry-academia
    cooperation (i.e.,Triple Helix)
  • 2) the importance of contextuality and
    practicality and
  • 3) the need for transformation of the
    institutional culture from hierarchical to
    heterarchical.

14
Why Tri-Lateral Collaboration?
  • GOVERNMENT the voice of the voiceless in
    setting the research agenda
  • INDUSTRY having the resources to finance the
    university research
  • UNIVERSITY having the know-how and being able
    to supply human capital
  • capitalization of research findings is one of
    the primary features of the entrepreneurial
    university (Clark, 1998)

15
Call for Change of Occupational Identity
  • a new, hybrid occupational identity comprised of
    both academic and entrepreneurial skills.
  • an emergence of a new breed of successful
    academic capitalists.

16
Cooperation vs. Collaboration Collaborative
ventures cooperation w/competitors
  • Conflicting Interests Incompatibilities
  • Businesses economic advantage
  • Universities institutionalized modes of
    thinking
  • Lack of coordination
  • Lack of trust who owns knowledge? Who owns
    patents? Collect royalties? Etc.

17
Characteristics of Produced Knowledge at
Universities for an Innovation Society
  • Context-Specific driven by specific market or
    societal factors and needs
  • Available for Immediate Use socially
    distributed knowledge (Immediate Social
    Accountability and Quality Control vs. Peer
    Review Judgement )
  • Transdisciplinary vs. Disciplinary
  • Heterarchical/Egalitarian/Inclusive vs.
    Hierarchical Environment
  • Results in greater convergence of research with
    the needs of society.
  • Current Situation
  • 1/3 applied research
  • 2/3 basic, curiosity-driven research

18
Knowledge-Producing War?Academy of Sciences vs.
Universities
  • What will be the future role of the Academy of
    Sciences in an innovation-based society?
  • Will it still exist? he major competitor of
    public universities in the production and
    diffusion of knowledge.

19
Knowledge Professionalization The Development of
Autonomous and Independently Acting Professionals
  • How?
  • 1) the increased access to higher education
  • 2) the need for new teaching and learning
    methods
  • 3) the development students specialized
    knowledge general skills and
  • 4) the need for global, issue-oriented,
    trandisciplinary curriculum.

20
Why Increase Access if Higher Education is
Viewed as Public Good?
  • Emergence of New Types of Universities
  • 1. Entrepreneurial public and/or private
    universities that seek to innovate and work out
    a substantial shift in organizational character
    so as to arrive at a more promising posture for
    the future (Clark, 1998, p. 4).
  • 2. Franchise the proliferation of overseas
    validated courses in predominantly South and
    Southeast Asia, and Eastern Europe offered by
    franchise institutions operating on behalf of
    British, U.S., and Australian universities.
  • 3. Corporate established and run by private
    corporations (i.e., Volkswagen)
  • Virtual
  • Issues decline of students, historical
    reputation not sufficient enough

21
Why Increase Access Some Statistics
  • only 27 of students of relevant age group
    continue at Us (83 in Finland, 77 in the US)
  • the proportion of adults w/HiEd - 11 (OECD
    ave18, U.S. 37)
  • Enrollment increased by 60 between 1990-2001
  • Chances of being admitted 50 yet 101
  • (social sciences vs. hard sciences)

22
What Skills Innovation Knowledge Workers Are
Expected to Have?
  • Highly Specialized
  • General
  • self-leadership
  • leadership of others
  • ability to construct personal and professional
    future application of societal values and ethics
  • task and emotion management
  • respect for fellow citizens, etc.
  • Through performance-driven learning customized
    or individualized learning programs global,
    interdisciplinary, hands-on curriculum, infusion
    of theory and practice, etc.

23
Knowledge Diffusion From the Creation of
Unifying Communication Bridges to the Timely
Knowledge Transfer
  • Communication Bridges vs. Fashionable Nonsense
    (Sokal, 1998)
  • de-codification and externalization
  • Timely transfer via networking, cyclical forms,
    and technologies

24
The Movement from Academic Socialism to Academic
Capitalism
  • Academic Socialism Academic Capitalism
  • Mode 1 (basic research) Mode 2 3 (applied
    research)
  • Socialist academician Capitalistic academician
  • (tenure, hierarchy, exclus) (heterarchy,
    inclusivity)
  • Government funded Industry funded
  • Oligarchic control Social control

25
Implications for the Czech System of Higher
Education
  • Knowledge Production
  • Removal of all unnecessary regulatory or legal
    barriers and obstacles to government-industry-univ
    ersity collaboration
  • Inducements to promote and support academic
    capitalists or entrepreneurial academicians
  • A radical change in the institutional culture
  • Cooperation w/Academy of Sciences

26
Implications for the Czech System of Higher
Education Cont
  • Knowledge Professionalization
  • Increased access to higher education
  • Implementation of innovative teaching and
    learning methods
  • Creation of more basic and applied research
    opportunities for students
  • Introduction of transdisciplinary curriculum

27
Implications for the Czech System of Higher
Education Cont
  • Knowledge Diffusion
  • Decodification and interpretation of knowledge
  • Utilization of additional methods of knowledge
    diffusion

28
Conclusion
  • ...because unless we pro-actively address
    emerging problems and issues caused by the
    capitalization of knowledge (research) we will
    NOT be successful in designing the most DESIRABLE
    (understand effective) future for the Czech
    society.

29
  • THANK YOU!
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