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Chapter 6 Global Information Systems and Market Research


Responds to fashion trends worldwide faster than major competitors like the Gap or Benetton ... market will emerge as macro environmental trends continue ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 Global Information Systems and Market Research

Chapter 6 Global Information Systems and Market
Key Issues
  • Global Marketing Research Challenges
  • -Translation, Culture, Scaling
  • Primary Data vs. Secondary Data
  • Qualitative Data vs. Quantitative Data
  • Emic vs. Etic. Analysis
  • Research Process

  • Understand the importance of information
    technology and marketing information systems
  • Utilize a framework for information scanning and
    opportunity identification
  • Understand the formal market research process
  • Know how to manage the marketing information
    collection system and market research effort

Information Technology for Global Marketing
  • Information Technology refers to an
    organizations processes for creating, storing,
    exchanging, using, and managing information.
  • Management Information Systems provide managers
    and other decision makers with a continuous flow
    of information about company operations

Tools of MIS
  • Intranet
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
  • Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS)
  • Data Warehouses

Customer Relationship Management
  • New business model
  • Philosophy that values two-way communication
    between company and customer
  • Every point of contact with a consumer is an
    opportunity to collect data
  • Can make employees more productive and enhance
    corporate profitability

Customer Relationship Management
  • The major thing is, One size fits all is not
    true. CRM is designed to support the sales
    process, and if I develop a system that works in
    the U.S., it might not work in Europe.
  • - Jim Dickie, Insight Technology Group

  • Safe Harbor Agreement establishes principles for
    privacy protection for companies that transfer
    data to the US from Europe
  • Purposes of the information collected and used
  • An opt out option to prevent disclosure of
    personal information
  • Can only transfer information to 3rd parties that
    are in compliance with Safe Harbor
  • Individuals must have access to information

Information Subject Agenda
  • The starting point for global marketing
    information system is identifying a list of
    subjects for which information is desired
  • Should be tailored to the needs and objectives of
    the company
  • Two essential criteria
  • Is all the information subject areas relevant to
    a company with global operations
  • Categories should be mutually exclusive

Information Subject Agenda
Scanning Modes Surveillance and Search
  • Surveillance
  • Informal information gathering
  • VIEWING general exposure to information
  • MONITORING paying special attention and
    tracking a story as it develops
  • Search
  • Formal information gathering
  • INVESTIGATION seeking out secondary data
  • RESEARCH conducting primary research

Avoiding Information Overload
  • Global organizations need
  • Efficient, effective system to scan and digest
    published sources of information in all countries
    in which it conducts business
  • Daily scanning, translating, digesting,
    abstracting, and electronic input of information
    into MIS

Sources of Market Information
  • Human sources
  • Executives based abroad are likely to have
    established communication with distributors,
    consumers, customers, suppliers, and government
  • Friends acquaintances, professional colleagues,
    consultants, and prospective employees

Sources of Market Information
  • Direct perception provides a vital background for
    the information that comes from human and
    documentary sources
  • Gets all the senses involved
  • Some information requires sensory experience to
    interpret it correctly
  • Can be important when the domestic market is
    dominated by a global player

Formal Market Research
  • Global Marketing Research is the
    project-specific, systematic gathering of data in
    the search scanning mode on a global basis
  • Challenge is to recognize and respond to national
    differences that influence the way information is
  • E.g. )Do consumers buy bicycles for sport or

The Scope
  • Global marketing research is used to make both
    strategic and tactical decisions
  • Market studies
  • Market size, customer needs
  • Competitive studies
  • Insights, domestic and foreign
  • Environmental studies
  • Economic, political, legal

International Research Successes
  • The Crisp
  • Europeans wanted a microwave that performed like
    a conventional oven
  • Pepsi Max
  • Positioned in Europe as a trendy youth drink, not
    a diet soda
  • Spanish Retailer Zara
  • Responds to fashion trends worldwide faster than
    major competitors like the Gap or Benetton

Steps in the Research Process
  • Identifying the research problem
  • Developing a research plan
  • Collecting data
  • Analyzing data
  • Presenting the research findings

A. Identifying the Research Problem
  • What information do I need?
  • Existing Markets customer needs already being
    served by one or more companies information may
    be readily available
  • Potential Markets
  • Latent market an undiscovered market demand
    would be there if product was there
  • Incipient market market will emerge as macro
    environmental trends continue
  • Why do I need this information?

Overcoming the SRC
  • Self-Reference Criterion occurs when a persons
    values and beliefs intrude on the assessment of a
    foreign culture
  • Must be aware of SRCs
  • Enhances managements willingness to conduct
    market research
  • Ensures that research design has minimal
    home-country bias
  • Increases managements receptiveness to findings

B. Developing A Research Plan
  • Do we need quantitative or qualitative data?
  • What is the information worth (versus what will
    it cost to collect)?
  • What will it cost if we dont get the
  • What can be gained from the information?

C. Collecting Data
  • Secondary Data
  • Statistical Abstract of the United States
  • Statistical Yearbook of the United Nations
  • World Factbook
  • The Economist
  • The Financial Times
  • Syndicated studies
  • And much more

C. Collecting Data (cont.)
  • Primary Data Collection Methods
  • Survey research
  • Interviews
  • Consumer panels
  • Observation
  • Focus groups

Primary Research Challenges
  • Experience in the Arab World
  • Mixed-gender focus groups are forbidden in Saudi
  • In other countries such as Egypt women often
    defer to men in focus groups.
  • Mall intercepts are uncommon. Approaching
    strangers is not normally acceptable.

Primary Research Challenges
  • Experience in the Arab world
  • Consumer surveys are untenable in rural Saudi
  • Mail is only delivered to businesses not homes
  • Low penetration of the Internet precludes
    Internet interviews

Special Considerations for Surveys
  • Benefits
  • Data collection from a large sample
  • Both quantitative and qualitative data possible
  • Can be self-administered
  • Issues
  • Subjects may respond with social desirability
  • Translation may be difficult
  • Use back and parallel translations to ensure
    accuracy and validity

Camera Manufacturer Survey in Latin America
  • Used Direct Translation
  • I get a good shot every time I use it
  • I get a good gun shot every time I use it

Focus Groups
  • Selection and Sample Size
  • How focus groups SHOULD be used
  • Learning how your product is used
  • Understanding customers experience with product
  • Acquiring descriptive consumer brand perceptions
  • Exploratory testing of new product, positioning,
    and promotion strategies
  • How focus groups SHOULD NOT be used
  • Estimate size or dollar value of market
  • Definitively identify segments
  • Make go/no-go decisions on new products, brand
    positioning, or promotion strategies

Focus Groups Cross Cultural Challenges
  • Men and women should not be in the same group in
    Central Asia
  • Courtesy bias precludes Japanese from criticizing
  • Respondents in polychronic cultures tend to show
    up late (or not at all!)
  • Young participants hesitant to criticize or
    disagree with older participants in collectivist
  • Focus group length should be longer than two
    hours in high context societies to allow enough
    get-to-know-each-other time

  • A sample is a selected subset of a population
    that is representative of the entire population.
  • Probability samples
  • Non-probability samples

D. Analyzing Data
  • Demand Pattern Analysis
  • Income Elasticity Measurements
  • Market Estimation by Analogy
  • Time-series displacement
  • Comparative Analysis
  • Cluster Analysis

Scale Translations
  • Does the meaning of the scale itself translate
  • A-F good school grade
  • Does it make sense outside of U.S. context?
  • Satisfied versus Happy versus Delighted
  • Not all cultures and languages see a clear
    difference or an increase in intensity between

When in doubt, use a numeric or Likert scale
E. Presenting the Findings
  • Report must clearly address problem identified in
    Step 1
  • Include a memo or executive summary of the key
    findings along with main report

Global Issues in Marketing Research
  • Many country markets must be included
  • Markets with low profit potential justifies
    limited research expenditures
  • Data in developing countries may be inflated or
  • Comparability of international statistics varies
  • Limits created by cultural differences

Enhancing Comparability of Data
  • Emic analysis
  • Ethnographic in nature
  • Studies culture from within
  • Uses cultures own meanings and values
  • Etic analysis
  • From the outside
  • Detached perspective that is used in
    multi-country studies
  • Enhances comparability but minimizes precision

Developing a Global Information System
Looking Ahead
  • Chapter 7 Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning

  • A Private network
  • Allows authorized company personnel (or
    outsiders) to share information electronically
  • 24-Hour Nerve Center

Electronic Data Interchange
  • Allows business units to
  • Submit orders
  • Issue invoices
  • Conduct business electronically
  • Transaction formats are universal

Efficient Consumer Response (ECR)
  • This is in addition to EDI
  • An effort for retailers and vendors to work
    closely on sock replenishment
  • ECR can be defined as a joint initiative by
    members of a supply chain to work toward
    improving and optimizing aspects of the supply
    chain to benefit customers.

Electronic Point of Sale
  • Gathers data at checkout scanners
  • Identifies product sales trends
  • Identifies how consumer preferences vary

Data Warehouses
  • Can help fine-tune product assortments for
    multiple locations
  • Enhances the ability of management to respond to
    changing business conditions