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Title: World War II Slides


1
World War II Slides
  • The Next 100!!!

2
17 August
  • British total since the outbreak of the war
  • 8,266 sailors
  • 4,400 soldiers
  • 3,851 pilots and airmen
  • 729 civilians

3
Churchill
  • Never in the field of human conflict was so much
    owed by so many to so few.

4
Churchill knew bombing Germany was a certain, but
long road to victory.
  • Even if Nazi legions stood triumphant on the
    Black Sea, or indeed the Caspian, even if Hitler
    were at the gates of India, it would profit him
    nothing if at the same time the entire economic
    and scientific apparatus of German war power lay
    shattered and pulverized at home.

5
The Blitz
  • German bombing of London.
  • As a result, British bombers were told to not
    return home with their bombs. If they could not
    locate primary target they should drop the bombs
    somewhere.

6
Day of the Eagle - Update
  • In first 40 days, 15,000 tons of bombs had been
    dropped on Britain.
  • By the end of September, the civilian death toll
    had reached 6,954.

7
Operation Tooth
  • Page 29 of notes.

8
Tripartite Pact
  • 27 September Germany, Italy and Japan enter
    into a tripartite pact.
  • Extends the Rome-Berlin Axis to Tokyo.
  • Creation of a New Order in Europe and Asia.
  • Pledged each of the parties to help the others if
    any of them were attacked by a power not involved
    in the war in Europe.

9
Operation Otto
  • Began on October 1
  • A program to construct and improve all roads and
    railways leading to the Soviet border.

10
The war is won!
  • Hitler to Mussolini on October 4.
  • He thought the war was just a matter of time
    since Britain would need aid from the United
    States and Russia.

11
  • Operation Sea Lion was cancelled except as a
    deception to keep the Russians looking the other
    way.

12
FDR
  • …we will continue to help those who resist
    aggression, and who now hold the aggressors far
    from our shores.
  • The men and women of Britain have shown how free
    people defend what they know to be
    right…democracy, when put to the test, can show
    the stuff of which it is made.

13
28 October 1940
  • Italian forces in Albania invade Greece.
  • Hitler was furious.
  • Hitler regarded the attack on Greece as a major
    strategic error.

14
3 November
  • First night since 7 September that there was no
    German air raid on London.
  • In the previous 3 months 2,433 German aircraft
    had been shot down and more than 6,000 German
    airmen had been killed.

15
5 November
  • FDR re-elected
  • British have Enigma message telling of the
    cancellation of Sea Lion.

16
11 November
  • 24 British torpedo bombers flew off HMS
    Illustrious in the Ionian Sea to attack the
    Italian Fleet at anchor at Taranto.
  • Japanese took note of this attack!!!
  • Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox, also took note
    of this attack and wrote about increasing the
    safety of Pearl Harbor.

17
Automedon Bag
  • British steamer Automedon was attacked by the
    German raider Atlantis.
  • Bag on the bridge contained British Merchant Navy
    code book, Chief of Staff opinion that it would
    be impossible to hold Hong Kong, Malaya or
    Singapore.
  • Showed vulnerability of British in SE Asia.
  • Bag was to be thrown over if attacked.

18
Bombing of Coventry
  • 14 November
  • 27 vital war factories were hit and production
    stopped for several months.
  • Firestorm started --- 60,000 of the 75,000
    buildings were destroyed or damaged.
  • 568 killed

19
Significance of Greece
  • Ploesti
  • Hitler
  • Egypt
  • Holy Lands
  • Secure the Mediterranean

20
FDR
  • The people of Europe who are defending
    themselves do not ask us to do their fighting.
    They ask us for the implements of war, the
    planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters,
    which will enable them to fight for their liberty
    and for our security.
  • We must be the great arsenal of democracy.

21
Directive No. 22
  • 11 January 1941
  • Hitler must come to the aid of Mussolini or face
    grave problems in or from the South.

22
13 January 1941
  • Stalin told his commanders the future war could
    be against Japan and Germany.
  • Wanted smaller and quicker units
  • Mobilization would be the key

23
Checking out England
  • FDR sent a contact to Britain to see if they
    could really wage a successful war.
  • He did not want a mass of American supplies to
    fall into German hands if Britain surrendered.
  • Hopkins to Churchill what he would tell FDR

24
  • If courage alone could win, the results are
    inevitable.
  • From the Book of Ruth Wither thou goest I will
    go and where thou lodgest, I will lodge thy
    people shall be my people, and thy God my God…
    Even to the end.

25
  • Story of the mother and the baby thrown into the
    snow.

26
19 January 1941
  • British launch an attack against the Italians in
    North Africa.
  • During the campaign every secret Italian military
    instruction was read by the British.
  • Hitler would send the 15th Armored Division under
    Rommel to help the Italians.

27
24 January 1941
  • United States Secretary of the Navy, Frank Knox,
    stated that if war eventuates with Japan, it is
    believed easily possible that hostilities would
    be initiated by a surprise attack upon the Fleet
    or the Naval Base at Pearl Harbor.

28
ABC - America-British Conversations
  • Talked about United States and British
    Commonwealth cooperation if the United States
    would enter the war.

29
Purple Machine
  • Japanese equivalent of the Enigma machine
  • Taken to Bletchley
  • Code is broken

30
2 February 1941
  • Germans estimated 211 Soviet Divisions against
    190 German and Axis Divisions
  • Advantage in s but not in technical or
    strategic side
  • Hitler thought Soviet rule was so hated that the
    first German attacks would cause Russia to
    crumble in rebellion.

31
Directive No. 23
  • 6 February1941
  • Acceleration of operations against the British
    war economy
  • increase sinking of merchant shipping
  • continued air attacks on armaments factories
  • focus on damaging British morale

32
The Commissar Decree
  • The war against Russia cannot be fought in
    knightly fashion. The struggle is one of
    ideologies and racial differences, and will have
    to be waged with unprecedented, unmerciful and
    unrelenting hardness.

33
The Commissar Decree
  • The Commissars hold view directly opposed to
    those of National Socialism. Hence these
    Commissars must be eliminated . Any German
    soldier who break international laws will be
    pardoned.
  • Came direct from Hitler and would lead to the
    deaths of hundreds of thousands of innocent
    people.

34
Operation Claymore
  • British raid on Lofoton Islands, just off the
    Norwegian coast, inside the Artic Circle
  • Aim was to capture Enigma machine used by Navy to
    help break code keys
  • After 3 weeks of work at Bletchley, could read
    naval traffic for last week of April and most of
    May

35
Richard Sorge
  • On 5 March he sends word from Tokyo to his
    Russian superiors of a telegram from Ribbentrop
    to German ambassador in Japan of date for
    invasion of Russia

36
The highest jurist in the State is me -Goering
  • Death becomes penalty for singing the Polish
    anthem
  • Theft on large scale of art from museums and
    private collections

37
SOE Special Operations Executive
  • subversive agents could be dropped into occupied
    France quite unobtrusively, move about inside it
    with reasonable ease, be welcomed by a decent
    French population, and given time, bravery,
    trouble, and luck be extricated

38
22 March
  • Japanese agent in Hawaii, Nagai Kita, was told by
    Tokyo to obtain intelligence about US fleet
    movements in and out of Pearl Harbor.
  • Instructions were intercepted by American Signals
    Intelligence
  • Did not cause alarm

39
Directive No. 25
  • Yugoslavia and Greece would be attacked
    simultaneously
  • Invasion of Russia postponed from May to June

40
28 March
  • Battle of Britain announced
  • 28,859 British civilians killed and 40,166
    injured in the previous 7 months
  • In March 1941 alone there were 4,259 civilians
    killed

41
Defense Plan No. 1
  • Germany first
  • Japan next

42
28 March
  • Group of Western scientists discovered a new
    element
  • Would be named after the planet Pluto
    discovered just 11 years earlier it would be
    called Plutonium

43
News of Holocaust
  • At the end of March the West learned through
    Polish Government in Exile that more than 3,000
    Poles had been murdered in Auschwitz or had
    died from exposure and cold in the previous 10
    months

44
Operation Castigo
  • The bombing of Belgrade 6 April
  • Principle purpose created confusion through
    terror
  • 17,000 civilians killed largest number of
    civilians killed by bombing in a single day in 20
    months of war
  • Many Yugoslavs from surrounding area had come
    into the capital to celebrate Palm Sunday

45
Clan Fraser
  • British merchant ship hit by German bombs in the
    Greek port of Piraeus
  • Blew up with 200 tons of explosives on board
  • 10 other ships were sunk as a result

46
10 April
  • In the Atlantic, first hostile action by US
    against Germany since the war in Europe began
  • Destroyer Niblack dropped depth charges against a
    German submarine

47
Greenland
  • US forces will occupy the area
  • US extends security zone and patrol areas as far
    east as 25th Meridian

48
Belgrade
  • 8th European capital to be conquered by German
    arms in 1 ½ years

49
23 April
  • Greek Army surrenders to German and Italian
    invaders
  • Operation Demon evacuation of British,
    Australian, New Zealand, and Polish troops from
    Greece. Begin 24 April and continues for 6 days
  • 50,732 men were evacuated
  • Most were taken under strong escort to Crete

50
25 April
  • Hitler issues Directive No. 28 Operation
    Mercury the invasion of Crete

51
Losses in Battle for Greece
  • Greeks 15,700
  • Italians 13,755
  • BEF 3,712
  • Germans 2,232

52
Good Boy Stalin
  • While preparing for war Stalin tried not to
    provoke hostilities. In April his shipments of
    raw materials to Germany reached highest level
    since Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 1939 208,000
    tons of grain, 90,000 tons of fuel oil, 8,300
    tons of cotton, 6,340 tons of copper, tin, nickel
    and other metals, 4,000 tons of rubber
  • Factories around Moscow were told to move to the
    countrys interior

53
10 May 1941
  • Deputy Leader of Nazi party, Rudolf Hess, flew
    across the North Sea, parachuted into Great
    Britain
  • He had come to make peace between Great Britain
    and Germany
  • German official announcement was that Hess had a
    mental disorder British interrogators agreed

54
10 May 1941
  • London bombed
  • Debating chamber of the House of Commons
    destroyed
  • 1/3 of streets in central London were impassable
  • 1,436 civilians killed
  • Bombing raid was last raid of the Spring Blitz
    of 1941

55
Unexploded Bomb Disposal Squads
  • Death toll among them was high
  • Holy Trinity bomb team of Earl of Suffolk, his
    secretary and his chauffeur. (Same Earl that had
    brought heavy water and nuclear scientists from
    France
  • On 12 May they were defusing their 35th bomb when
    it exploded and they were all killed

56
14 May
  • Germans began massive bombing of Malta
  • They were trying to make it look as if Malta was
    to be attacked when the actual target was Crete
  • Britain knew Crete was target through Enigma
    intercepts

57
Dr. Sigmund Rascher
  • Air Force surgeon
  • Asked Himmler for permission to use inmates from
    Dachau for experiments in atmospheric tests
  • Himmler approved

58
20 May German attack on Crete begins
  • General Kurt Student led the airborne forces on
    Crete
  • What do you know about this battle?

59
Second Lieutenant Charles Upham
  • In the fighting on Crete a New Zealander was
    awarded the Victoria Cross.
  • He was Charles Upham
  • He would later win a 2nd Victoria Cross in North
    Africa
  • Only British Commonwealth serviceman to be
    awarded the Victoria Cross twice during World War
    II

60
23 May Directive No. 30
  • The decision about whether or not to launch an
    offensive to break the British position between
    the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf, or on the
    Suez Canal, will be decided only after
    Barbarossa

61
24 May
  • The Bismarck sank the British battle cruiser Hood
    only 3 of the crew of 1,500 survived

62
27 May
  • German battleship Bismarck was attacked in the
    Atlantic by a ring of British warships
  • Admiral Lutjens gave orders for the ship to be
    scuttled
  • Submarine alarm was sounded for a British ship
    performing rescues work it withdrew at full
    speed Germans hanging to side of ship were
    chopped apart by the propellers
  • 2,300 German sailors were killed

63
FDR talking about supplies to England
  • This can be done. It must be done. It will be
    done. He went on to add The only thing we
    have to fear is fear itself.

64
June 3
  • SS Deaths Head Division traveled from France to
    East Prussia
  • These types of units would follow in the wake of
    the German invasion of Russia

65
June 10
  • 751st anniversary of the drowning of Frederick of
    Barbarossa in 1190
  • Germans put Operation Warzburg into effect the
    mine laying in the Baltic Sea to prevent the
    Russian Baltic Fleet from escaping into the North
    Sea

66
Directive No. 32
  • Hitler spelled out plans for after the
    destruction of the Soviet armed forces
  • Secure the Atlantic coastline of Spain and
    Portugal
  • Renew Siege of England

67
Churchill
  • Should this new war break out we shall of course
    give all encouragement, and any help we can
    spare, to the Russians following the principle
    that Hitler is the foe we have to beat.

68
June 17
  • All German military, naval, and air commanders
    received a coded radio message
  • The attack on Russia was to begin at 300 am on
    Sunday 22 June

69
Barbarossa
  • 21 June shortest night of the year
  • 22 June 2.5 million Russian soldiers faced 3.2
    million German soldiers (est.)
  • 2.2 million Russians in reserve
  • Only 30 of Soviet troops had automatic weapons.
    Only 20 of Soviet aircraft and 9 of Soviet
    tanks were of a modern type
  • German army begins advance along 930 mile front

70
Barbarossa
  • Russia had not signed the Geneva Convention and
    therefore could not be expected to wage war in
    the civilized fashion.
  • Men of the SS Deaths Head Division would
    therefore be expected to fight without mercy or
    pity
  • The war in the East was a struggle upon which
    the fate of the German people depended

71
What to do, what to do?
  • Russians issue order for their soldiers to
    attack the enemy and destroy him wherever they
    have crossed the frontier BUT Soviet troops
    were ordered not to cross the frontier into
    German territory.

72
Warsaw Ghetto
  • When the news of the German invasion of Russia
    reached the Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto many were
    trying to hide their smiles. With Russia on our
    side, victory was certain and the end for Hitler
    was near.

73
Goebbels to his diary on 23 June
  • The public mood is one of slight depression.
    The nation wants peace, though not at the price
    of defeat, but every new theater of operations
    brings worry and concern.

74
Fast start
  • By noon on 22 June, the Luftwaffe had destroyed
    more than 1,000 Soviet aircraft on the ground or
    in combat ¼ of Russias whole air strength.

75
23 June Moscow
  • Evacuation Council was set up
  • Was to organize the dismantling, removal, and
    reassembly of more than 15,000 armament factories
    and industrial plants in Western Russia and the
    Ukraine, to safety in the East behind the Ural
    Mountains
  • In its very moment of shock and weakness, the
    Soviet Union was rebuilding the basis of a
    massive war potential

76
Goebbels to his diary
  • I am refraining from publishing big maps of
    Russia. The huge areas involved may frighten the
    public.

77
To the death
  • There was fear among the German troops, even the
    SS troops, at the many groups of Soviet soldiers
    who, isolated far behind the front line,
    consistently fought to death rather than
    surrender.

78
Vulture 27 June
  • British cryptographers at Bletchley broke Enigma
    code used by the Germans on the Eastern Front

79
On Minsk Front
  • After only one week of war, advancing German
    units were already 1/3 of the way from German
    border to Moscow.

80
Nazi Party Newspaper
  • The Russian soldier surpasses our adversary in
    the West in his contempt for death. Endurance
    and fatalism make him hold out until he is blown
    up with his trench, or falls in hand to hand
    fighting.

81
  • Scorched Earth
  • Partisans
  • Evacuation of children from Leningrad

82
  • On 29 June, as German forces drove through what
    had once been the western provinces of Poland,
    the first Prime Minister of Poland, the pianist
    Paderwski, died in the U.S. at the age of 80.
    President Roosevelt at once offered Arlington
    Cemetery as his coffins resting place until
    Poland is free. Paderewskis lead-sealed
    casket, inside a cedarwood box, mounted on wheels
    for its journey back to Poland, is still at
    Arlington 47-years later.

83
Jakov Kreiser
  • A Soviet General and a Jew
  • Commanded a motorized infantry division
  • He halted a tank attack by Guderian
  • He was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union

84
July 1
  • Marshals Voroshilov and Shaposhnikov briefed
    those to stay behind to become partisans

85
Richard Sorge
  • Spy that tells Moscow that Japan will attack into
    French Indo-China rather than Russia
  • Russian reinforcement head West

86
3 July
  • Stalin broadcast for the first time since the
    invasion 12 days earlier
  • A grave threat hangs over our country….Military
    tribunals will pass summary judgment on any who
    fail in our defense, whether through panic or
    treachery, regardless of their position or their
    rank.

87
…Bolshevism must be exterminated
  • Moscow, as the center of the doctrine, must
    disappear from the earths surface, as soon as
    its riches have been brought to shelter.
  • Hitler to his private staff making the
    beauties of the Crimea accessible by autobahn
    from Germany. For us Germans that will be our
    Riviera.
  • Croatia too would be a tourist paradise
  • The Urals would be the new Eastern frontier

88
7 July
  • United States launches Operation Indigo landing
    a Marine brigade in Iceland
  • American patrols could now patrol further
    eastward to within 400 miles of Scotland
  • American support was allowing Britain to extend
    their support to Russia

89
2-front war
  • Increased British bombing of German cities helped
    draw German aircraft back from the Russian front

90
Hitlers intentions
  • Hitler wants to completely destroy Moscow and
    Leningrad and to fully dispose of their
    populations otherwise these populations would
    have to be fed during the winter

91
12 July
  • Britain and the Soviet Union signed a pact
    pledging mutual assistance against Germany.
  • Neither side would make a separate peace

92
14 July
  • The Russians used for the first time a new
    multiple rocket launcher
  • It was called the Katyusha and could fire 320
    rockets in 25 seconds

93
Juan Pujol Garcia
  • Was the chief of a network of spies that he
    recruited
  • Included a Dutch airline steward, a censor in the
    Ministry of Information, a typist in the Cabinet
    office, an American soldier based in London, and
    a Welsh fascist all of whom were non-existent
    as was Garcia himself gtgtgt in fact the British
    double agent Garbo

94
Retreat and regroup
  • Hitler was becoming as worried as his commanders
    by the Russians ability to retreat and regroup
  • Directive No. 33 (19 July) The aim of the next
    operations must be to prevent any further sizable
    enemy forces from withdrawing into the depths of
    Russia, and wiping them out.

95
20 July
  • The first British naval vessel, a minelayer,
    crossed the North Sea on its way to the Soviet
    Artic port of Archangel with military supplies.
  • a northern saga of heroism, bravery and
    endurance- Soviet Ambassador to London

96
21 July
  • Germans launch first air raid on Moscow
  • The partisan war is what caught the Germans by
    surprise

97
26 July
  • As a sign of disapproval and retaliation, FDR
    seized all Japanese assets in the US this was
    followed by the British and the Dutch.
  • This cut off Japan from ¾ of her overseas trade
    and 90 of her oil imports.
  • Japans own oil resources could last for 3 years
    at the very most

98
30 July
  • The Germans had taken 799,910 prisoners and
    destroyed or captured 12,025 tanks in Russia.
  • What do you do with these POWs?
  • What does this take away from your war effort?

99
31 July
  • Hitlers greatest weakness was found in the vast
    numbers of oppressed peoples who hated Hitler and
    the immoral ways of his Government. Stalin to
    Harry Hopkins at meeting in the Kremlin.
  • Stalin continued that these people and countless
    other millions in nations still unconquered,
    could receive the kind of encouragement and moral
    strength they needed to resist Hitler only from
    one source, AND THAT WAS THE UNITED STATES.

100
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