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GIS Development: General Issues Step1 Needs Assessment Step2 Conceptual Design of GIS Step3 Survey o

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Title: GIS Development: General Issues Step1 Needs Assessment Step2 Conceptual Design of GIS Step3 Survey o


1
GIS Development General Issues Step1 -
Needs Assessment Step2 - Conceptual Design
of GIS Step3 - Survey of Available Data
Step4 - Evaluation of HW and SW (Source GIS
AsiaPacific, June/July August/September 1998
and New York State Archives GIS Development
Guides)
  • Faculty of Computer Science
  • University of Indonesia
  • Dr. Aniati Murni

2
Managers Overview
  • GIS development is a process of technological
    innovation and requires management attention
    appropriate to this type of activity.
  • It is critically important for all expected
    participants in a cooperative GIS venture to
    fully understand the development process.
  • If a smaller unit of government is to reap the
    benefits of a county-level GIS, they must
    actively participate in the planning and
    development effort.

Rise
3
Why Planning Process Is Needed
  • The use of a GIS requires that large spatial
    databases be created, appropriate hardware and
    software be purchased, applications be developed,
    and all components be installed, integrated and
    tested before users can begin to use the GIS.
  • Several problems of a technology innovation
    requires training for staff, inaccurate
    development time estimates, greater uncertainty
    about costs.
  • A local government should view the GIS projects
    an opportunity to introduce fundamental change
    into the way its business is conducted.

Rise
4
Policy on GIS Project Management
  • Emphasize advantages of GIS to individual users
    and entire organization.
  • Require high level of competency by all
    participants.
  • Ensure high level of management commitment from
    all management levels in the organization.
  • Require participation in team building and team
    participation within and between departments.
  • Minimize time between user needs assessment and
    availability of useful products.
  • Develop positive attitude toward change within
    organization.
  • Ensure level of technology is appropriate for
    intended uses.

Rise
5
Policy on Data Sharing
  • The corporate database is a single
    organization-wide data resource.
  • Establishing the corporate database is much more
    a question of policy, management cooperation and
    coordination.
  • Sharing of data among government agencies is a
    virtual necessity.
  • The set of state laws and regulations applicable
    to GIS data are not adequate to resolve cost
    issues and to facilitate regional data sharing
    cooperatives.

6
Several Issues on Data Sharing
  • Who and how will the data be collected?
  • How will the data sharing be arranged?
    purchased? licensed? other agreement?
  • Who will own the data?
  • How will the new GIS data be integrated to the
    existing data files?
  • Who will be responsible in updating the data?
  • Who will provide the budget for data creation and
    maintenance?
  • Who will provide public access to the data?
  • Who will be responsible for data archiving and
    retention? of the original? the copies?

7
Benefits from the GIS(Efficiency versus
Effectiveness)
  • The local government needs the GIS for
    maintaining public records, responding to public
    inquiries for information, conducting studies and
    making recommendations to elected officials
    (decision makers), and managing public facilities
    and services (utilities, garbage removal,
    transportation, etc.).
  • Efficiency (savings) using the query function of
    a GIS can range from 2 person-years for a smaller
    town, to 5-8 person years for a large town, to 10
    or more person-years for a large county.
  • Effectiveness is obtained by better planning and
    better or more effective decision-making.

8
Resources for Developing a GIS
  • Developing a GIS involves investment in five
    areas computer hardware, computer software,
    geographic data, procedures and trained staff.
  • Developing the geographic database (which
    includes some of the procedure and staff costs)
    can account for 60 to 80 of the GIS development
    cost.

9
Staffing Requirements for a GIS
  • 3 areas where expertise is needed includes
    management of the GIS project (GIS project
    manager), GIS database skill (database
    administrator), and application development for
    database and users (GIS software analyst).
  • In the case that the three experts are hired, a
    full-time GIS manager is available on staff.
  • Alternatives to staff expansion are consultants
    and data conversion firms.

10
Key points of managing GIS development
  • Decision to investigate GIS for the organization
    identification of participants (departments
    within agencies and group agencies, most
    potential agency as a user or as a contributor
    most data).
  • Decision to proceed with detailed planning and
    design of the database - applications, data
    required, and source of data.
  • Decision to acquire the GIS hardware and software
    preparation of the detailed database plan, plan
    of benchmark test, schedule for data conversion.

11
GIS Development Cycle
The GIS development cycle is based on the
philosophy that one first decides what the GIS
should do and then as a second activity decides
on how the GIS will accomplish each task.
Needs Assessment
Conceptual Design
Database Planning and Design
Database Construction
Available Data Survey
GIS Use and Database Maintenance
GIS System Integration
Application Development
Pilot / Benchmark
Acquisition of GIS HW and SW
HW and SW Survey
12
GIS Development Step1 - Needs Assessment
(Source GIS AsiaPacific, June/July
August/September 1998 and New York State
Archives GIS Development Guides)
  • Faculty of Computer Science
  • University of Indonesia
  • Dr. Aniati Murni

13
GIS Development Cycle
The GIS development cycle is based on the
philosophy that one first decides what the GIS
should do and then as a second activity decides
on how the GIS will accomplish each task.
Needs Assessment
Conceptual Design
Database Planning and Design
Database Construction
Available Data Survey
GIS Use and Database Maintenance
GIS System Integration
Application Development
Pilot / Benchmark
Acquisition of GIS HW and SW
HW and SW Survey
14
Step 1 Needs Assessment (2)
General Objectives
  • The need to understand the project / business.
  • Identification the list of needed GIS functions
    and the master list of needed geographic data.
  • Involvement of potential users in describing
    their needs to the GIS analyst, learning what the
    GIS capability to accomplish their business,
    understanding the nature of GIS life cycle, time
    (significant time lags between needs assessment
    and the GIS can actually be used, some unforeseen
    problems) and cost (data collection, maintenance
    and retention) required.

15
Step 1 Needs Assessment (2)
  • A needs assessment is required if the local
    government will be adopting a GIS throughout the
    organization.
  • Without a complete needs assessment each
    department may proceed to adopt their own system
    and database which may not be compatible with
    those of another department.
  • The largest benefit for a local government
    adopting a GIS is to realize efficiencies from
    common database and the sharing of data among
    departments.

16
Step 1 Needs Assessment (3)
  • Data/map inventory is not a wise approach
  • It does not fully reflect the needs of the
    department.
  • This approach tends to focus only on the internal
    data of the organization while the government
    emphasizes on data sharing.
  • One-on-One interview would capture the needs of a
    dept.
  • It needs more time for questionaire design
    (interview design).
  • It needs time for interviewing process.
  • Interviewing and documenting the needs of
    potential GIS users.
  • Compiling the results of the needs assessment
    into the master data list (entity/parcel -
    attribute/owner - spatial object/polygon) and the
    list of GIS function.
  • --gt GIS data model and the GIS specifications.

17
Step 1 Needs Assessment (4)
  • Main activities of conducting interview
  • Conduct start-up seminar or workshop
  • Interview each potential user
  • Prepare documentation (forms) for each
    application (interview plan)
  • Review each application description with the
    user
  • Obtain user approval of and sign-off for each
    application description.

18
Step 1 Needs Assessment (5)
  • Start-up seminar
  • Introduce definitions what is a GIS, how is a
    GIS needed by local government (typical
    application).
  • Follow the interview procedure what the
    interviewee should do, what is expected from the
    interviewee, who should approve the application
    description, how the information from the
    application description will be used.
  • Conduct a group discussion to have list of
    potential users, set of their typical
    applications, and their existing condition or
    system.

19
Step 1 Needs Assessment (6)
  • The objectives of GIS planning activities
  • To ensure that the user requirements will be
    fully met
  • To develop documentation, especially data
    documentation (metadata), needed to use and
    maintain the GIS
  • To be in a position to participate in data
    sharing programs with other agencies as
    additional applications are developed
  • To create a permanent record of the data and its
    use to document agency plans and decisions, and
    to meet data retention and archiving requirements
    (retention - archiving - back up)
  • To use as a base for building a larger,
    multi-function at some later date.

20
Step 1 Needs Assessment (7)
  • Groups of information (output of needs assessment
    process) needed to plan the development of a GIS
    system includes
  • Applications to be developed work flow within a
    department as the basis of GIS applications.
  • GIS functions required query, display, spatial
    analysis functions such as overlay analysis.
  • Data needed in the GIS database how to collect
    the data, who will collect the data, how the data
    will be used.
  • Data maintenance procedures based on the work
    flow and process within and between departments,
    the responsibility for data creation, updating,
    and maintenance will become apparent.

21
Step 1 Needs Assessment (8)
  • Common use of the GIS by a local government
  • Browse and simple display (automated mapping)
  • Query and display
  • Map analysis and spatial modeling.
  • The GIS in a local government is used to
  • Respond to public inquiries
  • Perform routine operations such as application
    reviews and permit approvals and
  • Provide information on the larger policy issues
    requiring action by the town board.

22
Step 1 Needs Assessment (9)
  • The information needed to plan the development of
    a GIS system for each departments is published in
    a report and shared among another departments and
    will be used by each department to
  • Design the GIS database
  • Identify GIS software that will meet the
    governments needs
  • Prepare an implementation plan
  • Start estimating the benefits and costs of a GIS.

23
Step 1 Needs Assessment (10)
  • Required standard forms
  • GIS applications - task description preparing
    map and table, processing query, conducting
    particular spatial analysis - map display form,
    table display form, flow chart form, data flow
    diagram form, and entity-relationship diagram
    form.
  • GIS activities - important information for the
    user issuing building permits, conducting public
    health insurance
  • GIS data - important spatial data which is not
    appeared in any GIS application ground truth
    map, peta rupa bumi.

24
Step 1 Needs Assessment (11)
GIS Application Description Form (courtesy of New
York State Archives)
Application Identification
Description
Functions
Plateau or Terrace
Entities Attributes
Lower Slope
Rise
25
GIS Development Step2 - Conceptual Design of GIS
Step3 - Survey of Available Data(Source
GIS AsiaPacific, June/July August/September
1998 and New York State Archives GIS
Development Guides)
  • Faculty of Computer Science
  • University of Indonesia
  • Dr. Aniati Murni

26
GIS Development Cycle
The GIS development cycle is based on the
philosophy that one first decides what the GIS
should do and then as a second activity decides
on how the GIS will accomplish each task.
Needs Assessment
Conceptual Design
Database Planning and Design
Database Construction
Available Data Survey
GIS Use and Database Maintenance
GIS System Integration
Application Development
Pilot / Benchmark
Acquisition of GIS HW and SW
HW and SW Survey
27
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (1)
  • Database planning and data life cycle is the
    single most important activity in GIS
    development.
  • They include data identification in the needs
    assessment, inclusion of data in the data model,
    creation of the meta data, collection and entry
    of the data into the database, updating and
    maintenance, retention according to the
    appropriate record retention schedule.
  • The product of the conceptual is a data model
    which defines the GIS database and supports the
    detailed database planning activity.

28
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (2)
Life Cycle of a GIS Database Source Documents
Source Documents Maps, Images, Air Photos, etc.
Data Objects Identified During Needs Assessment
Preparation of Data Model
Match Needed Data to Available Data and Sources
Survey and Evaluation of Available Data
Prepared Detailed Database Plan
Map and Tabular Data Conversion
Create Initial Metadata
Add Record Retention Schedules to Metadata
Database QA/QC Editing
Shelf
GIS Database
Lower Slope
Continuing GIS Database Maintenance
Database Backups
Archives
(courtesy of New York State Archives)
29
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (3)
Data Model
  • A data model is a formal definition of the data
    required in a GIS, in the form of (i) a
    structured list or (ii) an entity-relationship
    diagram.
  • A data model is a formal specification for the
    entities, their attributes and all relationships
    between the entities for the GIS.
  • The purpose of a data model is to make it
    possible for both user and GIS analyst agree on
    the data definitions which is represented
    completely rigorous and unambiguous fashion.

30
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (4)
Several terms for data description in GIS database
  • Feature is a term derived from cartography while
    object and entity are terms derived from computer
    science.
  • Object is a thing that can be seen or touched,
    material thing that occupies space.
  • Entity is a thing that has definite, individual
    existence in reality.
  • Feature is the shape, form, or appearance of a
    person or thing.
  • Layer, coverage, and theme are terms that are
    used to describe the organization of entities and
    attributes in a GIS.

31
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (5)
Simple Entity - Relationship (E-R)
Diagram Entities represented as rectangles,
relationship as diamonds and attributes as
ellipses.
Building Located on
Parcel Resides Owned
by Occupant Joe Jones Owner
Apex Co.
Shelf
Upper Slope
Plateau or Terrace
Deep Ocean
Lower Slope
Rise
32
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (6)
E-R Model
1. Parts of E-R Model
3. Rules for identifying entities,
relationships, and attributes
  • Entities
  • Relationships between entities
  • Attributes of entities or relationships.
  • A common noun corresponds
  • to an entity type
  • A transitive verb corresponds
  • to a relationship type
  • An adjective corresponds to
  • an attribute type.

2. Types of normal relationships
  • Belonging to
  • Set and subset relationships
  • Parent-child relationships
  • Component parts of an object.

33
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (7)
  • Each entity and its attribute map into one or
    more relational tables.
  • Each relationship is a regular relationship
    executed by the relational database query system
    or a spatial relationship and if it is not a
    standard operation then the indicated operation
    which usually includes a complex coputation need
    to be written (using Avenue Script/Macro
    Language).

Area terbangun
Bangunan kantor Bangunan rumah sakit Bangunan
sekolah Bangunan pertokoan
Koordinat Letak Luas Milik
Rise
34
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (8)
Spatial Data Standard and Metadata Requirements
  • Metada is information about data (i) describe
    the characteristics of
  • the data (entity and attributes) using its
    standard name, and (ii) provide
  • information on its accuracy and its source and
    its archiving provision.
  • Important functions of metadata provide (i) a
    basic data descrption of
  • a data set (ii) information for data transfer
    / sharing (iii) information for
  • entries into clearinghouses to catalogue the
    availability of data.
  • Metadata should serve as (i) a documentation
    and data management
  • tool (ii) data definition, source
    documentation, management and
  • updating, data archiving and retention
    requirement (iii) information to
  • support database description for spatial data
    clearinghouses.

35
Step 2 Conceptual Design of the GIS (9)
An example of metadata tables
2. Reference Information Filename File
Format Availability Cost File Internet
Address Metadata Created By Date Metada
Created Metadata Updated By Date Metadata
Updated Metadata Standard Name Comments
5. Attribute Information Data Object Name Data
Attribute Name Attribute Description Attribute
Filename Code Set Name Code Set
Description Measurement units Accuracy
Description Comments
1. Organization Information Name of
Organization Department Room/Suite Number
Street Name City State Zip Code Phone Number Fax
Number Contact Person Extension Number E-mail
Address Internet Address Comments
Shelf
Upper Slope
Plateau or Terrace
Deep Ocean
Lower Slope
Rise
36
Step 3 Survey of Available Data
  • Inventory and document maps, tabulars, digital
    data within the local government as well as data
    available from other sources such as other local
    governments and private sector organizations.
  • Source of data interpreted remote sensing data
    (raster-based), other digital data (such as
    elevation data), maps (vector-based or CAD
    files), scanned data (pictures/diagrams), survey
    data, field data, statistical data.
  • Formats hardcopy/eye-readable format to be
    digitized into vector format, analog image format
    (aerial photos), fully digital format (scanned
    image, remote sensing image, digital elevation
    model).

37
GIS Development Step4 - Evaluation of GIS HW and
SW(Source GIS AsiaPacific, June/July
August/September 1998 and New York State
Archives GIS Development Guides)
  • Faculty of Computer Science
  • University of Indonesia
  • Dr. Aniati Murni

38
GIS Development Cycle
The GIS development cycle is based on the
philosophy that one first decides what the GIS
should do and then as a second activity decides
on how the GIS will accomplish each task.
Needs Assessment
Conceptual Design
Database Planning and Design
Database Construction
Available Data Survey
GIS Use and Database Maintenance
GIS System Integration
Application Development
Pilot / Benchmark
Acquisition of GIS HW and SW
HW and SW Survey
39
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (1)
  • Get informed on local widely used system
  • Status of the current hardware and software
    market
  • What other local companies (consulting firms,
    universities, governments) are using
  • Observe the existing hardware and software
    combinations
  • Local data formats and data conversion facility.

Deep Ocean
40
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (2)
  • Get informed on publications
  • Source Book GIS World Inc.
  • GIS conference publishers
  • Scholarly Journals American Cartographic
    Association
  • Trade Magazines GIS World
  • Books with vendor information ESRI Inc.
  • Vendor Booth
  • User Groups
  • Current Users.

41
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (3)
  • Identify Specific Needs
  • Selection between vector components or raster
    components
  • Mainly handling data or data modeling or Web
    publishing or heavy on data analysis
  • Find technical information from the local
    vendors
  • Acquire practical insights from other users.

42
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (4)
  • Know the Products
  • Software categories modular or core
  • A fully integrated GIS core product may not be
    necessary
  • A small module user-friendly GIS core product may
    easily suit our needs.

Shelf
43
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (5)
  • Selection Process (software)
  • Evaluate software independently from hardware, it
    is evaluated on functionality and performance
  • It should provide GUI (graphical user interface)
    so that it will be easy for the user to use the
    software
  • It should provide a programming language that
    allow the user to develop specific application,
    to modify the software or to be customized
  • It should have a standard to import and export
    data, standard guidelines for developing
    application (Open GIS Group)

44
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (6)
  • Selection Process (software)
  • The performance factors (i) how the software is
    engineered (ii) how is the speed of the hardware
    where the software is implemented
  • Make sure the hardware capacity support the
    software requirements
  • Check the possible expandability (such as
    networking capability, sharing data with other
    applications, track record of the software
    developer
  • Justify the one-time license fee with an on going
    maintenance fee and upgrade cost (to get the most
    current versions of the software, usually 15 to
    30 of the initial license fee).

Rise
45
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (7)
  • Selection Process (hardware)
  • Operating System GIS will need to fit into the
    OS plan (type of supported computer network,
    in-house of contractor-based technical support
    skill).
  • Processor need fast clock speed (MHz) 32-bit or
    64-bit processor are the best (can grab 32 bits
    of information during each cycle).
  • Disk GIS needs a large amount of disk space (10
    20 gigabytes).
  • Memory Random Access Memory (RAM), most
    applications run better as the amount of memory
    increases.
  • Communications need to retain competent
    consultant who works with networks, LAN (Local
    Area Network) within unit (can share printers and
    database servers, e-mail, and disk sharing, WAN
    (Wide Area Network) provide entryway into larger
    networks (outside the unit) and Internet for
    sharing ideas in a GIS forum, data downloading,
    getting latest information on product/vendor.

Rise
46
Step 4 Survey of GIS Hardware and Software (8)
  • Ensure Vendor Support is Available
  • Support and training should be a key factor in
    the decision
  • Some form of supports include good manual,
    dedicated technical staff
  • For outside vendor, there should be a support
    agreement with key local hardware vendors
  • Asking their performance to the existing user.
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