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Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies Part One: Tourism Overview

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Title: Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies Part One: Tourism Overview


1
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
Learning Objectives
  • Recognize the world-wide importance of natural
    resource conservation and sustainable tourism
    development.
  • Learn how ecotourism can benefit local people.
  • Understand the dangers and limitations of
    ecotourism.
  • Understand tourist codes of ethics and
    guidelines.
  • Learn current environmental practices of tourism
    organizations and suppliers.
  • Learn how to maintain natural destinations.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
2
The WTTC Four Myths of Tourism
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Myth 1
  • Travel Tourism is a non-essential, mass
    activity of affluent people in developed
    countries.
  • Myth 2
  • Tourisms major environmental impact is damage to
    developing countries.
  • Myth 3
  • Ecotourism is the only logical, sustainable
    response to the environmental impacts of Travel
    Tourism.
  • Myth 4
  • Comprehensive planning regulations and control
    are the only way to curb the environmental
    exploitation of Travel Tourism.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
3
WTTC Key Environmental Issues
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Global warming
  • Depletion of the ozone layer
  • Acid rain
  • Depletion and pollution of water resources
  • Depletion and pollutionof land resources

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
4
WTTC Implications of Resource Depletion
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Political instability or increased competition
    for land could lead to loss of potential new
    tourism destinations and degradation of existing
    destinations.
  • Loss of landscape and wildlife could cause a
    decrease in customer satisfaction with tourism
    products and hence lower propensity to travel to
    some destinations.
  • Higher fuel prices could lead to operational
    price increases and corresponding decreases in
    the number of travelers in this price-sensitive
    market.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
5
Elements of the WTTC Vision of Travel
Tourismand the Environment
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Travel Tourism is an integral aspect of modern
    societies
  • Global awareness of environmental damage is
    developing rapidly
  • The resources of the worlds largest industry can
    and must be harnessed to achieve environmental
    goals
  • The industry has the potential to influence
    billions of customers per years and to use its
    leverage to achieve beneficial environmental
    effects
  • The customer challenge will exert a growing
    pressure to achieve environmental improvements
  • Environmental lobbies will add pressure to
    develop good environmental practice
  • Self-regulation must be developed rapidly and
    effectively and used to influence the development
    of appropriate and workable regulations
  • Corporate environmental mission statements are a
    vital first step toward self-regulation
  • Environmental leadership must come from the major
    international companies

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
6
The Premises of Sustainable Development
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • The Premise of Interdependency
  • The Premise of Multidisciplinarity
  • The Premise of Previous Experience
  • The Premise that Nature is Better
  • The Premise of Politics and Power

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
7
Sustainable Development and Tourism The Critical
Areas
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Defining the Relevant Population/Community
  • Defining the Time Horizon
  • Defining the Dimensions of Sustainability
  • Defining the Values that Underlie Sustainable
    Development

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
8
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
Sustainable Development in Tourism A Possible
Allocation of Responsibility
Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
9
Sustainable Tourism An Agenda for Action
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • ACTIVITIES
  • Coordinating the development of a tourism
    philosophy and vision for the community/ region
  • Specifying the major goals of the
    community/region with respect to tourism
  • Obtaining consensus concerning the social,
    physical, and cultural carrying capacity of the
    community/region in question
  • Identifying the specific action initiatives
    necessary to meet the tourism development
    objectives while respecting the destinations
    carrying capacities
  • Gaining agreement on the measures to be used in
    monitoring the impacts of tourism in the
    community/region
  • Gathering and disseminating information
    concerning the impacts of tourism on the
    community/region

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
10
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
Sustainable Tourism An Agenda for Action
  • PROGRAM ELEMENTS
  • Maximum total visitation levels to a
    community/region
  • An obligatory tax to support tourism
    infrastructure planning, development, and
    maintenance
  • Community-supported legislation to protect and
    preserve unique resources and heritage sites
  • Community and industry consensus concerning
    architectural and signage standards
  • Support for standards and certification programs
    that encourage staff development and the delivery
    of high-quality service

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
11
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
Definitions of Ecotourism
Some definitions of ecotourism are as follows
  • Responsible travel to natural areas that
    conserves the environment and sustains the
    well-being of local people
  • Environmentally friendly travel that emphasizes
    seeing and saving natural habitats and
    archeological treasures
  • A tool for conservation
  • Ecologically responsible tourism

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
12
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
Benefits and Importance of Ecotourism
  • Provides jobs and income for local people
  • Makes possible funds to purchase and improve
    protected or natural areas to attract more
    ecotourists in the future
  • Provides environmental education for visitors
  • Encourages heritage and environmental
    preservation and enhancement

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
13
Translating Idealism into Sustainable Tourism
What Managers Need to Know
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Measures of
  • The general relationship between tourism and the
    environment
  • The effects of environmental factors on tourism
  • The impacts of the tourism industry on the
    environment

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
14
Types of Indicators
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Core indicators of sustainable tourism which have
    been developed for general application to all
    destinations
  • Destination-specific indicators applicable to
    particular ecosystems or types of tourism. These
    indicators fall into two categories
  • Supplementary ecosystem-specific indicators for
    application to particular ecosystems (e.g.,
    coastal areas, parks and protected areas, or
    mountainous regions).
  • Site-specific indicators that are developed
    uniquely for the particular site. These
    indicators reflect important factors of the site.
    Which may not be adequately covered by the core
    and supplementary eco-system-specific indicator
    sets, but are nonetheless needed for management
    of theparticular site.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
15
Core Indicators of Sustainable Tourism
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • a International Union for the Conservation of
    Nature and Natural Resources
  • b The composite indices are largely composed of
    site-specific variables. Consequently, the
    identification and evaluation of the indicators
    composing these indices require on-site direction
    from an appropriately trained and experienced
    observer. In the future, based on the experiences
    in designing composite indicators for specific
    sites, it may be possible to derive these indices
    in a more systematic fashion.See the case
    studies for Villa Gesell and Peninsula Valdes for
    application of these indices.
  • Source World Tourism Organization

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
16
Tourism Industry Associations of Canada
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • Enjoy our diverse natural and cultural heritage
    and help us to protect and preserve it.
  • Assist us in our conservation efforts through the
    efficient use of resources, including energy and
    water.
  • Experience the friendliness of our people and the
    welcoming spirit of our communities. Help us to
    preserve these attributes by respecting our
    traditions, customs, and local regulations.
  • Avoid activities which threaten wildlife or plant
    populations, or which may be potentially damaging
    to our natural environment.
  • Select tourism products and services that
    demonstrate social, cultural, and environmental
    sensitivity.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
17
Common Features of All Codes
Part Four Tourism Supply, Demand Policy,
Planning, and Development
  • the need to make an overall commitment to the
    physical and human environment, to accept
    responsibility for environmental damage and take
    corrective action where necessary, and to promote
    and reward outstanding environmental performance
  • the need to develop policies and strategies that
    take account of land-use planning regulations and
    the need to protect some areas from further
    development
  • the need to develop management policies that
    enhance beneficial and minimize adverse impacts
    on the environment and
  • the need to cooperate with other firms, sectors
    and countries.

Chapter 17 Tourism and the Environment
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